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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134709/nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#1
D Bockenhauer, Daniel G Bichet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), the kidney is unable to concentrate urine despite elevated concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin. In congenital NDI, polyuria and polydipsia are present from birth and should be immediately recognized to avoid severe episodes of dehydration. Unfortunately, NDI is still often recognized late after a 'diagnostic odyssey' involving false leads and dangerous treatments.Once diagnosed, appropriate treatment can be started...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24827777/advances-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-associated-kidney-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Michael J Ross
Despite improved outcomes among persons living with HIV who are treated with antiretroviral therapy, they remain at increased risk for acute and chronic kidney diseases. Moreover, since HIV can infect renal epithelial cells, the kidney might serve as a viral reservoir that would need to be eradicated when attempting to achieve full virologic cure. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism by which HIV infects renal epithelial cells and the viral and host factors that promote development of kidney disease...
August 2014: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25686569/hiv-associated-nephropathies-epidemiology-pathology-mechanisms-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Avi Z Rosenberg, Saraladevi Naicker, Cheryl A Winkler, Jeffrey B Kopp
HIV is a highly adaptive, rapidly evolving virus, which is associated with renal diseases including collapsing glomerulopathy-the classic histomorphological form of HIV-associated nephropathy. Other nephropathies related to viral factors include HIV-immune-complex kidney disease and thrombotic microangiopathy. The distribution of HIV-associated kidney diseases has changed over time and continues to vary across geographic regions worldwide. The reasons for this diversity are complex and include a critical role of APOL1 variants and possibly other genetic factors, disparities in access to effective antiviral therapies, and likely other factors that we do not yet fully understand...
March 2015: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21366472/diuretic-strategies-in-patients-with-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
G Michael Felker, Kerry L Lee, David A Bull, Margaret M Redfield, Lynne W Stevenson, Steven R Goldsmith, Martin M LeWinter, Anita Deswal, Jean L Rouleau, Elizabeth O Ofili, Kevin J Anstrom, Adrian F Hernandez, Steven E McNulty, Eric J Velazquez, Abdallah G Kfoury, Horng H Chen, Michael M Givertz, Marc J Semigran, Bradley A Bart, Alice M Mascette, Eugene Braunwald, Christopher M O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Loop diuretics are an essential component of therapy for patients with acute decompensated heart failure, but there are few prospective data to guide their use. METHODS: In a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned 308 patients with acute decompensated heart failure to receive furosemide administered intravenously by means of either a bolus every 12 hours or continuous infusion and at either a low dose (equivalent to the patient's previous oral dose) or a high dose (2...
March 3, 2011: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465540/treating-diuretic-resistance-an-overview
#5
REVIEW
Brandi N Bowman, James J Nawarskas, Joe R Anderson
Loop diuretics are central to the management of fluid overload in acute decompensated heart failure. However, a variance in the response to loop diuretics can alter a patient's clinical course and has an adverse effect on clinical outcomes. Thus, a diminished response to loop diuretics is an important clinical issue. Factors thought to contribute to diuretic resistance include erratic oral absorption in congested states and postdiuretic sodium retention. Further contributing to diuretic resistance in patients with advanced heart failure are decreases in renal perfusion and alterations in sodium handling that occur in an attempt to maintain circulatory homeostasis...
September 2016: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24268626/co-administration-of-furosemide-with-albumin-for-overcoming-diuretic-resistance-in-patients-with-hypoalbuminemia-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Georgios D Kitsios, Paolo Mascari, Riad Ettunsi, Anthony W Gray
PURPOSE: To systematically review clinical studies of co-administration of albumin and loop diuretics in hypoalbuminemic patients as a strategy to overcome diuretic resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic search of electronic databases up to October 2012. We included randomized clinical trials of adults with hypoalbuminemia, comparing co-administration of loop diuretics and albumin versus loop diuretics alone. Quantitative data were synthesized with meta-analytic techniques for clinical, surrogate (urinary volume and urinary sodium excretion) and intermediate (pharmacokinetic and hemodynamic parameters) outcomes...
