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Gül Dölen
Over 70 years since the first description of the disease, disrupted social behavior remains a core clinical feature of autistic spectrum disorder. The complex etiology of the disorder portends the need for a better understanding of the brain mechanisms that enable social behaviors, particularly those that are relevant to autism which is characterized by a failure to develop peer relationships, difficulty with emotional reciprocity and imitative play, and disrupted language and communication skills. Toward this end, the current review will examine recent progress that has been made toward understanding the neural mechanisms underlying consociate social attachments...
2015: Social Neuroscience
Olga M Klimecki
Social emotions such as empathy or compassion greatly facilitate our interactions with others. Despite the importance of social emotions, scientific studies have only recently revealed functional neural plasticity associated with the training of such emotions. Using the framework of two antagonistic neural systems, the threat and social disconnection system on the one hand, and the reward and social connection system on the other, this article describes how training compassion and empathy can change the functioning of these systems in a targeted manner...
2015: Social Neuroscience
Gordon C Jayson, Elise C Kohn, Henry C Kitchener, Jonathan A Ledermann
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the commonest cause of gynaecological cancer-associated death. The disease typically presents in postmenopausal women, with a few months of abdominal pain and distension. Most women have advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stage III), for which the standard of care remains surgery and platinum-based cytotoxic chemotherapy. Although this treatment can be curative for most patients with early stage disease, most women with advanced disease will develop many episodes of recurrent disease with progressively shorter disease-free intervals...
October 11, 2014: Lancet
Jillian T Henderson, Evelyn P Whitlock, Elizabeth O'Connor, Caitlyn A Senger, Jamie H Thompson, Maya G Rowland
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. PURPOSE: To systematically review benefits and harms of low-dose aspirin for preventing morbidity and mortality from preeclampsia. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 2006 to June 2013); previous systematic reviews, clinical trial registries, and surveillance searches for large studies (June 2013 to February 2014)...
May 20, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Christine C Welles, Mary A Whooley, S Ananth Karumanchi, Tammy Hod, Ravi Thadhani, Anders H Berg, Joachim H Ix, Kenneth J Mukamal
A growing body of evidence supports an association between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. From 2000 to 2002, we identified 946 participants with stable cardiovascular disease in San Francisco, California, and followed them prospectively for cardiovascular events (heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death). We then examined the extent to which the association was attenuated by adjustment for poor health behaviors, comorbid health conditions, and potential biological mediators...
June 1, 2014: American Journal of Epidemiology
Caitlin Mason, Liren Xiao, Ikuyo Imayama, Catherine Duggan, Ching-Yun Wang, Larissa Korde, Anne McTiernan
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with obesity; whether repletion supports weight loss and changes obesity-related biomarkers is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We compared 12 mo of vitamin D3 supplementation with placebo on weight, body composition, insulin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in postmenopausal women in a weight-loss intervention. DESIGN: A total of 218 overweight/obese women (50-75 y of age) with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≥10 ng/mL but <32 ng/mL were randomly assigned to weight loss + 2000 IU oral vitamin D3/d or weight loss + daily placebo...
May 2014: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Bernadette Biondi, Leonard Wartofsky
Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities...
June 2014: Endocrine Reviews
Dugald Seely, Orest Szczurko, Kieran Cooley, Heidi Fritz, Serenity Aberdour, Craig Herrington, Patricia Herman, Philip Rouchotas, David Lescheid, Ryan Bradley, Tara Gignac, Bob Bernhardt, Qi Zhou, Gordon Guyatt
BACKGROUND: Although cardiovascular disease may be partially preventable through dietary and lifestyle-based interventions, few individuals at risk receive intensive dietary and lifestyle counselling. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of naturopathic care in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We performed a multisite randomized controlled trial of enhanced usual care (usual care plus biometric measurement; control) compared with enhanced usual care plus naturopathic care (hereafter called naturopathic care)...
June 11, 2013: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Robert H Lustig
What do the Atkins Diet and the traditional Japanese diet have in common? The Atkins Diet is low in carbohydrate and usually high in fat; the Japanese diet is high in carbohydrate and usually low in fat. Yet both work to promote weight loss. One commonality of both diets is that they both eliminate the monosaccharide fructose. Sucrose (table sugar) and its synthetic sister high fructose corn syrup consist of 2 molecules, glucose and fructose. Glucose is the molecule that when polymerized forms starch, which has a high glycemic index, generates an insulin response, and is not particularly sweet...
March 1, 2013: Advances in Nutrition
Gregory Juckett, Rupal Trivedi
Chronic diarrhea, defined as a decrease in stool consistency for more than four weeks, is a common but challenging clinical scenario. It can be divided into three basic categories: watery, fatty (malabsorption), and inflammatory. Watery diarrhea may be subdivided into osmotic, secretory, and functional types. Watery diarrhea includes irritable bowel syndrome, which is the most common cause of functional diarrhea. Another example of watery diarrhea is microscopic colitis, which is a secretory diarrhea affecting older persons...
November 15, 2011: American Family Physician
I Markaki, D Linos, A Linos
To elucidate the role of diet in the development of thyroid cancer, we conducted a case-control study of 113 persons with histologically-verified thyroid cancer and 138 controls, matched by age, gender and health unit. Socio-economic data, known risk factors and food consumption of more than 100 items were recorded by interviewer-administered prestructured questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify possible dietary patterns and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the effect of food items or dietary patterns on thyroid cancer...
September 2003: European Journal of Cancer
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