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Targeted Weight Loss: ParuchMD

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19 papers 0 to 25 followers
By John Paruch Combined training in Internal Medicine-Psychiatry with holistic, evidence-based, preventive approach to implementation and promotion of wellness.
John F Trepanowski, Cynthia M Kroeger, Adrienne Barnosky, Monica C Klempel, Surabhi Bhutani, Kristin K Hoddy, Kelsey Gabel, Sally Freels, Joseph Rigdon, Jennifer Rood, Eric Ravussin, Krista A Varady
Importance: Alternate-day fasting has become increasingly popular, yet, to date, no long-term randomized clinical trials have evaluated its efficacy. Objective: To compare the effects of alternate-day fasting vs daily calorie restriction on weight loss, weight maintenance, and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-center randomized clinical trial of obese adults (18 to 64 years of age; mean body mass index, 34) was conducted between October 1, 2011, and January 15, 2015, at an academic institution in Chicago, Illinois...
July 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
Rachel Botchlett, Shih-Lung Woo, Mengyang Liu, Ya Pei, Xin Guo, Honggui Li, Chaodong Wu
Obesity is an ongoing pandemic and serves as a causal factor of a wide spectrum of metabolic diseases including diabetes, fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. Much evidence has demonstrated that nutrient overload/overnutrition initiates or exacerbates inflammatory responses in tissues/organs involved in the regulation of systemic metabolic homeostasis. This obesity-associated inflammation is usually at a low-grade and viewed as metabolic inflammation. When it exists continuously, inflammation inappropriately alters metabolic pathways and impairs insulin signaling cascades in peripheral tissues/organs such as adipose tissue, the liver and skeletal muscles, resulting in local fat deposition and insulin resistance and systemic metabolic dysregulation...
June 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
February 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Xavier Pi-Sunyer, William Shanahan, Randi Fain, Tony Ma, W Timothy Garvey
OBJECTIVES: Treatment guidelines for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) suggest weight loss as a means to maintain glycemic control. Lorcaserin has been approved for chronic weight management in the United States as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and exercise, and the previous phase 3 Behavioral Modification and Lorcaserin for Obesity and Overweight Management in Diabetes Mellitus (BLOOM-DM) study has shown that, in addition to weight loss, lorcaserin is associated with improvements in glycemic parameters...
August 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Patrick M O'Neil, Steven R Smith, Neil J Weissman, Meredith C Fidler, Matilde Sanchez, Jinkun Zhang, Brian Raether, Christen M Anderson, William R Shanahan
The BLOOM-DM (Behavioral Modification and Lorcaserin for Obesity and Overweight Management in Diabetes Mellitus) study evaluated efficacy and safety of lorcaserin for weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. Secondary objectives included evaluations of glycemic control, lipids, blood pressure, and quality of life. This 1-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled 604 patients 1:1:1 to placebo, lorcaserin 10 mg once daily (QD) or lorcaserin 10 mg twice daily (BID). Patients were treated with metformin, a sulfonylurea (SFU) or both; had glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) 7-10%; were 18-65 years old; and had BMI 27-45 kg/m(2)...
July 2012: Obesity
Louis Aronne, William Shanahan, Randi Fain, Alan Glicklich, William Soliman, Yuhan Li, Steven Smith
BACKGROUND: Lorcaserin, a novel selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist, is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for weight management in combination with lifestyle modification for adults with obesity and adults with overweight and ≥ 1 weight-related comorbid condition. The safety and effectiveness of lorcaserin in adult patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus was established based on 2 phase III clinical trials of similar design: Behavioral Modification and Lorcaserin for Overweight and Obesity Management (BLOOM) and Behavioral Modification and Lorcaserin Second Study for Obesity Management (BLOSSOM)...