April 2014: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814935/diuretic-resistance
#7
REVIEW
Ewout J Hoorn, David H Ellison
Diuretic resistance is defined as a failure to achieve the therapeutically desired reduction in edema despite a full dose of diuretic. The causes of diuretic resistance include poor adherence to drug therapy or dietary sodium restriction, pharmacokinetic issues, and compensatory increases in sodium reabsorption in nephron sites that are not blocked by the diuretic. To illustrate the pathophysiology and management of diuretic resistance, we describe a patient with nephrotic syndrome. This patient presented with generalized pitting edema and weight gain despite the use of oral loop diuretics...
January 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676507/length-of-time-on-peritoneal-dialysis-and-encapsulating-peritoneal-sclerosis-position-paper-for-ispd-2017-update
#8
Edwina A Brown, Joanne Bargman, Wim van Biesen, Ming-Yang Chang, Frederic O Finkelstein, Helen Hurst, David W Johnson, Hideki Kawanishi, Mark Lambie, Thyago Proença de Moraes, Johann Morelle, Graham Woodrow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25917555/primary-disease-recurrence%C3%A2-effects-on-paediatric-renal-transplantation-outcomes
#9
REVIEW
Justine Bacchetta, Pierre Cochat
Primary disease recurrence after renal transplantation is mainly diagnosed by examination of biopsy samples, but can also be associated with clinical symptoms. In some patients, recurrence can lead to graft loss (7-8% of all graft losses). Primary disease recurrence is generally associated with a high risk of graft loss in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis, primary hyperoxaluria or atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome. By contrast, disease recurrence is associated with a limited risk of graft loss in patients with IgA nephropathy, renal involvement associated with Henoch-Schönlein purpura, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis or lupus nephritis...
June 2015: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23944302/primary-hyperoxaluria
#10
REVIEW
Pierre Cochat, Gill Rumsby
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 369, Issue 7, Page 649-658, August 2013.
August 15, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482961/age-dependent-risk-of-graft-failure-in-young-kidney-transplant-recipients
#11
Rémi Kaboré, Cécile Couchoud, Marie-Alice Macher, Rémi Salomon, Bruno Ranchin, Annie Lahoche, Gwenaelle Roussey-Kesler, Florentine Garaix, Stéphane Decramer, Christine Pietrement, Mathilde Lassalle, Véronique Baudouin, Pierre Cochat, Patrick Niaudet, Pierre Joly, Karen Leffondré, Jérôme Harambat
BACKGROUND: The risk of graft failure in young kidney transplant recipients has been found to increase during adolescence and early adulthood. However, this question has not been addressed outside the United States so far. Our objective was to investigate whether the hazard of graft failure also increases during this age period in France irrespective of age at transplantation. METHODS: Data of all first kidney transplantation performed before 30 years of age between 1993 and 2012 were extracted from the French kidney transplant database...
June 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959707/epidemiology-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-children-and-young-adults
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
Ahmad Kaddourah, Rajit K Basu, Sean M Bagshaw, Stuart L Goldstein
BACKGROUND: The epidemiologic characteristics of children and young adults with acute kidney injury have been described in single-center and retrospective studies. We conducted a multinational, prospective study involving patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units to define the incremental risk of death and complications associated with severe acute kidney injury. METHODS: We used the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria to define acute kidney injury...
