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Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Bernd Schnabl
Changes in bacterial communities are associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases including inflammatory bowel disease and liver disease. Dysbiosis can induce intestinal inflammation resulting in increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation. The majority of chronic liver diseases are associated with bacterial translocation resulting in or enhancing an inflammatory response in the liver. Intestinal inflammation and a dysfunctional intestinal barrier are not sufficient to cause liver disease in the absence of an additional liver insult...
April 2016: Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases
Kiyoshi Takeda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Stacey Fuller, Eleanor Beck, Hayfa Salman, Linda Tapsell
Dietary fibre has been consumed for centuries with known health benefits, but defining dietary fibre is a real challenge. From a functional perspective, dietary fibre is described as supporting laxation, attenuating blood glucose responses and assisting with cholesterol lowering. The problem is different types of dietary fibre have different effects, and new effects are increasingly observed, such as the influence on gut microbiota. Thus, a single definition may need to be described in more generic terms. Rather than being bound by a few functional definitions, we may need to embrace the possibilities of new horizons, and derive a working definition of dietary fibre based on a set of conceptual principles, rather than the limited definitions we have to date...
March 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Victor H Matsubara, H M H N Bandara, Marcia P A Mayer, Lakshman P Samaranayake
Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro...
May 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mikiko Shimizu, Masayuki Hashiguchi, Tsuyoshi Shiga, Hiro-omi Tamura, Mayumi Mochizuki
INTRODUCTION: Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. METHODS: Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases...
2015: PloS One
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