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Essentials—Internal Medicine

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109 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25295502/physiological-approach-to-assessment-of-acid-base-disturbances
#1
REVIEW
Kenrick Berend, Aiko P J de Vries, Rijk O B Gans
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 371, Issue 15, Page 1434-1445, October 2014.
October 9, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053792/2017-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-infectious-diarrhea
#2
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
October 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616210/acute-kidney-injury-an-overview-of-diagnostic-methods-and-clinical-management
#3
Daniel Hertzberg, Linda Rydén, John W Pickering, Ulrik Sartipy, Martin J Holzmann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition in multiple clinical settings. Patients with AKI are at an increased risk of death, over both the short and long term, and of accelerated renal impairment. As the condition has become more recognized and definitions more unified, there has been a rapid increase in studies examining AKI across many different clinical settings. This review focuses on the classification, diagnostic methods and clinical management that are available, or promising, for patients with AKI...
June 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130064/cardiovascular-consequences-of-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Johnathan D Tune, Adam G Goodwill, Daniel J Sassoon, Kieren J Mather
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26280342/metabolic-syndrome-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Tracy Williams
Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not one of the defining criteria for metabolic syndrome, it is a common hepatic manifestation. NAFLD includes a spectrum of histologic findings ranging from simple steatosis, known as nonalcoholic fatty liver, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To make the diagnosis of NAFLD, other etiologies of steatosis or hepatitis, such as hepatotoxic drugs, excessive alcohol intake, congenital errors of metabolism, or viral hepatitis, must be ruled out. After ruling out other conditions, the diagnosis of NAFLD often is made clinically, but a definitive diagnosis of NASH requires liver biopsy...
August 2015: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240562/guidelines-for-management-of-incidental-pulmonary-nodules-detected-on-ct-images-from-the-fleischner-society-2017
#6
Heber MacMahon, David P Naidich, Jin Mo Goo, Kyung Soo Lee, Ann N C Leung, John R Mayo, Atul C Mehta, Yoshiharu Ohno, Charles A Powell, Mathias Prokop, Geoffrey D Rubin, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop, William D Travis, Paul E Van Schil, Alexander A Bankier
The Fleischner Society Guidelines for management of solid nodules were published in 2005, and separate guidelines for subsolid nodules were issued in 2013. Since then, new information has become available; therefore, the guidelines have been revised to reflect current thinking on nodule management. The revised guidelines incorporate several substantive changes that reflect current thinking on the management of small nodules. The minimum threshold size for routine follow-up has been increased, and recommended follow-up intervals are now given as a range rather than as a precise time period to give radiologists, clinicians, and patients greater discretion to accommodate individual risk factors and preferences...
July 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22224764/the-microbiome-in-infectious-disease-and-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Kenya Honda, Dan R Littman
The mammalian alimentary tract harbors hundreds of species of commensal microorganisms (microbiota) that intimately interact with the host and provide it with genetic, metabolic, and immunological attributes. Recent reports have indicated that the microbiota composition and its collective genomes (microbiome) are major factors in predetermining the type and robustness of mucosal immune responses. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of host-microbiota interactions and their effect on the health and disease susceptibility of the host...
2012: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26294976/clinical-use-of-diuretics-in-heart-failure-cirrhosis-and-nephrotic-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Ahmed Hassaan Qavi, Rida Kamal, Robert W Schrier
Diuretics play significant role in pharmacology and treatment options in medicine. This paper aims to review and evaluate the clinical use of diuretics in conditions that lead to fluid overload in the body such as cardiac failure, cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome. To know the principles of treatment it is essential to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause the need of diuresis in the human body. Various classes of diuretics exist, each having a unique mode of action. A systemic approach for management is recommended based on the current guidelines, starting from thiazides and proceeding to loop diuretics...
2015: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522622/lactic-acidosis-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Jansen Seheult, Gerard Fitzpatrick, Gerard Boran
Lactate is one of the most crucial intermediates in carbohydrate and nonessential amino acid metabolism. The complexity of cellular interactions and metabolism means that lactate can be considered a waste product for one cell but a useful substrate for another. The presence of elevated lactate levels in critically ill patients has important implications for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a brief outline of the metabolism of lactate, the pathophysiology of lactic acidosis, the clinical significance of D-lactate, the role of lactate measurement in acutely ill patients, the methods used to measure lactate in blood or plasma and some of the methodological issues related to interferences in these assays, especially in the case of ethylene glycol poisoning...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119010/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-ascites
#10
Emmanuel A Tsochatzis, Alexander L Gerbes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096088/how-i-treat-acquired-aplastic-anemia
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Bacigalupo
Acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a rare hematologic disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Immune destruction of hemopoietic stem cells plays an important role in pathogenesis, as shown by successful treatment with immunosuppressive agents, leading to transfusion independence or complete recovery of peripheral blood counts in a proportion of patients. Growth factors can be combined with immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and may improve response rates, as recently shown with thrombopoietin analogs...
