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92 papers 25 to 100 followers
Daniela Carla da Souza, Graziela de Araújo Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Julia Straub, Helga Paula, Michaela Mayr, David Kasper, Ojan Assadian, Angelika Berger, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis remains a major challenge in neonatology. Most molecular-based methods are not customized for neonatal requirements. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a modified multiplex PCR protocol for the detection of neonatal sepsis using small blood volumes. METHODS: 212 episodes of suspected neonatal late onset sepsis were analyzed prospectively using the Roche SeptiFast® MGRADE PCR with a modified DNA extraction protocol and software-handling tool...
2017: PloS One
Heather C Kaplan, Carole Lannon, Michele C Walsh, Edward F Donovan
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to reduce late-onset bacterial infections in infants born at 22 to 29 weeks' gestation by using collaborative quality-improvement methods to implement evidence-based catheter care. We hypothesized that these methods would result in a 50% reduction in nosocomial infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an interrupted time-series study among 24 Ohio NICUs. The intervention began in September 2008 and continued through December 2009. Sites used the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Breakthrough Series quality-improvement model to facilitate implementation of evidence-based catheter care...
March 2011: Pediatrics
Marre van den Brand, Remco P H Peters, Arnold Catsburg, Anna Rubenjan, Ferdi J Broeke, Frank A M van den Dungen, Mirjam M van Weissenbruch, A Marceline van Furth, Triinu Kõressaar, Maido Remm, Paul H M Savelkoul, Martine P Bos
The diagnosis of late onset sepsis (LOS), a severe condition with high prevalence in preterm infants, is hampered by the suboptimal sensitivity and long turnaround time of blood culture. Detection of the infecting pathogen directly in blood by PCR would provide a much more timely result. Unfortunately, PCR-based assays reported so far are labor intensive and often lack direct species identification. Therefore we developed a real-time multiplex PCR assay tailored to LOS diagnosis which is easy-to-use, is applicable on small blood volumes and provides species-specific results within 4h...
November 2014: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Mohan Pammi, Leonard E Weisman
Late-onset sepsis occurs in 15-25% of very low birth weight neonates. Early diagnosis and therapy optimize patient outcomes. Despite these efforts, mortality remains high (18-36%) and survivors suffer significant neurological and pulmonary morbidity. Although rapid diagnostics are improving, more are needed. Current therapy remains antibiotics and supportive care. Adjunctive therapies have either limited data (e.g., pentoxifylline) or have been found ineffective (e.g., granulocyte transfusions, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and intravenous immunoglobulin)...
April 2015: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Shripada C Rao, Gayatri K Athalye-Jape, Girish C Deshpande, Karen N Simmer, Sanjay K Patole
CONTEXT: Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Despite various preventive measures, its incidence continues to remain high, hence the urgent need for additional approaches. One such potential strategy is supplementation with probiotics. The updated Cochrane Review (2014) did not find benefits of probiotics in reducing the risk of LOS in preterm infants (19 studies, N = 5338). Currently there are >30 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics in preterm infants that have reported on LOS...
March 2016: Pediatrics
Orly Levit, Vineet Bhandari, Fang-Yong Li, Veronika Shabanova, Patrick G Gallagher, Matthew J Bizzarro
BACKGROUND: Late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The ability to predict mortality in infants with LOS based on clinical and laboratory factors at presentation of illness remains limited. OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of sepsis-associated mortality from a composite risk profile that includes demographic data, category of infecting organism, clinical and laboratory data at onset of illness...
February 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ming-Horng Tsai, Jen-Fu Hsu, Shih-Ming Chu, Reyin Lien, Hsuan-Rong Huang, Ming-Chou Chiang, Ren-Huei Fu, Chiang-Wen Lee, Yhu-Chering Huang
BACKGROUND: Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a common complication in the neonatal intensive care unit. We aimed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and risk factors for adverse outcome in neonates with LOS. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all neonates with LOS at the neonatal intensive care unit of a Tertiary Taiwan Medical Center from January 2004 through December 2011 and used multivariate logistic regression to identify risk factors for final adverse outcome...
January 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Roland Elling, Markus Hufnagel, Aruni de Zoysa, Fabian Lander, Katharina Zumstein, Marcus Krueger, Philipp Henneke
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in industrialized countries. Whereas the use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has led to a significant decline in early-onset sepsis, the incidence of late-onset sepsis has remained unchanged. Whether late-onset sepsis usually originates from established mucocutaneous GBS colonization of the infant or whether it results from an acute exogenous GBS infection remains controversial. Here we report on twins who both twice developed GBS sepsis in a strikingly parallel fashion, with both instances originating from a single hypervirulent GBS clone...
May 2014: Pediatrics
Rachel G Greenberg, Sarah Kandefer, Barbara T Do, P Brian Smith, Barbara J Stoll, Edward F Bell, Waldemar A Carlo, Abbot R Laptook, Pablo J Sánchez, Seetha Shankaran, Krisa P Van Meurs, M Bethany Ball, Ellen C Hale, Nancy S Newman, Abhik Das, Rosemary D Higgins, C Michael Cotten
BACKGROUND: Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is an important cause of death and neurodevelopmental impairment in premature infants. The purpose of this study was to assess overall incidence of LOS, distribution of LOS-causative organisms and center variation in incidence of LOS for extremely premature infants over time. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of infants 401-1000 g birth weight and 22-28 6/7 weeks of gestational age born at 12 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers in the years 2000-2005 (era 1) or 2006-2011 (era 2) who survived >72 hours, we compared the incidence of LOS and pathogen distribution in the 2 eras using the χ test...
