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Jens F Rehfeld
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a classic gut hormone. CCK is also a complex system of peptides expressed in several molecular forms in enteroendocrine I cells, in cerebral and peripheral neurons, in cardiac myocytes and spermatozoa. CCK gene expression has now been found at protein or peptide level in different neuroendocrine tumors; cerebral gliomas and astrocytomas and specific pediatric tumors. Tumor hypersecretion of CCK was recently reported in a patient with a metastatic islet cell tumor and hypercholecystokininemia resulting in a novel tumor syndrome, the cholecystokininoma syndrome...
September 2016: Future Oncology
Christian Gerecke, Stephan Fuhrmann, Susanne Strifler, Martin Schmidt-Hieber, Hermann Einsele, Stefan Knop
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a malignant disease of plasma cells with a worldwide incidence of 6-7 cases per 100 000 persons per year. It is among the 20 most common types of cancer in Germany. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications up to December 2015 that were retrieved by a selective search of PubMed employing the terms "multiple myeloma" AND "therapy" OR "diagnostic." Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and treatment recommendations from Germany and abroad were considered...
July 11, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Mike F Müller, Ashraf E K Ibrahim, Mark J Arends
Colorectal cancer (CRC) shows variable underlying molecular changes with two major mechanisms of genetic instability: chromosomal instability and microsatellite instability. This review aims to delineate the different pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis and provide an overview of the most recent advances in molecular pathological classification systems for colorectal cancer. Two molecular pathological classification systems for CRC have recently been proposed. Integrated molecular analysis by The Cancer Genome Atlas project is based on a wide-ranging genomic and transcriptomic characterisation study of CRC using array-based and sequencing technologies...
August 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Laure Aurelian, Dominique Bollino, Aric Colunga
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are an emerging cancer therapeutic, with a near complete absence of serious adverse effects. However, clinical efficacy is relatively modest, related to poor tumor penetration, failure to lyse cancer stem cells (CSCs) and blockade of immunogenic cell death by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. To overcome such limitations, we developed an OV (known as ΔPK) with multimodal anti-tumor activity. ΔPK has potent anti-tumor activity both in melanoma cell lines and xenograft animal models, associated with virus replication and the induction of multiple independent programmed cell death pathways...
July 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Ceren Eyileten, Kinga Majchrzak, Zofia Pilch, Katarzyna Tonecka, Joanna Mucha, Bartlomiej Taciak, Katarzyna Ulewicz, Katarzyna Witt, Alberto Boffi, Magdalena Krol, Tomasz P Rygiel
Recent studies indicate the critical role of tumour associated macrophages, tumour associated neutrophils, dendritic cells, T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells in tumourigenesis. These cells can have a significant impact on the tumour microenvironment via their production of cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, products secreted from all these cells have defined specific roles in regulating tumour cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. They act in a protumour capacity in vivo as evidenced by the recent studies indicating that macrophages, T cells, and neutrophils may be manipulated to exhibit cytotoxic activity against tumours...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
S Vincent Rajkumar
Multiple myeloma accounts for approximately 10% of hematologic malignancies.The diagnosis requires ≥10% clonal bone marrow plasma cells or a biopsy proven plasmacytoma plus evidence of one or more multiple myeloma defining events (MDE): CRAB (hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, or lytic bone lesions) features felt related to the plasma cell disorder, bone marrow clonal plasmacytosis ≥60%, serum involved/uninvolved free light chain (FLC) ratio ≥100 (provided involved FLC is ≥100 mg/L), or >1 focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging...
July 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Hope S Rugo, R Bryan Rumble, Erin Macrae, Debra L Barton, Hannah Klein Connolly, Maura N Dickler, Lesley Fallowfield, Barbara Fowble, James N Ingle, Mohammad Jahanzeb, Stephen R D Johnston, Larissa A Korde, James L Khatcheressian, Rita S Mehta, Hyman B Muss, Harold J Burstein
PURPOSE: To develop recommendations about endocrine therapy for women with hormone receptor (HR) -positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology convened an Expert Panel to conduct a systematic review of evidence from 2008 through 2015 to create recommendations informed by that evidence. Outcomes of interest included sequencing of hormonal agents, hormonal agents compared with chemotherapy, targeted biologic therapy, and treatment of premenopausal women...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
David N Louis, Arie Perry, Guido Reifenberger, Andreas von Deimling, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Webster K Cavenee, Hiroko Ohgaki, Otmar D Wiestler, Paul Kleihues, David W Ellison
The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System is both a conceptual and practical advance over its 2007 predecessor. For the first time, the WHO classification of CNS tumors uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to define many tumor entities, thus formulating a concept for how CNS tumor diagnoses should be structured in the molecular era. As such, the 2016 CNS WHO presents major restructuring of the diffuse gliomas, medulloblastomas and other embryonal tumors, and incorporates new entities that are defined by both histology and molecular features, including glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype and glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant; RELA fusion-positive ependymoma; medulloblastoma, WNT-activated and medulloblastoma, SHH-activated; and embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered...
