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Ayman W El-Hattab
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are individually rare but collectively common. Approximately 25% of IEMs can have manifestations in the neonatal period. Neonates with IEM are usually healthy at birth; however, in hours to days after birth they can develop nonspecific signs that are common to several other neonatal conditions. Therefore, maintaining a high index of suspicion is extremely important for early diagnosis and the institution of appropriate therapy, which are mandatory to prevent death and ameliorate complications from many IEMs...
June 2015: Clinics in Perinatology
José Carlos Rivera, Ankush Madaan, Tianwei Ellen Zhou, Sylvain Chemtob
: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial disease and the main cause of visual impairment and blindness in premature neonates. The inner retina has been considered the primary region affected in ROP, but choroidal vascular degeneration and progressive outer retinal dysfunctions have also been observed. This review focuses on observations regarding neurovascular dysfunctions in both the inner and outer immature retina, the mechanisms and the neuronal-derived factors implicated in the development of ROP, as well potential therapeutic avenues for this disorder...
September 13, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Ryan M McAdams, Sandra E Juul
Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is standard treatment for newborns at 36 weeks of gestation or greater with intrapartum hypoxia-related NE. Term and late preterm infants with moderate to severe encephalopathy show improved survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months of age after TH. TH can increase survival without increasing major disability, rates of an IQ less than 70, or cerebral palsy. Neonates with severe NE remain at risk of death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
(no author information available yet)
The prevention of pain in neonates should be the goal of all pediatricians and health care professionals who work with neonates, not only because it is ethical but also because repeated painful exposures have the potential for deleterious consequences. Neonates at greatest risk of neurodevelopmental impairment as a result of preterm birth (ie, the smallest and sickest) are also those most likely to be exposed to the greatest number of painful stimuli in the NICU. Although there are major gaps in knowledge regarding the most effective way to prevent and relieve pain in neonates, proven and safe therapies are currently underused for routine minor, yet painful procedures...
February 2016: Pediatrics
Nidhi Agrawal Shah, Courtney J Wusthoff
Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonate. Subgaleal, subdural, subarachnoid, and intraventricular hemorrhage have varying pathophysiology, but each can have serious long-term consequences. This article reviews the pathophysiology, presentation, and outcomes for intracranial hemorrhage in the newborn, as well as potential therapeutic interventions.
2016: Neonatal Network: NN
Michelle E van der Laan, Marcus T R Roofthooft, Marian W A Fries, Rolf M F Berger, Trijntje E Schat, Anne G J F van Zoonen, Jozien C Tanis, Arend F Bos, Elisabeth M W Kooi
BACKGROUND: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common in preterm infants and is associated with significant morbidity. To determine whether the PDA is hemodynamically significant (HSDA), several echocardiographic parameters have been suggested, including retrograde diastolic blood flow in the descending aorta (Dao). OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of an HSDA, including retrograde diastolic flow in the Dao, on regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) and extraction measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
2016: Neonatology
Ronald J Wapner, Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, Elizabeth A Thom
Administration of antenatal corticosteroids has been standard of care for women between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation who are at risk for preterm delivery for more than 20 years longer in other parts of the world. Although the benefit of steroids in this population has been confirmed, there remain many questions including the frequency of dosing and whether it is possible to expand the gestational age criteria to women likely to deliver before 24 weeks or after 34 weeks. The MFMU Network has played a major role in answering some of these questions...
August 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
Man-Yau Ho, Yu-Hsuan Yen
Without appropriate nutritional support, preterm infants fail to grow after birth and have malnutrition. The main reason for delayed feeding is fear of immaturity of gastrointestinal function. The principles of nutritional practice should be as follows: (1) minimal early initiation of enteral feeding with breast milk (0.5-1 mL/h) to start on Day 1 if possible and gradual increase as tolerated; (2) early aggressive parenteral nutrition as soon as possible; (3) provision of lipids at rates that will meet the additional energy needs of about 2-3 g/kg/d; and (4) attempt to increase enteral feeding rather than parenteral nutrition...
January 4, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Pia Härkin, Antti Härmä, Outi Aikio, Marita Valkama, Markku Leskinen, Timo Saarela, Mikko Hallman
OBJECTIVE: To study the biologic effect of paracetamol, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthase, on early closure of ductus arteriosus, and to evaluate possible adverse effects associated with the drug. STUDY DESIGN: In a controlled, double-blind, phase I-II trial, very low gestational age (<32 weeks) infants requiring intensive care were randomly assigned to intravenous paracetamol or placebo (0.45% NaCl). A loading dose of 20 mg/kg was given within 24 hours of birth, followed by 7...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Dawn Gano
Preterm newborns are highly susceptible to brain injury. White matter injury is among the dominant patterns of brain injury in preterm newborns. the purpose of this review is to discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, management, and prevention of white matter injury in premature newborns. the long-term outcome of white matter injury in children born prematurely is also addressed.
2016: Neonatal Network: NN
Shyan Vijayasekaran, Janet Lioy, Kathryn Maschhoff
Differences between neonatal, pediatric and adult airway anatomy, structure and function are important to understand. Size, surface area, proportion, resistance and compliance are all very different between age groups and infants are certainly not small adults. Knowledge of these airway differences is essential in rapid correction of an emergency situation. Unanticipated airway emergencies are the most serious of all and may be classified into profiles such as the unanticipated emergency in the non-intubated patient, the unanticipated emergency in the intubated patient, and patients with tracheostomy...