October 2014: Postgraduate Medicine
Ryan T Hurt, Ivana T Croghan, Darrell R Schroeder, J Taylor Hays, Doo-Sup Choi, Jon O Ebbert
Introduction: Post-cessation weight gain (PCWG) is a major barrier to maintaining abstinence, especially in weight-concerned smokers. Varenicline is the most effective medication for smoking cessation but has minimal impact on PCWG. Lorcaserin is an FDA-approved medication for weight management in overweight or obese patients which also provides a noticeable benefit in treating drug dependence. We hypothesized that combining varenicline with lorcaserin may help prevent PCWG. We conducted an open-label, single arm, Phase II clinical pilot study to obtain preliminary data on the safety and effectiveness of combination varenicline and lorcaserin in preventing PCWG in overweight and obese smokers...
August 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Neil J Weissman, Steven R Smith, Randi Fain, Nancy Hall, William R Shanahan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of lorcaserin in patients with pre-existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-defined valvulopathy. METHODS: This is a pooled, post hoc analysis of three Phase 3 studies. BLOOM and BLOSSOM patients were 18 to 65 years of age without diabetes and with a body mass index (BMI) of 27 to 29.9 kg/m(2) and ≥1 weight-related comorbidity or a BMI of 30 to 45 kg/m(2) . BLOOM-DM patients had a BMI of 27 to 45 kg/m(2) and type 2 diabetes...
January 2017: Obesity
Julio A Gutierrez, Carmen Landaverde, Jennifer T Wells, Fred Poordad
Management of obesity and decompensated cirrhosis in those requiring liver transplantation (LT) is a challenging dilemma. Because of concerns for perioperative complications, many centers avoid transplant in those with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 40 kg/m(2) . Bariatric surgery is associated with increased risk attributable to complications of portal hypertension, including variceal rupture. Therefore, weight loss and LT options are limited. Several new classes of weight loss drugs are commercially available, including the anoretic, lorcaserin...
July 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Olivia M Farr, Jagriti Upadhyay, Anna Gavrieli, Michelle Camp, Nikolaos Spyrou, Harper Kaye, Hannah Mathew, Maria Vamvini, Anastasia Koniaris, Holly Kilim, Alexandra Srnka, Alexandra Migdal, Christos S Mantzoros
Lorcaserin is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2c receptor agonist effective in treating obesity. Studies in rodents have shown that lorcaserin acts in the brain to exert its weight-reducing effects, but this has not yet been studied in humans. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with 48 obese participants and used functional MRI to study the effects of lorcaserin on the brain. Subjects taking lorcaserin had decreased brain activations in the attention-related parietal and visual cortices in response to highly palatable food cues at 1 week in the fasting state and in the parietal cortex in response to any food cues at 4 weeks in the fed state...
October 2016: Diabetes
Steven R Smith, Neil J Weissman, Christen M Anderson, Matilde Sanchez, Emil Chuang, Scott Stubbe, Harold Bays, William R Shanahan
BACKGROUND: Lorcaserin is a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist that could be useful in reducing body weight. METHODS: In this double-blind clinical trial, we randomly assigned 3182 obese or overweight adults (mean body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters] of 36.2) to receive lorcaserin at a dose of 10 mg, or placebo, twice daily for 52 weeks. All patients also underwent diet and exercise counseling. At week 52, patients in the placebo group continued to receive placebo but patients in the lorcaserin group were randomly reassigned to receive either placebo or lorcaserin...
July 15, 2010: New England Journal of Medicine
Corby K Martin, Leanne M Redman, Jinkun Zhang, Matilde Sanchez, Christen M Anderson, Steven R Smith, Eric Ravussin
CONTEXT: Lorcaserin, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2C) receptor agonist, reduces body weight. It is unclear whether weight loss is due to reduced energy intake (EI) or also to enhanced energy expenditure (EE). OBJECTIVE: This study tested the effect of lorcaserin on EI and EE. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 (39 women) overweight and obese (body mass index, 27-45 kg/m(2)) adults were randomized to placebo (n = 28) or 10 mg twice daily lorcaserin (n = 29) for 56 d...
