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Neurology reviews

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19 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523342/migraine
#1
REVIEW
David W Dodick
Migraine is a chronic paroxysmal neurological disorder characterised by multiphase attacks of head pain and a myriad of neurological symptoms. The underlying genetic and biological underpinnings and neural networks involved are coming sharply into focus. This progress in the fundamental understanding of migraine has led to novel, mechanism-based and disease-specific therapeutics. In this Seminar, the clinical features and neurobiology of migraine are reviewed, evidence to support available treatment options is provided, and emerging drug, device, and biological therapies are discussed...
March 31, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275977/diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-2017-revisions-of-the-mcdonald-criteria
#2
REVIEW
Alan J Thompson, Brenda L Banwell, Frederik Barkhof, William M Carroll, Timothy Coetzee, Giancarlo Comi, Jorge Correale, Franz Fazekas, Massimo Filippi, Mark S Freedman, Kazuo Fujihara, Steven L Galetta, Hans Peter Hartung, Ludwig Kappos, Fred D Lublin, Ruth Ann Marrie, Aaron E Miller, David H Miller, Xavier Montalban, Ellen M Mowry, Per Soelberg Sorensen, Mar Tintoré, Anthony L Traboulsee, Maria Trojano, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Sandra Vukusic, Emmanuelle Waubant, Brian G Weinshenker, Stephen C Reingold, Jeffrey A Cohen
The 2010 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis are widely used in research and clinical practice. Scientific advances in the past 7 years suggest that they might no longer provide the most up-to-date guidance for clinicians and researchers. The International Panel on Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis reviewed the 2010 McDonald criteria and recommended revisions. The 2017 McDonald criteria continue to apply primarily to patients experiencing a typical clinically isolated syndrome, define what is needed to fulfil dissemination in time and space of lesions in the CNS, and stress the need for no better explanation for the presentation...
February 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348543/stroke-in-2017-intensive-and-extensive-advances-in-stroke-management
#3
Meng Lee, Bruce Ovbiagele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348546/epilepsy-in-2017-precision-medicine-drives-epilepsy-classification-and-therapy
#4
Sameer M Zuberi, Andreas Brunklaus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319369/the-ilae-classification-of-seizures-and-epilepsies-implications-for-the-clinic
#5
Ettore Beghi, Josemir W Sander
The classification of epileptic seizures and the epilepsies has recently been revised by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and a new classification scheme issued. Areas covered: The new classification scheme has been critically appraised in the light of the previous classifications and subsequent revisions. The purposes of the classification and its potential use have been extensively discussed. Expert commentary: This ILAE classification scheme, the latest of a series of proposals published in the last 30 years, has made progress as it has a multi-level structure (seizure types, epilepsy types, epilepsy syndromes) allowing for differing uses and combines the previously separate seizure types and epilepsies schemes into a single instrument...
March 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174963/diagnosis-pathophysiology-and-management-of-cluster-headache
#6
REVIEW
Jan Hoffmann, Arne May
Cluster headache is a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia characterised by extremely painful, strictly unilateral, short-lasting headache attacks accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic symptoms or the sense of restlessness and agitation, or both. The severity of the disorder has major effects on the patient's quality of life and, in some cases, might lead to suicidal ideation. Cluster headache is now thought to involve a synchronised abnormal activity in the hypothalamus, the trigeminovascular system, and the autonomic nervous system...
January 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229375/the-pathophysiology-of-migraine-implications-for-clinical-management
#7
REVIEW
Andrew Charles
The understanding of migraine pathophysiology is advancing rapidly. Improved characterisation and diagnosis of its clinical features have led to the view of migraine as a complex, variable disorder of nervous system function rather than simply a vascular headache. Recent studies have provided important new insights into its genetic causes, anatomical and physiological features, and pharmacological mechanisms. The identification of new migraine-associated genes, the visualisation of brain regions that are activated at the earliest stages of a migraine attack, a greater appreciation of the potential role of the cervical nerves, and the recognition of the crucial role for neuropeptides are among the advances that have led to novel targets for migraine therapy...
February 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207417/imaging-for-epilepsy-surgery
#8
Vamsidhar Chavakula, G Rees Cosgrove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478873/the-use-of-mannitol-and-hypertonic-saline-therapies-in-patients-with-elevated-intracranial-pressure-a-review-of-the-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Briana Witherspoon, Nathan E Ashby
Patients with increased intracranial pressure generally require pharmacologic therapies and often more definitive treatments, such as surgical intervention. The overall goal of these interventions is to maintain or re-establish adequate cerebral blood flow and prevent herniation. Regardless of the cause of increased intracranial pressure, osmotherapy is considered the mainstay of medical therapy, and should be administered as soon as possible. This article reviews the history of hyperosmolar and hypertonic therapies, the Monro-Kellie hypothesis, and types of cerebral edema...
June 2017: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894490/traumatic-brain-injury-advances
#10
REVIEW
Deborah M Stein, Cristina B Feather, Lena M Napolitano
There have been many recent advances in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Research regarding established and novel therapies is ongoing. Future research must not only focus on development of new strategies but determine the long-term benefits or disadvantages of current strategies. In addition, the impact of these advances on varying severities of brain injury must not be ignored. It is hoped that future research strategies in TBI will prioritize large-scale trials using common data elements to develop large registries and databases, and leverage international collaborations...
