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Neonatal Nutrition

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190 papers 25 to 100 followers
Ravi Mangal Patel, Mark A Underwood
In this review, we summarize existing knowledge regarding the effects of probiotics on necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We review the role of the microbiome in NEC and pre-clinical data on mechanisms of probiotic action. Next, we summarize existing randomized controlled trials and observational studies of probiotics to prevent NEC. We also summarize findings from several recent meta-analyses and report a new cumulative meta-analysis of probiotic trials. Finally, we review data from cohorts routinely using commercially available probiotics...
February 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Abhijeet Rakshasbhuvankar, Sanjay Patole, Karen Simmer, J Jane Pillow
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular vitamin A supplementation decreases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants without significant adverse effects. However, intramuscular vitamin A supplementation is not widely accepted because of the discomfort and risk of trauma associated with repeated injections. Enteral vitamin A supplementation has not been studied adequately in the clinical trials. Enterally administered water-soluble vitamin A is absorbed better than the fat-soluble form...
December 16, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
Robert K Huston, Andrea M Markell, Elizabeth A McCulley, Stuart K Gardiner, Sean L Sweeney
BACKGROUND: An exclusive human milk diet (EHM) fortified with human milk-based fortifier decreases necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) compared to maternal milk supplemented with preterm formula and bovine fortifier (PTF). Growth has been less with EHM and also maternal milk supplemented with donor human milk and bovine fortifier (HMBF). The objective was to evaluate the effect of a standardized feeding protocol on the growth of infants ≤1250 g birth weight supported with EHM and HMBF. The effect on the incidence of NEC was also evaluated...
February 16, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Rachel Rosen, Yvan Vandenplas, Maartje Singendonk, Michael Cabana, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Frederic Gottrand, Sandeep Gupta, Miranda Langendam, Annamaria Staiano, Nikhil Thapar, Neelesh Tipnis, Merit Tabbers
This document serves as an update of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) 2009 clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children and is intended to be applied in daily practice and as a basis for clinical trials. Eight clinical questions addressing diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic topics were formulated...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Ebtihal Ali, Cheryl Rockman-Greenberg, Michael Moffatt, Michael Narvey, Martin Reed, Depeng Jiang
BACKGROUND: Caffeine, the most commonly used medication in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, has calciuric and osteoclastogenic effects. METHODS: To examine the association between the cumulative dose and duration of therapy of caffeine and osteopenia of prematurity, a retrospective cohort study was conducted including premature infants less than 31 weeks and birth weight less than 1500 g. Osteopenia of prematurity was evaluated using chest X-rays on a biweekly basis over 12 weeks of hospitalization...
January 22, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
David E Segar, Elizabeth K Segar, Lyndsay A Harshman, John M Dagle, Susan J Carlson, Jeffrey L Segar
OBJECTIVE:  To implement and evaluate a clinical practice algorithm to identify preterm infants with sodium deficiency and guide sodium supplementation based on urine sodium concentrations. STUDY DESIGN:  Urine sodium concentration was measured in infants born at 260/7 to 296/7 weeks' gestation at 2-week intervals. Sodium supplementation was based on the urine sodium algorithm. Growth and respiratory outcomes in this cohort were compared with a matched cohort cared for in our neonatal intensive care unit prior to algorithm implementation (2014-2015 cohort)...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
William Oh, Lynn Przystac, Leslie McKinley, Richard Tucker, Elisabeth C McGowan, Betty R Vohr
AIM: To determine if high intake of Intralipid, (IL) in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) neonates is associated with higher rates of neuroimpairment and Bayley III scores at 2 years corrected age. METHODS: Quartiles of IL received by 389 ELBW infants were linked to neurodevelopmental outcomes. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for confounders, were done to determine the association between IL dose and neuroimpairment. Linear regression analyses were done to predict Bayley III scores...
December 23, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
Erika K S M Leenders, Marita de Waard, Johannes B van Goudoever
OBJECTIVES: Providing parenteral amino acids to very-low-birth-weight infants during the first weeks of life is critical for adequate growth and neurodevelopment. However, there is no consensus about what dose is appropriate or when to initiate supplementation. As a result, daily practice varies among neonatal intensive care units. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of early parenteral amino-acid supplementation (within 24 h of birth) versus later initiation and high dose (>3...
December 22, 2017: Neonatology
Stephanie L Smith, Christopher A Rouse
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) that has a role in the cognitive and visual development, as well as in the immune function of newborns. Premature infants are typically deficient in DHA for several reasons, to include fetal accretion of DHA that typically occurs during the third trimester. These premature infants are reliant on enteral sources of DHA, most commonly through breast milk. The DHA content in breast milk varies in direct correlation with maternal DHA intake and mothers consuming a Western diet typically have lower levels of DHA in their breast milk...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Shiran Pinchevski-Kadir, Shir Shust-Barequet, Michal Zajicek, Mira Leibovich, Tzipi Strauss, Leah Leibovitch, Iris Morag
BACKGROUND: In spite of high rates of initiating breast milk feeding (BMF) among preterm infants, a significant rate of discontinuation occurs shortly after discharge. AIM: To investigate the effect of mode (direct feeding at the breast vs. expressing) and exclusivity (breast milk combined with formula vs. breast milk only) as well as maternal perceptions on the duration of BMF among preterm infants. METHODS: The study included mothers whose infants were born before 32 weeks gestation, between January 2012 and August 2015 at Sheba Medical Center (SMC)...
