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General immunology

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Monya Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2016: Nature
Graham S Taylor, Heather M Long, Jill M Brooks, Alan B Rickinson, Andrew D Hislop
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is usually acquired silently early in life and carried thereafter as an asymptomatic infection of the B lymphoid system. However, many circumstances disturb the delicate EBV-host balance and cause the virus to display its pathogenic potential. Thus, primary infection in adolescence can manifest as infectious mononucleosis (IM), as a fatal illness that magnifies the immunopathology of IM in boys with the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease trait, and as a chronic active disease leading to life-threatening hemophagocytosis in rare cases of T or natural killer (NK) cell infection...
2015: Annual Review of Immunology
Chen Varol, Alexander Mildner, Steffen Jung
Macrophages are myeloid immune cells that are strategically positioned throughout the body tissues, where they ingest and degrade dead cells, debris, and foreign material and orchestrate inflammatory processes. Here we review two major recent paradigm shifts in our understanding of tissue macrophage biology. The first is the realization that most tissue-resident macrophages are established prenatally and maintained through adulthood by longevity and self-renewal. Their generation and maintenance are thus independent from ongoing hematopoiesis, although the cells can be complemented by adult monocyte-derived macrophages...
2015: Annual Review of Immunology
Cameron R Cunningham, Ameya Champhekar, Michael V Tullius, Barbara Jane Dillon, Anjie Zhen, Justin Rafael de la Fuente, Jonathan Herskovitz, Heidi Elsaesser, Laura M Snell, Elizabeth B Wilson, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Scott G Kitchen, Marcus A Horwitz, Steven J Bensinger, Stephen T Smale, David G Brooks
Persistent viral infections are simultaneously associated with chronic inflammation and highly potent immunosuppressive programs mediated by IL-10 and PDL1 that attenuate antiviral T cell responses. Inhibiting these suppressive signals enhances T cell function to control persistent infection; yet, the underlying signals and mechanisms that program immunosuppressive cell fates and functions are not well understood. Herein, we use lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection (LCMV) to demonstrate that the induction and functional programming of immunosuppressive dendritic cells (DCs) during viral persistence are separable mechanisms programmed by factors primarily considered pro-inflammatory...
January 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Donna L Farber, Mihai G Netea, Andreas Radbruch, Klaus Rajewsky, Rolf M Zinkernagel
Immunological memory is considered to be one of the cardinal features of the adaptive immune system. Despite being a recognized phenomenon since the time of the ancient Greeks, immunologists are yet to fully appreciate the mechanisms that control memory responses in the immune system. Furthermore, our definition of immunological memory itself continues to evolve, with recent suggestions that innate immune cells also show memory-like behaviour. In this Viewpoint article, Nature Reviews Immunology invites five leading immunologists to share their thoughts on our current understanding of the nature of immunological memory...
February 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Adelheid Cerwenka, Lewis L Lanier
Immunological memory can be defined as a quantitatively and qualitatively enhanced immune response upon rechallenge. For natural killer (NK) cells, two main types of memory exist. First, similarly to T cells and B cells, NK cells can exert immunological memory after encounters with stimuli such as haptens or viruses, resulting in the generation of antigen-specific memory NK cells. Second, NK cells can remember inflammatory cytokine milieus that imprint long-lasting non-antigen-specific NK cell effector function...
February 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
A Katharina Simon, Georg A Hollander, Andrew McMichael
This article reviews the development of the immune response through neonatal, infant and adult life, including pregnancy, ending with the decline in old age. A picture emerges of a child born with an immature, innate and adaptive immune system, which matures and acquires memory as he or she grows. It then goes into decline in old age. These changes are considered alongside the risks of different types of infection, autoimmune disease and malignancy.
December 22, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Luis Martínez-Lostao, Alberto Anel, Julián Pardo
In the past few years, cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a safe and effective alternative for treatment of cancers that do not respond to classical treatments, including those types with high aggressiveness. New immune modulators, such as cytokines, blockers of CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4) and PD-1(programmed cell death protein 1)/PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1), and interaction or adoptive cell therapy, have been developed and approved to treat solid and hematologic carcinomas. In these scenarios, cytotoxic lymphocytes (CL), mainly cytotoxic T cells (Tc) and natural killer (NK) cells, are ultimately responsible for killing the cancer cells and eradicating the tumor...
November 15, 2015: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Ryotaro Yoshida
The most important transplantation antigens in the discrimination between "self" and "nonself" are encoded by genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus (H-2 in mice). It has been assumed that T lymphocytes are the effector cells for allograft rejection, as athymic nude rodents fail to reject allografts. In 1988, we i.p. transplanted Meth A (H-2D(d)K(d)) tumor cells into C57BL/6 (H-2D(b)K(b)) mice and found macrophages to be cytotoxic against the allografts. In 1996, several groups using CD4 or CD8 knockout mice reported that non-T cells were the effector cells for the rejection of skin or organ allografts...
2014: Advances in Immunology
William E Paul
Each of us fortunate enough to have had a career in experimental science has a tale to tell, often one with surprising twists and turns, full of lessons that can help guide those embarking on a similar journey. At the very least, a well-written recounting of a career can be entertaining. I offer my memory's version of my career in immunology and hope the readers will find it of value or at least of interest.
2014: Annual Review of Immunology
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