June 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Gwo Yaw Ho, Natasha Woodward, Jermaine I G Coward
The platinum analogues, cisplatin and carboplatin, are among the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents in oncology. Both agents have a broad spectrum of clinical activity in numerous malignancies including gynaecological cancers, germ cell tumours, head and neck cancer, thoracic cancers and bladder cancer. Although the final mechanism of inducing tumour cell apoptosis is similar for both compounds, cisplatin has been shown to be more effective in treating specific tumour types. Whilst more favourable toxicity profiles are often associated with carboplatin, this can frequently translate to inferior response in certain malignancies...
June 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Takaaki Masuda, Naoki Hayashi, Tomohiro Iguchi, Shuhei Ito, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Koshi Mimori
During the process of metastasis, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death, cancer cells dissociate from primary tumors, migrate to distal sites, and finally colonize, eventually leading to the formation of metastatic tumors. The migrating tumor cells in circulation, e.g., those found in peripheral blood (PB) or bone marrow (BM), are called circulating tumor cells (CTCs). CTCs in the BM are generally called disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). Many studies have reported the detection and characterization of CTCs to facilitate early diagnosis of relapse or metastasis and improve early detection and appropriate treatment decisions...
March 2016: Molecular Oncology
Ludwig Kiesel, Annemarie Kohl
The discovery of the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway two decades ago has initiated novel insights into regulation of bone formation. More recently this pathway has been found to be also relevant in osteoclastic-independent mechanisms, mainly in mammary physiology and breast cancer. RANKL/RANK function is essential for epithelial cell proliferation and cellular survival as well as lobulo-alveolar development. The endogenous OPG functions as a soluble decoy receptor, binding the cytokine RANKL to prevent RANKL from activating its receptor RANK...
April 2016: Maturitas
Elizaveta V Benevolenskaya, Abul B M M K Islam, Habibul Ahsan, Muhammad G Kibriya, Farzana Jasmine, Ben Wolff, Umaima Al-Alem, Elizabeth Wiley, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Virgilia Macias, Garth H Rauscher
BACKGROUND: We examined whether differences in tumor DNA methylation were associated with more aggressive hormone receptor-negative breast cancer in an ethnically diverse group of patients in the Breast Cancer Care in Chicago (BCCC) study and using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). RESULTS: DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples on 75 patients (21 White, 31 African-American, and 23 Hispanic) (training dataset) enrolled in the BCCC...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Rossana Berardi, Silvia Rinaldi, Miriam Caramanti, Christian Grohè, Matteo Santoni, Francesca Morgese, Mariangela Torniai, Agnese Savini, Ilaria Fiordoliva, Stefano Cascinu
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder in cancer patients. It may be related to cancer, to anti-cancer therapy or to other concomitant treatments. In this setting hyponatremia is often caused by the syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion, which is due to the ectopic production of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin), to extracellular fluid depletion, to renal toxicity caused by chemotherapy or to other underlying conditions. Recent studies suggested that hyponatremia might be considered a negative prognostic factor for cancer patients therefore its early detection, monitoring and management might improve the patient's outcome...
June 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Vinicius C Do Nascimento, Ruben Rajan, Andrew Redfern, Christobel Saunders
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive and rare form of breast cancer. At present, there are no established diagnostic, radiological, pathological or molecular diagnostic criteria for this entity. The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of presentation, treatment and outcomes of IBC in this institution over the course of a decade. This is a retrospective observational study using data from the Royal Perth Hospital from January 2001 to December 2010. Our results identified 57 women with IBC, representing 1...