November 1, 2017: Nutrients
Jacqueline M McGrath, Debra Brandon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
K Strydom, E Van Niekerk, M A Dhansay
Limited research has been conducted that elucidates the growth and body composition of preterm infants. It is known that these infants do not necessarily achieve extra-utero growth rates and body composition similar to those of their term counterparts. Preterm infants, who have difficulty in achieving these growth rates, could suffer from growth failure. These infants display an increased intra-abdominal adiposity and abnormal body composition when they achieve catch-up growth. These factors affect the quality of weight gain, as these infants are not only shorter and lighter than term infants, they also have more fat mass (FM) and less fat-free mass (FFM), resulting in a higher total fat percentage...
October 28, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Claus Klingenberg, Fredrik Kragh Muraas, Catherine Elde Isaksen, Tina Nilsen, Marte Torgersen, Cecilie Melum-Hansen
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate a feeding regimen routinely providing >180 ml/kg/d fortified human milk to very preterm infants and impact on in-hospital growth, osteopenia, and neurodevelopment. METHOD: Retrospective population-based descriptive study of infants <30-week gestation admitted within 24 h of birth and discharged during the 6-year period 2005-2010. Growth and neurodevelopment was assessed until 2 years corrected age, and cerebral palsy up to 4 years corrected age Results: Ninety-nine infants below 30-week gestation were admitted within 24 h of birth during the 6-year period, of which 84 (85%) survived to discharge...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Birgit Ahrens, Christian Hellmuth, Nadja Haiden, Dirk Olbertz, Eckard Hamelmann, Milica Vusurovic, Manja Fleddermann, Robert Roehle, Anette Knoll, Berthold Koletzko, Ulrich Wahn, Kirsten Beyer
OBJECTIVE: A high protein content of non-hydrolyzed infant formula exceeding metabolic requirements can induce rapid weight gain and obesity. Hydrolyzed formula with too low protein (LP) content may result in inadequate growth. The aim of this study was to investigate non-inferiority of partial and extensively hydrolyzed formulas (pHF, eHF) with lower hydrolyzed protein content than conventionally, regularly used formulas, with or without synbiotics for normal growth of healthy term infants...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Melissa Chambers, Stephanie K Tanamas, Elena J Clark, Diana L Dunnigan, Chirag R Kapadia, Robert L Hanson, Robert G Nelson, William C Knowler, Madhumita Sinha
OBJECTIVES: To illustrate the difficulties in optimal growth monitoring of children with severe obesity or underweight by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 age- and sex-specific BMI percentile growth charts. We also aimed to examine the utility of a new modified CDC BMI z score chart to monitor growth in children with normal and extreme BMI percentiles by using real-life clinical scenarios. METHODS: Modified BMI z score charts were created by using the 2000 CDC algorithm...
December 2017: Pediatrics
Erika Morganna Neves de Araujo, Marcia Teles de Oliveira Gouveia, Dixis Figueroa Pedraza
BACKGROUND: Proper use of a child health handbook is an important indicator of the quality of care provided to children at healthcare services. This study aimed to evaluate the use of child health surveillance tool (by health professionals?), especially focusing on growth. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out in the context of the Family Health Strategy in two municipalities in Paraíba, Brazil. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-one children under five years of age from areas covered by health workers were included in the study...
November 6, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Andrea Willeitner, Michael Anderson, Jami Lewis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess clinical feasibility and tolerance of concentrated preterm formula at 30 kcal/oz (CPF30) to fortify human milk to a caloric density of 24 kcal/oz, compared to conventional powdered human milk fortifier (PHMF). STUDY DESIGN: Very low birth weight neonates were stratified by birth weight and randomized to receive human milk fortification using CPF30 or PHMF. Infants were monitored from first introduction of human milk fortification, until fortified feeds were well tolerated...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Philip M Sherman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Enrique Gomez-Pomar, Emily Hatfield, Karen Garlitz, Philip M Westgate, Henrietta S Bada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
Derek Hang Cheong Ng, Joel Klassen, Nicholas D Embleton, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: When human milk is not available for feeding preterm infants, protein hydrolysate rather than standard cow's milk formulas (with intact proteins) are often used because they are perceived as being tolerated better and less likely to lead to complications. However, protein hydrolysate formulas are more expensive than standard formulas, and concern exists that their use in practice is not supported by high-quality evidence. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of feeding preterm infants with hydrolysed formula (versus standard cow's milk formulas) on the risk of feed intolerance, necrotising enterocolitis, and other morbidity and mortality in preterm infants...
October 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
2017-10-12 00:45:13
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