March 2011: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ambereen K Mehta, Ruchi S Doshi, Zoobia W Chaudhry, David K Jacobs, Rachit M Vakil, Clare J Lee, Sara N Bleich, Jeanne M Clark, Kimberly A Gudzune
Our objective was to compare the effect of commercial weight-loss programs on blood pressure and lipids to control/education or counseling among individuals with overweight/obesity. We conducted a systematic review by searching MEDLINE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to November 2014 and references identified by the programs. We included randomized, controlled trials ≥12weeks in duration. Two reviewers extracted information on study design, interventions, and mean change in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, and total cholesterol and assessed risk of bias...
September 2016: Preventive Medicine
Wan Shen, Michael K McIntosh
Obesity is the most widespread nutritional disease in the United States. Developing effective and safe strategies to manage excess body weight is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, or trans-10, cis-12 alone. Proposed antiobesity mechanisms of CLA include regulation of (a) adipogenesis, (b) lipid metabolism, (c) inflammation, (d) adipocyte apoptosis, (e) browning or beiging of adipose tissue, and (f) energy metabolism...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Bernard C K Choi, Anita W P Pak, Jerome C L Choi, Elaine C L Choi
BACKGROUND: This review looks at ways to increase physical activity, by walking and other sports and home activities, to reach the daily 10,000 steps goal. It also looks at a number of issues associated with achieving the daily step goal, such as considerations in walking, step counting and physical activity. METHODS: The review is based on MEDLINE (1982-2006) and Google searches using keywords "pedometer", "daily step goal", "physical activity", "exercise". RESULTS: Research has suggested a daily 10,000 step goal for maintaining a desirable level of physical activity for health...
2007: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
Catrine Tudor-Locke, David R Bassett
Pedometers are simple and inexpensive body-worn motion sensors that are readily being used by researchers and practitioners to assess and motivate physical activity behaviours. Pedometer-determined physical activity indices are needed to guide their efforts. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review the rationale and evidence for general pedometer-based indices for research and practice purposes. Specifically, we evaluate popular recommendations for steps/day and attempt to translate existing physical activity guidelines into steps/day equivalents...
2004: Sports Medicine
Nicholas Sjoberg, Grant D Brinkworth, Thomas P Wycherley, Manny Noakes, David A Saint
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of weight loss on heart rate variability (HRV) and its association with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Forty five patients [body mass index (BMI) 35.4 ± 0.7 kg/m²; age 56.5 ± 1.1 yr] with type 2 diabetes followed an energy-restricted diet (6-7 MJ/day) for 16 wk. Body weight, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment index 2 (HOMA2)], glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), triglycerides, resting HR, and HRV were measured before and after the intervention period...
April 2011: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jennifer Daubenmier, Patricia J Moran, Jean Kristeller, Michael Acree, Peter Bacchetti, Margaret E Kemeny, Mary Dallman, Robert H Lustig, Carl Grunfeld, Douglas F Nixon, Jeffrey M Milush, Veronica Goldman, Barbara Laraia, Kevin D Laugero, Leslie Woodhouse, Elissa S Epel, Frederick M Hecht
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding mindfulness-based eating and stress management practices to a diet-exercise program improves weight loss and metabolic syndrome components. METHODS: In this study 194 adults with obesity were randomized to a 5.5-month program with or without mindfulness training and identical diet-exercise guidelines. Intention-to-treat analyses with multiple imputation were used for missing data. The primary outcome was 18-month weight change...
April 2016: Obesity
Johan Y Y Ng, Nikos Ntoumanis, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Kyle Stott, Linda Hindle
BACKGROUND: Using the self-determination theory (SDT) framework, we examined how significant others might support or thwart psychological needs of people with weight management goals, and in turn might affect their psychological well-being and weight control behaviors. DESIGN: Longitudinal design with three sets of questionnaires administered over a 6-month period. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six eligible participants (age = 31.01 ± 13...
November 2013: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
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