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Paul Trayhurn
Hypoxia develops in white adipose tissue in obese mice, resulting in changes in adipocyte function that may underpin the dysregulation that leads to obesity-associated disorders. Whether hypoxia occurs in adipose tissue in human obesity is unclear, with recent studies contradicting earlier reports that this was the case. Adipocytes, both murine and human, exhibit extensive functional changes in culture in response to hypoxia, which alters the expression of up to 1,300 genes. These include genes encoding key adipokines such as leptin, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), which are upregulated, and adiponectin, which is downregulated...
2014: Annual Review of Nutrition
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Leila Azadbakht, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Hamed Daghaghzadeh, Hamid Afshar, Awat Feizi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Peyman Adibi
BACKGROUND: Potential associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with psychological disorders remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relations of dietary GI and GL with psychological distress, anxiety, and depression. DESIGN: A total of 3363 nonacademic members of the staff of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were included in this cross-sectional study. GI and GL were assessed by using a validated, self-administered, dish-based, semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire...
January 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Bénédicte M J Merle, Rachel E Silver, Bernard Rosner, Johanna M Seddon
BACKGROUND: Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet is linked to a lower risk of mortality and chronic disease, but the association with the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and genetic susceptibility is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and genetic susceptibility with progression to advanced AMD. DESIGN: Among 2525 subjects in the AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study), 1028 eyes progressed to advanced AMD over 13 y...
November 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Rebecca M Leech, Anthony Worsley, Anna Timperio, Sarah A McNaughton
BACKGROUND: To date, many approaches have been used to define eating occasions (EOs). A standard definition for EOs is required to facilitate further research. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the influence of differing definitions of EOs on the characterization of eating patterns. DESIGN: Cross-sectional dietary data from two 24-h recalls collected during the 2011-12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 5242 adults, aged ≥19 y) were analyzed...
November 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Patty W Siri-Tarino, Sally Chiu, Nathalie Bergeron, Ronald M Krauss
The effects of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are modulated by the nutrients that replace them and their food matrices. Replacement of SFAs with polyunsaturated fatty acids has been associated with reduced CVD risk, although there is heterogeneity in both fatty acid categories. In contrast, replacement of SFAs with carbohydrates, particularly sugar, has been associated with no improvement or even a worsening of CVD risk, at least in part through effects on atherogenic dyslipidemia, a cluster of traits including small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles...
2015: Annual Review of Nutrition
Jia Shen, Kobina A Wilmot, Nima Ghasemzadeh, Daniel L Molloy, Gregory Burkman, Girum Mekonnen, Maria C Gongora, Arshed A Quyyumi, Laurence S Sperling
The Mediterranean dietary pattern has been linked with reduced cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. Components of the Mediterranean diet associated with better cardiovascular health include low consumption of meat and meat products, moderate consumption of ethanol (mostly from wine), and high consumption of vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, fish, and olive oil. Increasing evidence indicates that the synergy among these components results in beneficial changes in intermediate pathways of cardiometabolic risk, such as lipids, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and vasoreactivity...
2015: Annual Review of Nutrition
Sharon A Ross, Cindy D Davis
Understanding the molecular mechanisms that inform how diet and dietary supplements influence health and disease is an active research area. One such mechanism concerns the role of diet in modulating the activity and function of microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that are involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing and have been shown to control gene expression in diverse biological processes including development, differentiation, cell proliferation, metabolism, and inflammation as well as in human diseases...
2014: Annual Review of Nutrition
Natalie J Groves, John J McGrath, Thomas H J Burne
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent throughout the world, and growing evidence supports a requirement for optimal vitamin D levels for the healthy developing and adult brain. Vitamin D has important roles in proliferation and differentiation, calcium signaling within the brain, and neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it may also alter neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Recent experimental studies highlight the impact that vitamin D deficiency has on brain function in health and disease. In addition, results from recent animal studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during adulthood may exacerbate underlying brain disorders and/or worsen recovery from brain stressors...
2014: Annual Review of Nutrition
Salwa W Rizkalla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of glycemic index on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors received considerable attention in light of the current increase in cardiometabolic disorders. We aimed to deal and identify the recently published prospective epidemiological studies as well as randomized controlled studies investigating the associations of metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic index. The main prospective studies and meta-analysis grouping the recent prospective and clinical interventions are discussed...
July 2014: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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