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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720664/pharmacological-management-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-neonates
#1
Jennifer G Jetton, Mark Sorenson
Both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are seen more frequently in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as advances in supportive care improve the survival of critically ill infants as well as those with severe, congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies. Many aspects of the infant's care, including fluid balance, electrolyte and mineral homeostasis, acid-base balance, and growth and nutrition require close monitoring by and collaboration among neonatologists, nephrologists, dieticians, and pharmacologists...
October 6, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25590845/cinacalcet-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-chronic-kidney-disease-a-single-center-experience
#2
Abdulla A Alharthi, Naglaa M Kamal, Mohamed W Abukhatwah, Laila M Sherief
Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic drug, has been shown to be efficacious in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients; however, it was not fully studied in pediatric CKD patients. We aimed at assessing the effect of cinacalcet on intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) secretion in children with CKD-4/5 with iPTH consistently ≥ 300 pg/mL refractory to conventional treatment. This is a prospective cohort analysis of 28 children with uncontrolled hyper-parathyroidism secondary to stage 4 and 5 CKD admitted to a tertiary center during the period from April 2012 to April 2014...
January 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653837/preemptive-kidney-transplantation-is-associated-with-survival-benefits-among-pediatric-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#3
Sandra Amaral, Blayne A Sayed, Nancy Kutner, Rachel E Patzer
Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Preemptive transplantation avoids the increased morbidity and mortality of dialysis. Yet, previous studies have not demonstrated significant graft or patient survival benefits for children undergoing transplantation preemptively versus nonpreemptively. These previous studies were limited by small samples sizes and low rates of adverse events. Here we compared graft failure and mortality rates using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression among a large national cohort of children with ESRD undergoing preemptive versus nonpreemptive kidney transplantation between 2000 and 2012...
November 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198497/graft-versus-host-disease-in-paediatric-solid-organ-transplantation-a-review-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Green, Jonathan Hind
GvHD is a rare and serious complication of organ transplantation. The literature is sparse following solid organ transplantation. The aim of this report was to review the literature of GvHD in paediatric solid organ transplantation. We searched PubMed for English-language full-text manuscripts between 1990 and 2015 for eligible studies. A total of 28 publications were found pertaining to paediatric GvHD following solid organ transplantation. GvHD had a mean incidence of 11% (range 8.3-13.4%) following SBTx and 1...
August 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704725/the-efficacy-of-valganciclovir-for-prevention-of-infections-with-cytomegalovirus-and-epstein-barr-virus-after-kidney-transplant-in-children
#5
Bernadette M Cameron, Sean E Kennedy, William D Rawlinson, Fiona E Mackie
This study evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic ValGCV in preventing CMV and EBV infections in a single-center pediatric kidney transplant population (2008-2014). Therapy duration was determined according to donor/recipient serostatus. EBV monitoring was performed using monthly plasma PCR for 18 months post-transplant and for CMV, monthly for 6 months after prophylaxis cessation. Data were collected on 35 children, median age 10.6 years. There were 15 (42.9%) and 11 (31.4%) recipients seronegative for CMV or EBV, respectively, who received a kidney from a seropositive donor...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099135/evidence-based-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-rapidly-progressive-glomerulonephritis-2014
#6
REVIEW
Yoshihiro Arimura, Eri Muso, Shoichi Fujimoto, Midori Hasegawa, Shinya Kaname, Joichi Usui, Toshiko Ihara, Masaki Kobayashi, Mitsuyo Itabashi, Kiyoki Kitagawa, Junichi Hirahashi, Kenjiro Kimura, Seiichi Matsuo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457719/albumin-and-furosemide-combination-for-management-of-edema-in-nephrotic-syndrome-a-review-of-clinical-studies
#7
REVIEW
Margaret Duffy, Shashank Jain, Nicholas Harrell, Neil Kothari, Alluru S Reddi
The treatment of edema in patients with nephrotic syndrome is generally managed by dietary sodium restriction and loop diuretics. However, edema does not improve in some patients despite adequate sodium restriction and maximal dose of diuretics. In such patients, combination of albumin and a loop diuretic may improve edema by diuresis and natriuresis. The response to this combination of albumin and a diuretic has not been observed in all studies. The purpose of this review is to discuss the physiology of diuresis and natriuresis of this combination therapy, and provide a brief summary of various studies that have used albumin and a loop diuretic to improve diuretic-resistant edema...
October 7, 2015: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23438972/anaemia-management-and-mortality-risk-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Walter H Hörl
Renal anaemia is a frequent complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Severe anaemia (haemoglobin <90 g/l) is associated with increased risks of mortality and cardiac complications, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular disease, and impaired quality of life. Randomized controlled trials have tested the hypothesis that increasing haemoglobin level using erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) lowers these risks and improves quality of life. Use of ESAs to normalize haemoglobin levels (to ≥130 g/l) versus the partial correction of anaemia (to haemoglobin levels of 90-110 g/l) has repeatedly been shown to have no cardiac benefit and to be associated with no incremental improvement in outcomes and quality of life (except fatigue), but has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death...