January 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574571/ultrasound-guidance-for-lumbar-puncture
#11
REVIEW
Nilam J Soni, Ricardo Franco-Sadud, Daniel Schnobrich, Ria Dancel, David M Tierney, Gerard Salame, Marcos I Restrepo, Paul McHardy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature and describe techniques to use ultrasound to guide performance of lumbar puncture (LP). RECENT FINDINGS: Ultrasound evaluation of the lumbar spine has been shown in randomized trials to improve LP success rates while reducing the number of attempts and the number of traumatic taps. SUMMARY: Ultrasound mapping of the lumbar spine reveals anatomical information that is not obtainable by physical examination, including depth of the ligamentum flavum, width of the interspinous spaces, and spinal bone abnormalities, including scoliosis...
August 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927777/internuclear-ophthalmoplegia
#12
Jonathan D Virgo, Gordon T Plant
A brainstem lesion of any type that involves the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) can cause internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO). This primarily affects conjugate horizontal gaze and classically manifests as impaired adduction ipsilateral to the lesion and abduction nystagmus contralateral to the lesion. Here, we describe the anatomy of the MLF and review the clinical features of INO. We also describe conjugate horizontal gaze palsy and some of the 'INO-plus' syndromes.
April 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643908/autoantibody-associated-central-nervous-system-neurologic-disorders
#13
Jenny Linnoila, Sean J Pittock
Autoimmune neurology is a rapidly evolving new subspecialty driven by the discovery of novel neural- (neuronal- or glial-) specific autoantibodies and their target antigens. The neurologic manifestations affecting the central nervous system include encephalitis, dementia, epilepsy, and movement and sleep disorders. Laboratory testing is now available for most of these neural-specific autoantibodies, which serve as diagnostic markers, in some instances directing the physician toward specific cancer types (e...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255267/epilepsy-antiepileptic-drugs-and-aggression-an-evidence-based-review
#14
REVIEW
Martin J Brodie, Frank Besag, Alan B Ettinger, Marco Mula, Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai, Albert P Aldenkamp, Bernhard J Steinhoff
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment...
July 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230113/neurological-complications-of-pregnancy
#15
REVIEW
H Steven Block
Physiologic alterations during pregnancy create an environment for the occurrence of disease states that are either unique to pregnancy, occur more frequently in pregnancy, or require special management considerations that may be different from the nonpregnancy state. In the realm of cerebrovascular disease, preeclampsia, eclampsia, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, sources of cardiogenic embolization including peripartum cardiomyopathy, cerebral venous thrombosis, pituitary apoplexy, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and special considerations for anticoagulation during pregnancy will be discussed...
July 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125632/advanced-mri-and-staging-of-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#16
REVIEW
Martina Absinta, Pascal Sati, Daniel S Reich
Over the past few decades, MRI-based visualization of demyelinated CNS lesions has become pivotal to the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this Review, we outline current efforts to correlate imaging findings with the pathology of lesion development in MS, and the pitfalls that are being encountered in this research. Multimodal imaging at high and ultra-high magnetic field strengths is yielding biologically relevant insights into the pathophysiology of blood-brain barrier dynamics and both active and chronic inflammation, as well as mechanisms of lesion healing and remyelination...
June 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26595869/neuromuscular-emergencies
#17
REVIEW
Robert Bucelli, Matthew B Harms
Although most neuromuscular disorders are recognized and treated in the outpatient clinic, a subset can present with rapidly advancing or severe weakness and constitute true emergencies by threatening respiratory and bulbar function. This review focuses on the recognition, diagnosis, and management of neuromuscular diseases most likely to present in the inpatient setting: infectious motor neuronopathies, inflammatory polyradiculopathies, and disorders of neuromuscular transmission. In each, the prompt recognition, diagnosis, and institution of specific therapies or supportive care can prevent mortality and mitigate morbidity...
December 2015: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26906964/a-clinical-approach-to-diagnosis-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#18
REVIEW
Francesc Graus, Maarten J Titulaer, Ramani Balu, Susanne Benseler, Christian G Bien, Tania Cellucci, Irene Cortese, Russell C Dale, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Michael Geschwind, Carol A Glaser, Jerome Honnorat, Romana Höftberger, Takahiro Iizuka, Sarosh R Irani, Eric Lancaster, Frank Leypoldt, Harald Prüss, Alexander Rae-Grant, Markus Reindl, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Kevin Rostásy, Albert Saiz, Arun Venkatesan, Angela Vincent, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Patrick Waters, Josep Dalmau
Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for autoimmune encephalitis are too reliant on antibody testing and response to immunotherapy, which might delay the diagnosis. We reviewed the literature and gathered the experience of a team of experts with the aims of developing a practical, syndrome-based diagnostic approach to autoimmune encephalitis and providing guidelines to navigate through the differential diagnosis...
April 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009310/a-practical-review-of-the-neuropathology-and-neuroimaging-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Paul M Matthews, Frederico Roncaroli, Adam Waldman, Maria Pia Sormani, Nicola De Stefano, Gavin Giovannoni, Richard Reynolds
The variability in the severity and clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) has as its basis an extreme heterogeneity in the location, nature and extent of pathology in the brain and spinal cord. Understanding the underlying neuropathology and associated pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease helps to communicate the rationale for treatment and disease monitoring to patients. Neuroimaging is an important tool for this: it allows clinicians to relate neuropathological changes to clinical presentations and to monitor the course of their disease...
August 2016: Practical Neurology
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