September 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Kamesh Sivagnanam, Zia U Rahman, Timir Paul
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapeutic agents directed against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) have significantly improved the prognosis of patients who are positive for this receptor. However, cardiomyopathy remains as a common adverse effect of using these agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature search was conducted via PubMed using the keywords of "Trastuzumab Cardiomyopathy," "Lapatinib Cardiomyopathy" and "Pertuzumab Cardiomyopathy," which provided 104 results...
February 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Katsuhiko Nakatsukasa, Hiroshi Koyama, Yoshimi Oouchi, Seiichi Imanishi, Naruhiko Mizuta, Kouichi Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi Fujita, Aya Imai, Akiko Okamoto, Asako Hamaoka, Mari Soushi, Ikuya Fujiwara, Tatsuya Kotani, Takayuki Matsuda, Kenichirou Fukuda, Midori Morita, Sadao Kawakami, Yayoi Kadotani, Eiichi Konishi, Akio Yanagisawa, Mariko Goto, Kei Yamada, Tetsuya Taguchi
BACKGROUND: The standard primary systemic therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer is anthracyclines and/or taxanes combined with trastuzumab, which demonstrates a high pathological complete response (pCR). A pCR is a predictive marker of prognosis. However, results slightly differ, depending on the hormone receptor status. The efficacy and tolerability of docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and trastuzumab (HER-TC) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) remain unclear...
February 13, 2016: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
John Clark Henegan, Christian R Gomez
Families of tumor-suppressor genes, such as those involved in homologous recombination or mismatch repair, contain individual genes implicated in hereditary cancer syndromes. Collectively, such groupings establish that inactivating germline changes in genes within pathways related to genomic repair can promote carcinogenesis. The hypoxia pathway, whose activation is associated with aggressive and resistant sporadic tumors, is another pathway in which tumor-suppressor genes have been identified. von Hippel-Lindau disease, some of the hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes, and the syndrome of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma are heritable conditions associated with genes involved or associated with the hypoxia pathway...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Daniel G Coit, John A Thompson, Alain Algazi, Robert Andtbacka, Christopher K Bichakjian, William E Carson, Gregory A Daniels, Dominick DiMaio, Marc Ernstoff, Ryan C Fields, Martin D Fleming, Rene Gonzalez, Valerie Guild, Allan C Halpern, F Stephen Hodi, Richard W Joseph, Julie R Lange, Mary C Martini, Miguel A Materin, Anthony J Olszanski, Merrick I Ross, April K Salama, Joseph Skitzki, Jeff Sosman, Susan M Swetter, Kenneth K Tanabe, Javier F Torres-Roca, Vijay Trisal, Marshall M Urist, Nicole McMillian, Anita Engh
This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Melanoma focuses on adjuvant therapy and treatment of in-transit disease, because substantial changes were made to the recommendations for the 2016 update. Depending on the stage of the disease, options for adjuvant therapy now include biochemotherapy and high-dose ipilimumab. Treatment options for in-transit disease now include intralesional injection with talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), a new immunotherapy. These additions prompted re-assessment of the data supporting older recommended treatment options for adjuvant therapy and in-transit disease, resulting in extensive revisions to the supporting discussion sections...
April 2016: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Magali Fort, Saada Guet, Shan Husheng, Elie Calitchi, Yazid Belkacemi
Radiotherapy has been used for skin cancers since early after the discovery of X-rays. The introduction of sophisticated surgery techniques and information of the general population on potential late radiation-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis have led to limiting indications in the dermatologist community. However, radiotherapy (RT) has undergone considerable developments, essentially including technological advances, to sculpt radiation delivery, with demonstration of the benefit either alone or after adding concomitant cytotoxic agents or targeted therapies...
March 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Jacqueline Flank, Paula D Robinson, Mark Holdsworth, Robert Phillips, Carol Portwine, Paul Gibson, Cathy Maan, Nancy Stefin, Lillian Sung, L Lee Dupuis
This clinical practice guideline provides an approach to the treatment of breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and the prevention of refractory CINV in children. It was developed by an international, interprofessional panel and is based on systematic literature reviews. Evidence-based interventions for the treatment of breakthrough and prophylaxis of refractory CINV are recommended. Gaps in the evidence used to support the recommendations made in this clinical practice guideline were identified...
July 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
2016-04-08 21:06:23
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