August 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Jeffrey E Gotts, Michael A Matthay
Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock represent increasingly severe systemic inflammatory responses to infection. Sepsis is common in the aging population, and it disproportionately affects patients with cancer and underlying immunosuppression. In its most severe form, sepsis causes multiple organ dysfunction that can produce a state of chronic critical illness characterized by severe immune dysfunction and catabolism. Much has been learnt about the pathogenesis of sepsis at the molecular, cell, and intact organ level...
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Qi Lu, Shupeng Cheng, Min Zhou, Jialin Yu
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates is devastating, and risk-factor identification is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors for NEC in different gestational age (GA) groups. METHODS: Risk factors associated with NEC were investigated using a retrospective case-control design. Patients with Bell's Stage NEC≥II were divided into three groups based on GA: I, <34 weeks; II, ≥34 weeks but <37 weeks; III, ≥37 weeks. Each case was paired with two GA- and weight-matched controls...
June 22, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
David H Adamkin
A consistent definition for neonatal hypoglycemia in the first 48 h of life continues to elude us. Enhanced understanding of metabolic disturbances and genetic disorders that underlie alterations in postnatal glucose homeostasis has added useful information to understanding transitional hypoglycemia. This growth in knowledge still has not led to what we need to know: "How low is too low and for how long?" This article reviews the current state of understanding of neonatal hypoglycemia and how different approaches reach different "expert" opinions...
September 4, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Karen Whitfield, Claudia Barkeij, Angela North
AIM: To present a case of an extremely premature infant and the role that the specialist neonatal pharmacist has on the quality of care of these patients. METHOD: Interventions and recommendations made by the pharmacists over the admission of a triplet born at 23 weeks and 5 days gestation were recorded. The type of interventions were categorised and classified for risk using a consequence/probability matrix.1 RESULTS: The patient required admission to the intensive care unit and subsequently the special care unit for a period of 163 days before discharge home...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Murray Hinder, Pranav Jani, Archana Priyadarshi, Alistair McEwan, Mark Tracy
BACKGROUND: The T-piece resuscitator (TPR) is in common use worldwide to deliver positive pressure ventilation during resuscitation of infants <10 kg. Ease of use, ability to provide positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), availability of devices inbuilt into resuscitaires and cheaper disposable options have increased its popularity as a first-line device for term infant resuscitation. Research into its ventilation performance is limited to preterm infant and animal studies. Efficacy of providing PEEP and the use of TPR during term infant resuscitation are not established...
September 19, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Lars Welzing, Andre Oberthuer, Shino Junghaenel, Urs Harnischmacher, Hartmut Stützer, Bernhard Roth
PURPOSE: Common opioids for analgesia and sedation of mechanically ventilated infants may tend to accumulate and cause prolonged sedation with an unpredictable extubation time. Remifentanil is a promising option due to its unique pharmacokinetic properties, which seem to be valid in adults as well as in infants. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial mechanically ventilated neonates and young infants (<60 days) received either a remifentanil or fentanyl-based analgesia and sedation regimen with low dose midazolam...
June 2012: Intensive Care Medicine
Neil N Finer, Waldemar A Carlo, Michele C Walsh, Wade Rich, Marie G Gantz, Abbot R Laptook, Bradley A Yoder, Roger G Faix, Abhik Das, W Kenneth Poole, Edward F Donovan, Nancy S Newman, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Ivan D Frantz, Susie Buchter, Pablo J Sánchez, Kathleen A Kennedy, Nirupama Laroia, Brenda B Poindexter, C Michael Cotten, Krisa P Van Meurs, Shahnaz Duara, Vivek Narendran, Beena G Sood, T Michael O'Shea, Edward F Bell, Vineet Bhandari, Kristi L Watterberg, Rosemary D Higgins
BACKGROUND: There are limited data to inform the choice between early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and early surfactant treatment as the initial support for extremely-low-birth-weight infants. METHODS: We performed a randomized, multicenter trial, with a 2-by-2 factorial design, involving infants who were born between 24 weeks 0 days and 27 weeks 6 days of gestation. Infants were randomly assigned to intubation and surfactant treatment (within 1 hour after birth) or to CPAP treatment initiated in the delivery room, with subsequent use of a protocol-driven limited ventilation strategy...
May 27, 2010: New England Journal of Medicine
Andrea Trembath, Matthew M Laughon
Although significant advances in respiratory care have been made in neonatal medicine, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains the most common serious pulmonary morbidity in premature infants. The development of BPD is the result of the complex interactions between multiple perinatal and postnatal factors. Early identification of infants at the most risk of developing BPD through the use of estimators and models may allow a targeted approach at reducing BPD in the future.
September 2012: Clinics in Perinatology
Ben J Stenson, William O Tarnow-Mordi, Brian A Darlow, John Simes, Edmund Juszczak, Lisa Askie, Malcolm Battin, Ursula Bowler, Roland Broadbent, Pamela Cairns, Peter Graham Davis, Sanjeev Deshpande, Mark Donoghoe, Lex Doyle, Brian W Fleck, Alpana Ghadge, Wendy Hague, Henry L Halliday, Michael Hewson, Andrew King, Adrienne Kirby, Neil Marlow, Michael Meyer, Colin Morley, Karen Simmer, Win Tin, Stephen P Wardle, Peter Brocklehurst
BACKGROUND: The clinically appropriate range for oxygen saturation in preterm infants is unknown. Previous studies have shown that infants had reduced rates of retinopathy of prematurity when lower targets of oxygen saturation were used. METHODS: In three international randomized, controlled trials, we evaluated the effects of targeting an oxygen saturation of 85 to 89%, as compared with a range of 91 to 95%, on disability-free survival at 2 years in infants born before 28 weeks' gestation...
May 30, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
2016-09-13 23:43:58
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