May 2013: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181456/initiation-strategies-for-renal-replacement-therapy-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Stéphane Gaudry, David Hajage, Fréderique Schortgen, Laurent Martin-Lefevre, Bertrand Pons, Eric Boulet, Alexandre Boyer, Guillaume Chevrel, Nicolas Lerolle, Dorothée Carpentier, Nicolas de Prost, Alexandre Lautrette, Anne Bretagnol, Julien Mayaux, Saad Nseir, Bruno Megarbane, Marina Thirion, Jean-Marie Forel, Julien Maizel, Hodane Yonis, Philippe Markowicz, Guillaume Thiery, Florence Tubach, Jean-Damien Ricard, Didier Dreyfuss
BACKGROUND: The timing of renal-replacement therapy in critically ill patients who have acute kidney injury but no potentially life-threatening complication directly related to renal failure is a subject of debate. METHODS: In this multicenter randomized trial, we assigned patients with severe acute kidney injury (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] classification, stage 3 [stages range from 1 to 3, with higher stages indicating more severe kidney injury]) who required mechanical ventilation, catecholamine infusion, or both and did not have a potentially life-threatening complication directly related to renal failure to either an early or a delayed strategy of renal-replacement therapy...
July 14, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665928/glomerular-disease-crescents-in-igan
#10
Susan J Allison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22036250/antimicrobial-therapy-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Rolf Beetz, Martin Westenfelder
The main objectives in childhood urinary tract infections are rapid recovery from complaints, prevention of urosepsis and infection-related complications as well as the prevention of renal parenchymal damage. Calculated antibiotic therapy should take the local resistance rates of uropathogens into consideration. The current situation of bacterial resistances differs from region to region. In Escherichia coli, resistance rates against cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, nitrofurantoin und chinolones have been relatively low...
December 2011: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053673/diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Christopher D Doern, Susan E Richardson
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review.
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21873693/urinary-tract-infection-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-the-initial-uti-in-febrile-infants-and-children-2-to-24-months
#13
Kenneth B Roberts
OBJECTIVE: To revise the American Academy of Pediatrics practice parameter regarding the diagnosis and management of initial urinary tract infections (UTIs) in febrile infants and young children. METHODS: Analysis of the medical literature published since the last version of the guideline was supplemented by analysis of data provided by authors of recent publications. The strength of evidence supporting each recommendation and the strength of the recommendation were assessed and graded...
September 2011: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19864673/antibiotic-prophylaxis-and-recurrent-urinary-tract-infection-in-children
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jonathan C Craig, Judy M Simpson, Gabrielle J Williams, Alison Lowe, Graham J Reynolds, Steven J McTaggart, Elisabeth M Hodson, Jonathan R Carapetis, Noel E Cranswick, Grahame Smith, Les M Irwig, Patrina H Y Caldwell, Sana Hamilton, Leslie P Roy
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are widely administered to children with the intention of preventing urinary tract infection, but adequately powered, placebo-controlled trials regarding efficacy are lacking. This study from four Australian centers examined whether low-dose, continuous oral antibiotic therapy prevents urinary tract infection in predisposed children. METHODS: We randomly assigned children under the age of 18 years who had had one or more microbiologically proven urinary tract infections to receive either daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole suspension (as 2 mg of trimethoprim plus 10 mg of sulfamethoxazole per kilogram of body weight) or placebo for 12 months...
October 29, 2009: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670788/acute-kidney-injury-2016-diagnosis-and-diagnostic-workup
#15
Marlies Ostermann, Michael Joannidis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients.
September 27, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422620/rituximab-for-nephrotic-syndrome-in-children
#16
Kazumoto Iijima, Mayumi Sako, Kandai Nozu
Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is the most common chronic glomerular disease in children. At least 20 % of children with this syndrome show frequent relapses and/or steroid dependence during or after immunosuppressive therapies, a condition defined as complicated frequently relapsing/steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (FRNS/SDNS). Approximately 1-3 % of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome are resistant to steroids and all immunosuppressive agents, a condition defined as refractory steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS); these SRNS children have a high risk of end-stage renal failure...
July 15, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21684438/human-cytomegalovirus-and-kidney-transplantation-a-clinician-s-update
#17
REVIEW
Kristel De Keyzer, Steven Van Laecke, Patrick Peeters, Raymond Vanholder
Infection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. CMV disease is diagnosed based on the detection of viral replication by phosphoprotein 65 antigenemia or CMV DNA polymerase chain reaction in combination with typical signs and symptoms. Risk factors include CMV-seronegative recipients receiving a CMV-seropositive transplant, older donor age, exposure to cyclosporine and/or antilymphocyte antibody, rejection episodes, and impaired transplant function...
July 2011: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24971305/a-prospective-assessment-of-the-effect-of-aminophylline-therapy-on-urine-output-and-inflammation-in-critically-ill-children
#18
Robert F Tamburro, Neal J Thomas, Gary D Ceneviva, Michael D Dettorre, Gretchen L Brummel, Steven E Lucking
BACKGROUND: Aminophylline, an established bronchodilator, is also purported to be an effective diuretic and anti-inflammatory agent. However, the data to support these contentions are scant. We conducted a prospective, open-label, single arm, single center study to assess the hypothesis that aminophylline increases urine output and decreases inflammation in critically ill children. METHODS: Children less than 18 years of age admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit who were prescribed aminophylline over a 24-h period were eligible for study...
2014: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496911/recent-developments-in-the-detection-and-management-of-acute-kidney-injury
#19
REVIEW
James McCaffrey, Ajaya Kumar Dhakal, David V Milford, Nicholas J A Webb, Rachel Lennon
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition in children admitted to hospital and existing serum and urine biomarkers are insensitive. There have been significant developments in stratifying the risk of AKI in children and also in the identification of new AKI biomarkers. Risk stratification coupled with a panel of AKI biomarkers will improve future detection of AKI, however, paediatric validation studies in mixed patient cohorts are required. The principles of effective management rely on treating the underlying cause and preventing secondary AKI by the appropriate use of fluids and medication...
August 5, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21773822/hypertensive-crisis-in-children
#20
REVIEW
Jayanthi Chandar, Gastón Zilleruelo
Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure...
May 2012: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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