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Fetal Echocardiography

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By M Munn
Yinon Gilboa, Eldad Katorza, Zvi Kivilevitch, Reuven Achiron, Moshe Bronshtein
The objectives of this series were to describe the prenatal sonographic findings of a fetal isolated prominent left brachiocephalic vein with its in utero natural history and neonatal outcome and to discuss the differential diagnosis, especially with a total or partial anomalous pulmonary venous return malformation. We reviewed all cases referred to 2 tertiary medical centers with the presenting finding of a prominent, upper thorax transverse vein entering the superior vena cava. The primary suspicion of a subjective dilated left brachiocephalic vein, as a part of a supracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous return malformation, was investigated by a systematic anatomic evaluation...
January 2013: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Elena Sinkovskaya, Anna Klassen, Alfred Abuhamad
Sonographic evaluation of the fetal venous system in normal and abnormal conditions has drawn increasing interest in recent years. Whereas the assessment of the fetal heart and the related arteries is standardized using well-defined planes, the fetal venous system is still lacking a systematic approach. In this article we present a novel sonographic algorithm for a systematic examination of the fetal venous system using six planes of transverse and oblique views of the fetal abdomen and chest. These planes, using two-dimensional and color Doppler, enable a targeted demonstration of the typical veins to include the umbilical vein, ductus venosus, portal veins, hepatic veins, inferior vena cava, azygos vein, pulmonary veins, coronary sinus, superior vena cava and brachiocephalic vein...
October 2013: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Erik Michelfelder, Catherine Allen, Lindsay Urbinelli
Two-dimensional (2D) and Doppler echocardiography has become both an essential component in the assessment of anatomic anomalies of the fetal heart and an important tool in the assessment of fetal cardiac function. Various techniques for assessing fetal cardiovascular function exist and can be used to characterize systolic and diastolic ventricular function and estimate fetal cardiac output. These techniques can be utilized to assess fetuses with cardiovascular compromise due to a number of cardiac and non-cardiac conditions, including twin-twin transfusion syndrome, high-cardiac output lesions such as fetal tumors and vascular malformations, and primary fetal cardiomyopathy...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Annie Janvier, Barbara Farlow, Keith Barrington
The objective is to examine whether cardiac surgery should be considered for children with trisomy 13 or 18 (T13 or 18).T13 or 18 were previously referred to as "lethal" conditions due to high mortality rates and severe disability among survivors. In the last decade, investigations have revealed these conditions are heterogeneous, with increasing numbers of studies describing interventions for these children. A number of factors makes the interpretation of reported outcomes after cardiac surgery challenging: (1) dissimilarities in practice lead to a wide variation in reported outcomes after cardiac surgery; (2) cardiac surgery is generally offered to older, healthier children; (3) cardiac surgeries of widely varying risks are often lumped together in individual studies, and (4) cases where cardiac surgery has been withheld are generally not included in publications...
June 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
Mary T Donofrio, Anita J Moon-Grady, Lisa K Hornberger, Joshua A Copel, Mark S Sklansky, Alfred Abuhamad, Bettina F Cuneo, James C Huhta, Richard A Jonas, Anita Krishnan, Stephanie Lacey, Wesley Lee, Erik C Michelfelder, Gwen R Rempel, Norman H Silverman, Thomas L Spray, Janette F Strasburger, Wayne Tworetzky, Jack Rychik
BACKGROUND: The goal of this statement is to review available literature and to put forth a scientific statement on the current practice of fetal cardiac medicine, including the diagnosis and management of fetal cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: A writing group appointed by the American Heart Association reviewed the available literature pertaining to topics relevant to fetal cardiac medicine, including the diagnosis of congenital heart disease and arrhythmias, assessment of cardiac function and the cardiovascular system, and available treatment options...
May 27, 2014: Circulation
Helena Gardiner, Rabih Chaoui
The routine use of four-chamber screening of the fetal heart was pioneered in the early 1980s and has been shown to detect reliably mainly univentricular hearts in the fetus. Many conotruncal anomalies and ductal-dependent lesions may, however, not be detected with the four-chamber view alone and additional planes are needed. The three-vessel and tracheal (3VT) view is a transverse plane in the upper mediastinum demonstrating simultaneously the course and the connection of both the aortic and ductal arches, their relationship to the trachea and the visualization of the superior vena cava...
October 2013: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
E Sinkovskaya, A Abuhamad, S Horton, R Chaoui, K Karl
OBJECTIVES: To establish values of fetal left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV) dimensions during normal pregnancy and determine whether routine assessment of the LBCV may help in identifying fetuses with congenital abnormalities of this vessel. METHODS: Fetal LBCV was assessed prospectively during ultrasound examinations in 431 normal singleton pregnancies. The visualization rate of the transverse view of the upper fetal chest at the level of drainage of the LBCV into the superior vena cava (SVC) by two-dimensional (2D) and 2D plus color Doppler ultrasound was evaluated...
November 2012: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
D Friedman, J Buyon, M Kim, J S Glickstein
OBJECTIVES: The Tei Index (TI) is a useful, non-invasive, Doppler-derived myocardial performance tool which can be used to assess aspects of systolic and diastolic function. The aim of this study was to determine normal values of fetal left ventricular (LV) TI in second- and third- trimester fetuses and to compare these to other values reported in the literature. METHODS: Doppler waveforms of the LV outflow tracts were obtained in 74 second- and early third-trimester fetuses...
January 2003: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Catherine Gagnon, Jean-Luc Bigras, Jean-Claude Fouron, Frederic Dallaire
BACKGROUND: Fetal echocardiography is now the standard approach for detailed investigations of fetal cardiac anatomy and function. Available studies proposing reference values for pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD) measurements are often focused on few parameters. Furthermore, the methodology used for validating these proposed reference values is sometimes insufficiently described, and parameters necessary to compute Z scores are not always available. Improved definition of reference values with adequate statistical validation is needed for proper interpretation of PWD measurements in a clinical setting...
May 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
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January 2011: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
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