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Marte Otten, Liesbeth Mann, Jos J A van Berkum, Kai J Jonas
Insults always sting, but the context in which they are delivered can make the effects even worse. Here we test how the brain processes insults, and whether and how the neurocognitive processing of insults is changed by the presence of a laughing crowd. Event-related potentials showed that insults, compared to compliments, evoked an increase in N400 amplitude (indicating increased lexical-semantic processing) and LPP amplitude (indicating emotional processing) when presented in isolation. When insults were perceived in the presence of a laughing crowd, the difference in N400 amplitude disappeared, while the difference in LPP activation increased...
March 22, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Tali M Ball, Murray B Stein, Holly J Ramsawh, Laura Campbell-Sills, Martin P Paulus
The possibility of individualized treatment prediction has profound implications for the development of personalized interventions for patients with anxiety disorders. Here we utilize random forest classification and pre-treatment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) to generate individual subject treatment outcome predictions. Before cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 48 adults (25 GAD and 23 PD) reduced (via cognitive reappraisal) or maintained their emotional responses to negative images during fMRI scanning...
April 2014: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Márcia Carvalho, Helena Carmo, Vera Marisa Costa, João Paulo Capela, Helena Pontes, Fernando Remião, Félix Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Bastos
Amphetamines represent a class of psychotropic compounds, widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, anorectic, and, in some cases, emphathogenic, entactogenic, and hallucinogenic properties. These compounds derive from the β-phenylethylamine core structure and are kinetically and dynamically characterized by easily crossing the blood-brain barrier, to resist brain biotransformation and to release monoamine neurotransmitters from nerve endings. Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs, of which amphetamine, methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) are well-known examples, humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums, through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants, namely cathinone (khat), obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine, obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra...
August 2012: Archives of Toxicology
Edward M Lichten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2004: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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