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Neonatal Nutrition

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89 papers 25 to 100 followers
Reese H Clark, Irene E Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Pediatrics
Carly J Scahill, Eric M Graham, Andrew M Atz, Scott M Bradley, Minoo N Kavarana, Sinai C Zyblewski
BACKGROUND: The potential for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates requiring cardiac surgery has contributed largely to wide feeding practice variations and a hesitation to initiate enteral feeding during the preoperative period, specifically those patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of neonates undergoing cardiac surgery at a single institution between July 2011 and July 2013 was performed. The primary objective of this study was to determine if preoperative feeding was associated with NEC in neonates requiring cardiac surgery...
January 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Kelly Green Corkins, Erin E Teague
Pediatric patients with chronic illnesses or diseases or who require long-term nutrition support are most vulnerable to nutrition-related issues. Malnutrition in a pediatric patient may negatively affect long-term growth and development. Children also become malnourished much more quickly than adults. A comprehensive nutrition assessment that includes food and nutrition-related history, anthropometric measurements, biochemical data, medical tests and procedures, nutrition-focused physical findings, and patient history should be completed on these patients as no one parameter is a comprehensive indicator of nutrition status...
December 2, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Christian Mølgaard, Anni Larnkjær, Karina Arnberg, Kim F Michaelsen
Consumption of cow's milk is recommended in many countries. Observational and intervention studies show that cow's milk most likely has a positive influence on growth in children. The strongest evidence comes from observational studies and intervention studies in low-income countries, but there are also observational studies from high-income countries showing positive associations between milk intake and growth. Milk seems thus to have a specific stimulating effect on linear growth, not only in developing countries with high rates of malnutrition, but also in industrialized countries...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Elizabeth M Novak, Bernd O Keller, Sheila M Innis
Understanding the importance of dietary fat has grown beyond energy metabolism to recognition of the complex roles of fatty acids, particularly the ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids in membrane lipids, inter- and intracellular communication and in regulating gene expression. The ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids accumulated in developing tissues depend on the fatty acids transported across the placenta and secreted in breast milk. These in turn are dependent on maternal fatty acid intakes, which have changed dramatically in the past century with current western diets high in ω-6 linoleic acid and low in ω-3 fatty acids...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
W E Corpeleijn, C H van den Akker, J A Roelants, J B van Goudoever
Amino acids and proteins play a pivotal role during growth and development. Besides acting as building blocks during tissue synthesis, amino acids or proteins act specifically by upregulating defense systems or by stimulating key sites in metabolic pathways. Following premature birth, the neonatologist is responsible for delivering the right amount and quality of nutrients to the neonate, while exact requirements are largely unknown. However, nutrition matters, both in quantity as well in quality, especially during the first few weeks and months of life...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Karen Simmer
The provision of donor human milk instead of formula is an important contribution to the nutrition and protection from infections for preterm infants. Systematic reviews suggest a lower risk of necrotizing enterocolitis with pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) as opposed to artificial formula, although evidence supporting PDHM use from randomized control trials is limited. Human milk banks (HMBs) must have a risk management system to maintain a safe product especially as many operate in an unregulated environment...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Hania Szajewska
The concept of manipulating the gut microbiota through the administration of probiotics during early life in order to reduce the risk of and prevent or treat diseases, including those that manifest in later life, is appealing. However, a cautious approach is needed, and the long-term consequences of such administration should be carefully evaluated. Concerns related to the early administration of probiotics include timing, i.e. the administration often begins in early infancy, sometimes at birth, when gut microbiota is not fully established, and duration, i...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Alan Kinlaw, Denise M Deming, Kathleen C Reidy
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the infant feeding practices among infants and toddlers (aged 0-24 months) and to describe food group consumption patterns of these infants and young children (0-48 months) participating in the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national sample of US children (n = 3,273). Results indicate a longer duration of breastfeeding; however, 17% of infants received cow's milk before the recommended age of one year...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Stanley Zlotkin
The etiology of micronutrient deficiencies in infancy is well described. The deficiencies are caused by one of the following four scenarios: (a) low initial stores of micronutrients from micronutrient deficiency during gestation, premature birth or low birthweight; (b) rapid postnatal growth; (c) ingestion of foods with low concentration of micronutrients, and (d) gastrointestinal pathology resulting in the malabsorption of nutrients, including micronutrients. Understanding the cause of the deficiencies is essential in planning interventions to either prevent or treat them...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Wayne G Shreffler, Marcella Radano