August 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Asha N Talati, David N Hackney, Sam Mesiano
Preterm labor with intact membranes is a major cause of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). To prevent sPTB a clear understanding is needed of the hormonal interactions that initiate labor. The steroid hormone progesterone acting via its nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine cells is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and disruption of PR signaling (i.e., functional progesterone/PR withdrawal) is key trigger for labor. The process of parturition is also associated with inflammation within the uterine tissues and it is now generally accepted that inflammatory stimuli from multiple extrinsic and intrinsic sources induce labor...
November 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
Steven M Donn
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the leading cause of long-term respiratory morbidity in newborns who require respiratory support at birth. BPD is a multifactorial disorder, and infants are frequently subjected to treatment with multiple pharmacologic agents of dubious efficacy and questionable safety, including diuretics, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, anti-reflux medications, and pulmonary vasodilators. These agents, with narrow therapeutic indices, are widely used despite the lack of an evidence base, and some may do more harm than good...
October 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Jalal M Abu-Shaweesh, Richard J Martin
Caffeine is the most frequently used medication in the neonatal intensive care unit. It is used for the prevention and treatment of apnea, although this has been associated with lower incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and patent ductus arteriosus as well as intact survival at 18-21 months of life. Although neurodevelopmental advantage was no longer statistically significant at age 5 years, caffeine was associated with sustained improvement in co-ordination and less gross motor impairment than placebo...
October 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Martin Keszler
Although only a small proportion of full term and late preterm infants require invasive respiratory support, they are not immune from ventilator-associated lung injury. The process of lung damage from mechanical ventilation is multifactorial and cannot be linked to any single variable. Atelectrauma and volutrauma have been identified as the most important and potentially preventable elements of lung injury. Respiratory support strategies for full term and late preterm infants have not been as thoroughly studied as those for preterm infants; consequently, a strong evidence base on which to make recommendations is lacking...
August 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kathryn Martinello, Anthony R Hart, Sufin Yap, Subhabrata Mitra, Nicola J Robertson
This review discusses an approach to determining the cause of neonatal encephalopathy, as well as current evidence on resuscitation and subsequent management of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Encephalopathy in neonates can be due to varied aetiologies in addition to hypoxic-ischaemia. A combination of careful history, examination and the judicious use of investigations can help determine the cause. Over the last 7 years, infants with moderate to severe HIE have benefited from the introduction of routine therapeutic hypothermia; the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome is 7 (95% CI 5 to 10)...
July 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Leif D Nelin, Vineet Bhandari
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or BPD, is the most common chronic lung disease in infants. Genetic predisposition and developmental vulnerability secondary to antenatal and postnatal infections, compounded with exposure to hyperoxia and invasive mechanical ventilation to an immature lung, result in persistent inflammation, culminating in the characteristic pulmonary phenotype of BPD of impaired alveolarization and dysregulated vascularization. In this article, we highlight specific areas in current management, and speculate on therapeutic strategies that are on the horizon, that we believe will make an impact in decreasing the incidence of BPD in your neonatal intensive care units...
2017: F1000Research
Bikash Shrestha, Gaurav Jawa
Caffeine citrate is one of the most prescribed drug in the present day NICU for apnea. Its efficacy, tolerability, wide therapeutic index and safety margin has made it the drug of choice among the methylxanthines. Its therapeutic uses in apnea of prematurity, mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia has made it a "silver bullet" in neonatology. However, there are still controversies surrounding this drug. This review is aimed to update the reader about the basic pharmacology, current therapeutic uses, adverse effects, controversies as well as present and future research of caffeine...
March 27, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Eugene M Dempsey
The management of preterm infants with low blood pressure soon after birth remains unresolved. The definition of what constitutes low blood pressure is uncertain. At birth, mean blood pressure appears to be gestation specific and increases in the first few days of life. Antenatal steroids, delayed cord clamping, and the avoidance of mechanical ventilation are all associated with higher mean blood pressure and less hypotension after birth. Rates of hypotension of 15-50% have been reported in various studies of extremely preterm infants...
2017: Neonatology
Mohan Pammi, Gautham Suresh
BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum and milk, can enhance host defenses and may be effective for prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective 1. To assess the safety and effectiveness of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds for prevention of sepsis and NEC in preterm neonates Secondary objectives 1. To determine the effects of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds to prevent neonatal sepsis and/or NEC on duration of positive-pressure ventilation, development of chronic lung disease (CLD) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), length of hospital stay to discharge among survivors, and adverse neurological outcomes at two years of age or later2...
June 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wissam Shalish, Lara J Kanbar, Smita Rao, Carlos A Robles-Rubio, Lajos Kovacs, Sanjay Chawla, Martin Keszler, Doina Precup, Karen Brown, Robert E Kearney, Guilherme M Sant'Anna
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants (≤ 28 weeks gestation) commonly require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV) to maintain adequate oxygenation and gas exchange. Given that MV is independently associated with important adverse outcomes, efforts should be made to limit its duration. However, current methods for determining extubation readiness are inaccurate and a significant number of infants fail extubation and require reintubation, an intervention that may be associated with increased morbidities...
July 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
2017-08-25 21:42:19
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