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Metabolic surgery

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46 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Rabih Nemr Faculty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288484/pharmacologic-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes-synopsis-of-the-2017-american-diabetes-association-standards-of-medical-care-in-diabetes
#1
James J Chamberlain, William H Herman, Sandra Leal, Andrew S Rhinehart, Jay H Shubrook, Neil Skolnik, Rita Rastogi Kalyani
Description: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) annually updates the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested parties with evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes. Methods: For the 2017 Standards, the ADA Professional Practice Committee updated previous MEDLINE searches performed from 1 January 2016 to November 2016 to add, clarify, or revise recommendations based on new evidence...
April 18, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205519/mitochondrial-atp-transporter-depletion-protects-mice-against-liver-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#2
Joonseok Cho, Yujian Zhang, Shi-Young Park, Anna-Maria Joseph, Chul Han, Hyo-Jin Park, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Sung-Kook Chun, Drake Morgan, Jae-Sung Kim, Shinichi Someya, Clayton E Mathews, Young Jae Lee, Stephanie E Wohlgemuth, Nishanth E Sunny, Hui-Young Lee, Cheol Soo Choi, Takayuki Shiratsuchi, S Paul Oh, Naohiro Terada
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder in obese individuals. Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) exchanges ADP/ATP through the mitochondrial inner membrane, and Ant2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the liver. Here we demonstrate that targeted disruption of Ant2 in mouse liver enhances uncoupled respiration without damaging mitochondrial integrity and liver functions. Interestingly, liver specific Ant2 knockout mice are leaner and resistant to hepatic steatosis, obesity and insulin resistance under a lipogenic diet...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167928/clinical-review-of-antidiabetic-drugs-implications-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-management
#3
REVIEW
Arun Chaudhury, Chitharanjan Duvoor, Vijaya Sena Reddy Dendi, Shashank Kraleti, Aditya Chada, Rahul Ravilla, Asween Marco, Nawal Singh Shekhawat, Maria Theresa Montales, Kevin Kuriakose, Appalanaidu Sasapu, Alexandria Beebe, Naveen Patil, Chaitanya K Musham, Govinda Prasad Lohani, Wasique Mirza
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global pandemic, as evident from the global cartographic picture of diabetes by the International Diabetes Federation (http://www.diabetesatlas.org/). Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, progressive, incompletely understood metabolic condition chiefly characterized by hyperglycemia. Impaired insulin secretion, resistance to tissue actions of insulin, or a combination of both are thought to be the commonest reasons contributing to the pathophysiology of T2DM, a spectrum of disease originally arising from tissue insulin resistance and gradually progressing to a state characterized by complete loss of secretory activity of the beta cells of the pancreas...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738878/effect-of-resected-gastric-volume-on-ghrelin-and-glp-1-plasma-levels-a-prospective-study
#4
Federico Sista, Valentina Abruzzese, Marco Clementi, Sergio Carandina, Gianfranco Amicucci
BACKGROUND: The correlation between resected gastric volume (RGV) and neuro-humoral changes (ghrelin and GLP-1) after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and their effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been evaluated. MATERIALS: Ninety-eight patients were divided in two groups: RGV <1200 mL (group A: 53 pts) and RGV >1200 mL (group B: 45 pts). Insulin secretion (insulin area under the curve (AUC)), insulinogenic index (IGI) and insulin-resistance (homeostasis model assessment, HOMAIR) were assessed before and after surgery (at the 3rd day and 6, 12 and 24 months after LSG) using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223503/mitochondrial-energy-deficiency-leads-to-hyperproliferation-of-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-and-enhanced-insulin-sensitivity
#5
Ryan M Morrow, Martin Picard, Olga Derbeneva, Jeremy Leipzig, Meagan J McManus, Gilles Gouspillou, Sébastien Barbat-Artigas, Carlos Dos Santos, Russell T Hepple, Deborah G Murdock, Douglas C Wallace
Diabetes is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in the presence of excess insulin. Glucose and fatty acids provide reducing equivalents to mitochondria to generate energy, and studies have reported mitochondrial dysfunction in type II diabetes patients. If mitochondrial dysfunction can cause diabetes, then we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial metabolism should render animals resistant to diabetes. This was confirmed in mice in which the heart-muscle-brain adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 1 (ANT1) was inactivated...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087445/asprosin-a-fasting-induced-glucogenic-protein-hormone
#6
Chase Romere, Clemens Duerrschmid, Juan Bournat, Petra Constable, Mahim Jain, Fan Xia, Pradip K Saha, Maria Del Solar, Bokai Zhu, Brian York, Poonam Sarkar, David A Rendon, M Waleed Gaber, Scott A LeMaire, Joseph S Coselli, Dianna M Milewicz, V Reid Sutton, Nancy F Butte, David D Moore, Atul R Chopra
Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is the C-terminal cleavage product of profibrillin, and we name it Asprosin. Asprosin is secreted by white adipose, circulates at nanomolar levels, and is recruited to the liver, where it activates the G protein-cAMP-PKA pathway, resulting in rapid glucose release into the circulation...
