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Matthew A Rainaldi, Jeffrey M Perlman
The pathophysiology of asphyxia generally results from interruption of placental blood flow with resultant fetal hypoxia, hypercarbia, and acidosis. Circulatory and noncirculatory adaptive mechanisms exist that allow the fetus to cope with asphyxia and preserve vital organ function. With severe and/or prolonged insults, these compensatory mechanisms fail, resulting in hypoxic ischemic injury, leading to cell death via necrosis and apoptosis. Permanent brain injury is the most severe long-term consequence of perinatal asphyxia...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
Christina A Herrera, Robert M Silver
Perinatal asphyxia is a general term referring to neonatal encephalopathy related to events during birth. Asphyxia refers to a deprivation of oxygen for a duration sufficient to cause neurologic injury. Most cases of perinatal asphyxia are not necessarily caused by intrapartum events but rather associated with underlying chronic maternal or fetal conditions. Of intrapartum causes, obstetric emergencies are the most common and are not always preventable. Screening high-risk pregnancies with ultrasound, Doppler velocimetry, and antenatal testing can aid in identifying fetuses at risk...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
Ryan M McAdams, Sandra E Juul
Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is standard treatment for newborns at 36 weeks of gestation or greater with intrapartum hypoxia-related NE. Term and late preterm infants with moderate to severe encephalopathy show improved survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months of age after TH. TH can increase survival without increasing major disability, rates of an IQ less than 70, or cerebral palsy. Neonates with severe NE remain at risk of death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
Seetha Shankaran, Girija Natarajan, Lina Chalak, Athina Pappas, Scott A McDonald, Abbot R Laptook
In this article, we summarize the NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) trial of whole-body hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in relation to other randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of hypothermia neuroprotection. We describe the NRN secondary studies that have been published in the past 10 years evaluating clinical, genetic, biochemical, and imaging biomarkers of outcome.
June 23, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
So Yoon Ahn, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Despite recent advances in neonatal intensive care medicine, neonatal brain injury resulting from intraventricular hemorrhage or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy remains a major cause of neonatal mortality and neurologic morbidities in survivors. Several studies have indicated that stem cell therapy is a promising novel therapy for neonatal brain injury resulting from these disorders. This review summarizes recent advances in stem cell research for treating neonatal brain injury due to intraventricular hemorrhage or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with a particular focus on preclinical data, covering important issues for clinical translation such as optimal cell type, route, dose and timing of stem cell therapy, and translation of these preclinical results into a clinical trial...
2016: Neonatology
Dwight J Rouse, Deborah Hirtz
Based on the convincing case control study of Nelson and Grether which suggested that the administration of magnesium sulfate to mothers prior to early preterm birth might protect their offspring from cerebral palsy, and a pilot study by John Hauth et al. at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network, with co-funding from the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke embarked on the Beneficial Effects of Antenatal Magnesium (BEAM) Trial in 1997...
August 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
Krithika Lingappan, Jeffrey R Kaiser, Chandra Srinivasan, Alistair J Gunn
BACKGROUND: Abnormal PCO2 is common in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The objective was to determine whether hypocapnia was independently associated with unfavorable outcome (death or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 18 mo) in infants with moderate-to-severe HIE. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of the CoolCap Study in which infants were randomized to head cooling or standard care. Blood gases were measured at prespecified times after randomization...
August 2016: Pediatric Research
Lauren Sacco
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is now considered a standard in tertiary NICUs. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is an important adjunct to this therapy and is gaining acceptance for use on the neonatal population. It can be easily incorporated into practice with appropriate education and training. Current publications are lacking regarding nursing care of neonatal patients undergoing th with the use of aEEG. This article presents a broad educational program as well as novel teaching tool for neonatal nurses caring for this population...
2016: Neonatal Network: NN
Inge A Zonnenberg, R Jeroen Vermeulen, Maartje W Rohaan, Mirjam M van Weissenbruch, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Severe neonatal anaemia can impair cerebral oxygen supply. Data on long-term outcomes following severe neonatal anaemia are scarce. METHODS: Clinical data and neurodevelopmental outcome of 49 (near) term infants with haemoglobin concentration after birth <6.0 mmol/l were retrospectively collected and analysed. In a subgroup of 28 patients, amplitude-integrated EEG was available and in 25 infants cerebral MRI was obtained. Infants were followed up at 14-35 months of age and assessed with the Griffiths Scale of Mental Development or Bayley Scale of Infant Development...
2016: Neonatology
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