March 16, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811267/pain-regulation-by-non-neuronal-cells-and-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Ru-Rong Ji, Alexander Chamessian, Yu-Qiu Zhang
Acute pain is protective and a cardinal feature of inflammation. Chronic pain after arthritis, nerve injury, cancer, and chemotherapy is associated with chronic neuroinflammation, a local inflammation in the peripheral or central nervous system. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-neuronal cells such as immune cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, cancer cells, and stem cells play active roles in the pathogenesis and resolution of pain. We review how non-neuronal cells interact with nociceptive neurons by secreting neuroactive signaling molecules that modulate pain...
November 4, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092694/proton-pump-inhibitors-risks-of-long-term-use
#13
REVIEW
Leonardo Henry Eusebi, Stefano Rabitti, Maria Laura Artesiani, Dania Gelli, Marco Montagnani, Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Franco Bazzoli
Proton pump inhibitors are among the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs, and their use is increasing, in particular for long-term treatment, often being over-prescribed and used for inappropriate conditions. In recent years, considerable attention has been directed towards a wide range of adverse effects, and even when a potential underlying biological mechanism is plausible, the clinical evidence of the adverse effect is often weak. Several long-term side effects have been investigated ranging from interaction with other drugs, increased risk of infection, reduced intestinal absorption of vitamins and minerals, and more recently kidney damage and dementia...
July 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103858/update-on-diagnosis-of-acute-rheumatic-fever-2015-jones-criteria
#14
REVIEW
Ayşe Güler Eroğlu
In the final Jones criteria, different diagnostic criteria were established for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever for low risk and moderate-high risk populations. Turkey was found to be compatible with moderate-high risk populations as a result of regional screenings performed in terms of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The changes in the diagnostic criteria for low-risk populations include subclinical carditis found on echocardiogram as a major criterion in addition to carditis found clinically and a body temperature of 38...
March 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166348/management-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#15
REVIEW
Ciorsti MacIntyre, Neal K Lakdawala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659469/contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#16
REVIEW
Peter A McCullough, James P Choi, Georges A Feghali, Jeffrey M Schussler, Robert M Stoler, Ravi C Vallabahn, Ankit Mehta
Coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention rely on the use of iodinated intravascular contrast for vessel and chamber imaging. Despite advancements in imaging and interventional techniques, iodinated contrast continues to pose a risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) for a subgroup of patients at risk for this complication. There has been a consistent and graded signal of risk for associated outcomes including need for renal replacement therapy, rehospitalization, and death, according to the incidence and severity of CI-AKI...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766049/management-of-venous-thromboembolism-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Siavash Piran, Sam Schulman
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which constitutes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Landmark trials have shown that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are as effective as conventional anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in prevention of VTE recurrence and associated with less bleeding. This has paved the way for the recently published guidelines to change their recommendations in favor of DOACs in acute and long-term treatment of VTE in patients without cancer...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662816/associations-of-vitamin-d-with-insulin-resistance-obesity-type-2-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Sunil J Wimalawansa
The aim of this study is to determine the relationships of vitamin D with diabetes, insulin resistance obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Intra cellular vitamin D receptors and the 1-α hydroxylase enzyme are distributed ubiquitously in all tissues suggesting a multitude of functions of vitamin D. It plays an indirect but an important role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as reflected by its association with type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and obesity...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821794/understanding-mechanisms-of-resistance-in-the-epithelial-growth-factor-receptor-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-the-role-of-biopsy-at-progression
#19
Mark A Socinski, Liza C Villaruz, Jeffrey Ross
Molecular profiling and the discovery of drugs that target specific activating mutations have allowed the personalization of treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently over-expressed and/or aberrantly activated in different cancers, including NSCLC. The most common activating mutations of EGFR in NSCLC fall within the tyrosine kinase-binding domain. Three oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for first-line use in patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC (exon 19 deletions or exon 21 [L858R] substitution mutations), as detected by an FDA-approved test...
January 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536694/fluid-management-for-critically-ill-patients-a-review-of-the-current-state-of-fluid-therapy-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#20
REVIEW
Erin Frazee, Kianoush Kashani
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluids (IVF) are frequently utilized to restore intravascular volume in patients with distributive and hypovolemic shock. Although the benefits of the appropriate use of fluids in intensive care units (ICUs) and hospitals are well described, there is growing knowledge regarding the potential risks of volume overload and its impact on organ failure and mortality. To avoid volume overload and its associated complications, strategies to identify fluid responsiveness are developed and utilized more often among ICU patients...
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
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