April 21, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25450212/circulating-phospholipid-profiling-identifies-portal-contribution-to-nash-signature-in-obesity
#7
Kavya Anjani, Marie Lhomme, Nataliya Sokolovska, Christine Poitou, Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Jean-Luc Bouillot, Philippe Lesnik, Pierre Bedossa, Anatol Kontush, Karine Clement, Isabelle Dugail, Joan Tordjman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by steatosis, lobular inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning with fibrosis in severe cases, and high prevalence in obesity. We aimed at defining NASH signature in morbid obesity by mass spectrometry-based lipidomic analysis. METHODS: We analyzed systemic blood before and 12 months after bariatric surgery, along with portal blood and adipose tissue lipid efflux collected from obese women at the time of surgery (9 structural classes, 150 species)...
April 2015: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906700/update-on-lipid-species-and-paediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
Jake P Mann, Ariel E Feldstein, Valerio Nobili
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the recent advances in our understanding of fatty acids and lipids in paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their future implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Data have been accumulated to suggest that ceramides are the main drivers of hepatic insulin resistance in NAFLD, and inhibition of ceramide synthesis improves histology in mice.Saturated fatty acids formed by de novo lipogenesis generate increased lipotoxicity compared with dietary-derived saturated fatty acids...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912678/the-physiology-and-molecular-underpinnings-of-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-diabetes
#9
Simon S Evers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley
Bariatric surgeries, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy, produce significant and durable weight loss in both humans and rodents. Recently, these surgical interventions have also been termed metabolic surgery because they result in profound metabolic improvements that often surpass the expected improvement due to body weight loss alone. In this review we focus on the weight-loss independent effects of bariatric surgery, which encompass energy expenditure and macronutrient preference, the luminal composition of the gut (i...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901287/randomized-trial-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-versus-sleeve-gastrectomy-in-achieving-excess-weight-loss
#10
M Ignat, M Vix, I Imad, A D'Urso, S Perretta, J Marescaux, D Mutter
BACKGROUND: Robust data on quality of life (QoL) after different techniques of bariatric surgery are sparse. This RCT compared excess weight loss (EWL) and QoL after sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Obese patients were assigned randomly to RYGB or sleeve gastrectomy. The primary outcome measure was EWL. Secondary outcomes included QoL, co-morbidity, adverse events, vitamin and glycolipid status. QoL was assessed before and annually after surgery, using the Moorehead-Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II (M-A-QoLQII) and Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI)...