The relationship between complementary feeding and the development of atopic disease is the source of significant interest and debate in both the scientific and lay communities. A small number of early studies, which had considerable influence on recommended feeding practices, reported protective effects associated with delaying the introduction of commonly allergenic foods such as cow's milk, egg, and nuts. Despite more conservative recommendations, however, food allergy prevalence has continued to rise. Our understanding of the development of food allergy, its relationship with IgE sensitization and atopic dermatitis, and the relationship of each of these outcomes with the timing of food introduction has evolved considerably...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Julie A Mennella, Alison K Ventura
Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Gideon Lack, Martin Penagos
Despite increasing efforts to prevent food allergies in children, IgE-mediated food allergies continue to rise in westernized countries. Previous preventive strategies such as prolonged exclusive breastfeeding and delayed weaning onto solid foods have more recently been called into question. The present review discusses possible risk factors and theories for the development of food allergy. An alternative hypothesis is proposed, suggesting that early cutaneous exposure to food protein through a disrupted skin barrier leads to allergic sensitization and that early oral exposure of food allergen induces tolerance...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Jacky Herzlich, Ita Litmanovitz, Rivka Regev, Sofia Bauer, Gisela Sirota, Zvi Steiner, Shmuel Arnon
AIM: To evaluate the short-term effects of blood transfusion on iron status [hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and reticulocyte count], hepcidin, and erythropoietin in stable preterm infants. METHOD: Sixty-three preterm infants treated with red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) were included. Venous blood samples were collected before and within 24 h after each transfusion. RESULTS: Hemoglobin concentration increased after RBCT (7...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Josef Neu, Mohan Pammi
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a disease most commonly seen in preterm infants, often presents without warning and is associated with very high mortality and morbidity. Progress in the prevention and treatment of NEC has been slow. In this article, we will discuss some of the reasons as to why this progress has been slow. We will describe some of the factors that appear to be highly associated and important components in the pathophysiology of NEC. We will discuss the intestinal microbial environment of the fetus as well as the preterm infant and how interaction of dysbiosis with an immature gastrointestinal tract combined with dietary factors play a role in the pathogenesis of NEC...
December 13, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
Nicolas Stettler
The main aspects of infant feeding that have been studied in humans in association with the subsequent development of adipose tissue include breastfeeding, rapid infancy weight gain, and weaning practices. While observational studies have consistently shown a protective effect of breastfeeding on the development of obesity, these studies may be confounded by unmeasured or unknown factors, as suggested by one study using a sibling design and one study using a randomized breastfeeding promotion intervention design...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Shivani Dogra, Anup Thakur, Pankaj Garg, Neelam Kler
OBJECTIVE: To determine if higher enteral protein intake leads to improved head growth at 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) in preterm infants less than 32 weeks or 1500 g. METHOD: Randomized controlled trial in which 120 infants were assigned to either group A with higher enteral protein intake achieved by fortification with higher protein containing fortifier [1 g/100 ml expressed breast milk (EBM)] or to group B with lower enteral protein intake where fortification was done with standard available protein fortifier (0...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Alessio Fasano, Carlo Catassi
Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Gluten is a protein component in wheat and other cereals, including rye and barley that are generally introduced in the infant's diet at weaning. At present, two schools of thought claim that changing early feeding regimens in at-risk infants can either prevent the onset of the disease or merely delay it. Recent advances have increased our understanding of the molecular basis of this disorder and provide the rationale to perform prospective dietary interventional studies to establish the proper timing of gluten exposure to minimize the risk of developing celiac disease...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Timothy L Denning, Amina M Bhatia, Andrea F Kane, Ravi M Patel, Patricia L Denning
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease in premature infants with high case fatality and significant morbidity among survivors. Immaturity of intestinal host defenses predisposes the premature infant gut to injury. An abnormal bacterial colonization pattern with a deficiency of commensal bacteria may lead to a further breakdown of these host defense mechanisms, predisposing the infant to NEC. Here, we review the role of the innate and adaptive immune system in the pathophysiology of NEC.
December 8, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
Brendan K Y Yap, Shireen Anne Nah, Yong Chen, Yee Low
PURPOSE: We compare the outcomes of fundoplication with gastrostomy vs gastrostomy alone and review the need for subsequent fundoplication after the initial gastrostomy alone. METHODS: We searched studies published from 1969 to 2016 for comparative outcomes of concomitant fundoplication with gastrostomy (FGT) vs gastrostomy insertion alone (GT) in children. Gastrostomy methods included open, laparoscopic, and endoscopic procedures. Primary aims were minor and major complications...
November 26, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
2016-12-16 16:38:21
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