January 5, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288246/acute-kidney-injury-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-hospitalized-for-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#13
Brenden E Hursh, Rebecca Ronsley, Nazrul Islam, Cherry Mammen, Constadina Panagiotopoulos
Importance: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in children is associated with poor short-term and long-term health outcomes; however, the frequency of AKI in children hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has not been previously examined. Objectives: To determine the proportion of children hospitalized for DKA who develop AKI and to identify the associated clinical and biochemical markers of AKI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This medical record review of all DKA admissions from September 1, 2008, through December 31, 2013, was conducted at British Columbia Children's Hospital, the tertiary pediatric hospital in British Columbia, Canada...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836442/intravesical-ureteric-reimplantation-for-primary-obstructed-megaureter-in-infants-under-1-year-of-age
#14
Emily Jude, Aniruddh Deshpande, Andrew Barker, Japinder Khosa, Naeem Samnakay
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the outcome of intravesical ureteric reimplantation for primary obstructed megaureter (POM) performed in infants under 1 year of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out of all infants undergoing intravesical ureteric reimplantation surgery for POM at two pediatric centers in the 12 years between 2003 and 2014. Outcomes were compared with those of children aged over 1 year undergoing intravesical reimplantation for POM during this period...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856008/comprehensive-renal-function-evaluation-in-patients-treated-for-synchronous-bilateral-wilms-tumor
#15
Rodrigo B Interiano, M Beth McCarville, Noel Delos Santos, Shenghua Mao, Jianrong Wu, Jeffrey S Dome, Kathleen Kieran, Mark A Williams, Rachel C Brennan, Matthew J Krasin, Daniel M Green, Andrew M Davidoff
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive assessment of long-term renal function in patients treated at our institution for synchronous bilateral Wilms tumor (BWT) and to determine the optimal method for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: Surgical approach, adjuvant therapy, and pathology reports were reviewed for patients with at least six months follow-up from definitive surgery. eGFRs, as assessed by the Schwartz and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) formulas, were compared to measured GFR (mGFR) determined by (99m)Tc-DTPA scanning...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887750/chronic-kidney-disease
#16
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Evi V Nagler, Rachael L Morton, Philip Masson
The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2), or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence...
March 25, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720664/pharmacological-management-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-neonates
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer G Jetton, Mark Sorenson
Both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are seen more frequently in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as advances in supportive care improve the survival of critically ill infants as well as those with severe, congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies. Many aspects of the infant's care, including fluid balance, electrolyte and mineral homeostasis, acid-base balance, and growth and nutrition require close monitoring by and collaboration among neonatologists, nephrologists, dieticians, and pharmacologists...
April 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25590845/cinacalcet-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-chronic-kidney-disease-a-single-center-experience
#18
Abdulla A Alharthi, Naglaa M Kamal, Mohamed W Abukhatwah, Laila M Sherief
Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic drug, has been shown to be efficacious in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients; however, it was not fully studied in pediatric CKD patients. We aimed at assessing the effect of cinacalcet on intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) secretion in children with CKD-4/5 with iPTH consistently ≥ 300 pg/mL refractory to conventional treatment. This is a prospective cohort analysis of 28 children with uncontrolled hyper-parathyroidism secondary to stage 4 and 5 CKD admitted to a tertiary center during the period from April 2012 to April 2014...
January 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653837/preemptive-kidney-transplantation-is-associated-with-survival-benefits-among-pediatric-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sandra Amaral, Blayne A Sayed, Nancy Kutner, Rachel E Patzer
Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Preemptive transplantation avoids the increased morbidity and mortality of dialysis. Yet, previous studies have not demonstrated significant graft or patient survival benefits for children undergoing transplantation preemptively versus nonpreemptively. These previous studies were limited by small samples sizes and low rates of adverse events. Here we compared graft failure and mortality rates using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression among a large national cohort of children with ESRD undergoing preemptive versus nonpreemptive kidney transplantation between 2000 and 2012...
November 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198497/graft-versus-host-disease-in-paediatric-solid-organ-transplantation-a-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Thomas Green, Jonathan Hind
GvHD is a rare and serious complication of organ transplantation. The literature is sparse following solid organ transplantation. The aim of this report was to review the literature of GvHD in paediatric solid organ transplantation. We searched PubMed for English-language full-text manuscripts between 1990 and 2015 for eligible studies. A total of 28 publications were found pertaining to paediatric GvHD following solid organ transplantation. GvHD had a mean incidence of 11% (range 8.3-13.4%) following SBTx and 1...
August 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
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