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Neonatal Nutrition

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99 papers 25 to 100 followers
Salvador Piris Borregas, María López Maestro, María José Torres Valdivieso, José Carlos Martínez Ávila, Gerardo Bustos Lozano, Carmen Rosa Pallás Alonso
AIM: This study analysed the changes in growth velocity (GV) of preterm infants weighing less than 1,500g based on different nutritional practices over a 24-year period. METHODS: A retrospective study with prospectively collected data was performed in a level three Spanish neonatal intensive care unit. Data on birth weight, gestational age (GA) and GV were collected from 1990 to 2013 and breastfeeding data was gathered from 2000. A generalised linear model corrected by GA and small for gestational age was applied...
February 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
Weihui Yan, Li Hong, Ying Wang, Yi Feng, Lina Lu, Yijing Tao, Jiang Wu, Huijuan Ruan, Qingya Tang, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to explore the incidence of PNAC in premature infants without surgery and to identify associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Premature neonates who received parenteral nutrition (PN) at least 14 days were included in a retrospective, dual-center study. Cholestasis was diagnosed as conjugated bilirubin ≥2 mg/dL. Infants with metabolic liver disease, cyanotic congenital heart disease, congenital syphilis, hepadnaviridae infection, and those who underwent surgery were excluded...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Arwa Nada, Elizabeth M Bonachea, David J Askenazi
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an under-recognized morbidity of neonates; the incidence remains unclear due to the absence of a unified definition of AKI in this population and because previous studies have varied greatly in screening for AKI with serum creatinine and urine output assessments. Premature infants may be born with less than half of the nephrons compared with term neonates, predisposing them to chronic kidney disease (CKD) early on in life and as they age. AKI can also lead to CKD, and premature infants with AKI may be at very high risk for long-term kidney problems...
December 26, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Theresa J Ochoa, Stéphane V Sizonenko
Lactoferrin (Lf) is the major whey protein in milk, with multiple beneficial health effects including direct antimicrobial activities, anti-inflammatory effects, and iron homeostasis. Oral Lf supplementation in human preterm infants has been shown to reduce the incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. In preclinical models of antenatal stress and perinatal brain injury, bovine Lf protected the developing brain from neuronal loss, improved connectivity, increased neurotrophic factors, and decreased inflammation...
February 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
James K Friel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Rønnaug Solberg, Mariangela Longini, Fabrizio Proietti, Serafina Perrone, Cosetta Felici, Alessio Porta, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Giuseppe Buonocore
BACKGROUND: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is a major cause of acute mortality and chronic neurological morbidity in infants and children. Oxidative stress due to free radical formation and the initiation of abnormal oxidative reactions appears to play a key role. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), a main component of brain membrane phospholipids, may act as a neuroprotectant after hypoxia-ischemia by regulating multiple molecular pathways and gene expression. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that DHA provides significant protection against lipoperoxidation damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in a neonatal piglet model of severe hypoxia-reoxygenation...
February 1, 2017: Neonatology
Jocelyn Shulhan, Bryan Dicken, Lisa Hartling, Bodil Mk Larsen
Preterm infants are extremely vulnerable to a range of morbidities and mortality. Underdeveloped cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and immune systems in the preterm period increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious disease of the gut. NEC affects 5-12% of very-low birth-weight infants, leads to surgery in 20-40% of cases, and is fatal in 25-50% of cases. There are multiple factors that may contribute to NEC, but the exact cause is not yet fully understood. Severe cases can result in intestinal resection or death, and the health care costs average >$300,000/infant when surgical management is required...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
Madhuri Dama, Uday Rao, Ian Gollow, Max Bulsara, Shripada Rao
Introduction There are no evidence-based strategies to improve feed tolerance in gastroschisis. Early commencement of enteral feeds (CEF) is known to improve feed tolerance in preterm infants. It is possible that infants with gastroschisis may also benefit from early CEF. Objectives To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the relationship between time of CEF, and time to reach full enteral feeds (FEF), duration of parenteral nutrition (PN), and duration of hospital stay (HS). Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and relevant conference abstracts were searched in December 2015...
January 23, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Justin T Kastl
The use of serum creatinine levels to estimate glomerular function in infants is admittedly fraught with inherent inaccuracies which are both physiological and methodological in nature. This characteristic can understandably reduce the neonatal clinician's confidence in the ability of serum creatinine levels to provide useful information relevant to their patients' medical care. The aim of this review is to provide further insight into the peculiarities of serum creatinine trends in both premature and term infants with special focus on the maturational and developmental changes occurring in the kidney during this crucial time-period...
January 18, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Mustafa Sulemanji, Khashayar Vakili, David Zurakowski, Wayne Tworetzky, Steven J Fishman, Heung Bae Kim
OBJECTIVE: The etiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains elusive despite known associations with several factors, including intestinal ischemia related to the effects of umbilical arterial catheterization on the mesenteric circulation. However, the role of the mesenteric venous circulation has yet to be studied as a potential cause of NEC. We examined the association between umbilical venous catheter (UVC) position and the development of NEC in premature infants. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was performed to examine the effect of UVC on portosystemic shunting via the ductus venosus (DV) and its potential role in NEC...
January 17, 2017: Neonatology
Reese H Clark, Irene E Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Pediatrics
Carly J Scahill, Eric M Graham, Andrew M Atz, Scott M Bradley, Minoo N Kavarana, Sinai C Zyblewski
BACKGROUND: The potential for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates requiring cardiac surgery has contributed largely to wide feeding practice variations and a hesitation to initiate enteral feeding during the preoperative period, specifically those patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of neonates undergoing cardiac surgery at a single institution between July 2011 and July 2013 was performed. The primary objective of this study was to determine if preoperative feeding was associated with NEC in neonates requiring cardiac surgery...
January 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Kelly Green Corkins, Erin E Teague
Pediatric patients with chronic illnesses or diseases or who require long-term nutrition support are most vulnerable to nutrition-related issues. Malnutrition in a pediatric patient may negatively affect long-term growth and development. Children also become malnourished much more quickly than adults. A comprehensive nutrition assessment that includes food and nutrition-related history, anthropometric measurements, biochemical data, medical tests and procedures, nutrition-focused physical findings, and patient history should be completed on these patients as no one parameter is a comprehensive indicator of nutrition status...
December 2, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Christian Mølgaard, Anni Larnkjær, Karina Arnberg, Kim F Michaelsen
Consumption of cow's milk is recommended in many countries. Observational and intervention studies show that cow's milk most likely has a positive influence on growth in children. The strongest evidence comes from observational studies and intervention studies in low-income countries, but there are also observational studies from high-income countries showing positive associations between milk intake and growth. Milk seems thus to have a specific stimulating effect on linear growth, not only in developing countries with high rates of malnutrition, but also in industrialized countries...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Elizabeth M Novak, Bernd O Keller, Sheila M Innis
Understanding the importance of dietary fat has grown beyond energy metabolism to recognition of the complex roles of fatty acids, particularly the ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids in membrane lipids, inter- and intracellular communication and in regulating gene expression. The ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids accumulated in developing tissues depend on the fatty acids transported across the placenta and secreted in breast milk. These in turn are dependent on maternal fatty acid intakes, which have changed dramatically in the past century with current western diets high in ω-6 linoleic acid and low in ω-3 fatty acids...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
W E Corpeleijn, C H van den Akker, J A Roelants, J B van Goudoever
Amino acids and proteins play a pivotal role during growth and development. Besides acting as building blocks during tissue synthesis, amino acids or proteins act specifically by upregulating defense systems or by stimulating key sites in metabolic pathways. Following premature birth, the neonatologist is responsible for delivering the right amount and quality of nutrients to the neonate, while exact requirements are largely unknown. However, nutrition matters, both in quantity as well in quality, especially during the first few weeks and months of life...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Karen Simmer
The provision of donor human milk instead of formula is an important contribution to the nutrition and protection from infections for preterm infants. Systematic reviews suggest a lower risk of necrotizing enterocolitis with pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) as opposed to artificial formula, although evidence supporting PDHM use from randomized control trials is limited. Human milk banks (HMBs) must have a risk management system to maintain a safe product especially as many operate in an unregulated environment...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Hania Szajewska
The concept of manipulating the gut microbiota through the administration of probiotics during early life in order to reduce the risk of and prevent or treat diseases, including those that manifest in later life, is appealing. However, a cautious approach is needed, and the long-term consequences of such administration should be carefully evaluated. Concerns related to the early administration of probiotics include timing, i.e. the administration often begins in early infancy, sometimes at birth, when gut microbiota is not fully established, and duration, i...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Alan Kinlaw, Denise M Deming, Kathleen C Reidy
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the infant feeding practices among infants and toddlers (aged 0-24 months) and to describe food group consumption patterns of these infants and young children (0-48 months) participating in the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national sample of US children (n = 3,273). Results indicate a longer duration of breastfeeding; however, 17% of infants received cow's milk before the recommended age of one year...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
Stanley Zlotkin
The etiology of micronutrient deficiencies in infancy is well described. The deficiencies are caused by one of the following four scenarios: (a) low initial stores of micronutrients from micronutrient deficiency during gestation, premature birth or low birthweight; (b) rapid postnatal growth; (c) ingestion of foods with low concentration of micronutrients, and (d) gastrointestinal pathology resulting in the malabsorption of nutrients, including micronutrients. Understanding the cause of the deficiencies is essential in planning interventions to either prevent or treat them...
2011: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme
2016-12-19 13:36:07
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