February 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899816/bariatric-surgery-for-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders-state-of-the-art
#11
REVIEW
Ninh T Nguyen, J Esteban Varela
Obesity is one of the most important public health conditions worldwide. Bariatric surgery for severe obesity is an effective treatment that results in the improvement and remission of many obesity-related comorbidities, as well as providing sustained weight loss and improvement in quality of life. Contemporary bariatric operations include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band and the duodenal switch. The vast majority of these procedures are now performed using laparoscopic technique, the main advantages of which include rapid recovery, the reduction of postoperative pain and the reduction of wound-related complications, compared with open surgery...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883935/liquid-fructose-in-western-diet-fed-mice-impairs-liver-insulin-signaling-and-causes-cholesterol-and-triglyceride-loading-without-changing-calorie-intake-and-body-weight
#12
Miguel Baena, Gemma Sangüesa, Natalia Hutter, José María Beltrán, Rosa María Sánchez, Núria Roglans, Marta Alegret, Juan Carlos Laguna
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Liquid fructose associates with prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Intervention studies suggest that metabolically unfit individuals are more responsive than healthy individuals to liquid fructose. We determined whether mice consuming an obesogenic Western diet were more responsive than chow-fed mice to the alterations induced by liquid fructose supplementation (LFS). METHODS: C57BL/6N mice were fed chow or Western diet±ad libitum 15% fructose solution for 12 weeks...
February 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806979/developmental-differences-in-the-brain-response-to-unhealthy-food-cues-an-fmri-study-of-children-and-adults
#13
Floor van Meer, Laura N van der Laan, Lisette Charbonnier, Max A Viergever, Roger Ah Adan, Paul Am Smeets
BACKGROUND: Food cues are omnipresent and may trigger overconsumption. In the past 2 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically. Because children's brains are still developing, especially in areas important for inhibition, children may be more susceptible than adults to tempting food cues. OBJECTIVE: We examined potential developmental differences in children's and adults' responses to food cues to determine how these responses relate to weight status...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849358/immune-modulation-of-brown-ing-adipose-tissue-in-obesity
#14
Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Patrick C N Rensen, Menno P J de Winther, Esther Lutgens
Obesity is associated with a variety of medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and is therefore responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. Increasing energy expenditure by brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a current novel strategy to reduce the excessive energy stores in obesity. Brown adipocytes burn energy to generate heat and are mainly activated upon cold exposure. As prolonged cold exposure is not a realistic therapy, researchers worldwide are searching for novel ways to activate BAT and/or induce beiging of white adipose tissue...
February 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880977/bariatric-surgery-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-a-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#15
Matthew J Klebanoff, Kathleen E Corey, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Lee M Kaplan, Raymond T Chung, Chin Hur
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) affects 2%-3% of the US population and is expected to become the leading indication for liver transplantation in the next decade. Bariatric surgery may be an effective but expensive treatment for NASH. Using a state-transition model, our analysis assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surgery to manage NASH. We simulated the benefits and harms of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in patients defined by weight class (overweight, mild obesity, moderate obesity, and severe obesity) and fibrosis stage (F0-F3)...
April 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872651/a-review-of-western-and-traditional-chinese-medical-approaches-to-managing-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
REVIEW
Wei-Fan Hsu, Lee-Yan Sheen, Hung-Jen Lin, Hen-Hong Chang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease of attention because of increase in prevalence from 20% to 41%. The clinical and pathological conditions in patients with NAFLD range from steatosis alone to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis to hepatic cancer. In the United States, NAFLD was the second-leading indication for liver transplant between 2004 and 2013. Although imaging studies such as magnetic resonance elastography and the use of diagnostic panels and scoring systems can provide a fairly accurate diagnosis of NAFLD, there are few treatment options for patients with mild to moderate disease other than lifestyle modification...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862096/improvement-in-liver-histology-due-to-lifestyle-modification-is-independently-associated-with-improved-kidney-function-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
E Vilar-Gomez, L Calzadilla-Bertot, S L Friedman, B Gra-Oramas, L Gonzalez-Fabian, O Villa-Jimenez, S Lazo-Del Vallin, M Diago, L A Adams, M Romero-Gomez, N Chalasani
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have shown a strong association between non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and chronic kidney disease. AIM: To examine the relationship between changes in liver histology and renal function in patients with NASH. METHODS: The present analysis represents a post hoc analysis of a recently published trial that included 261 patients with NASH who were treated with lifestyle modifications during 52 weeks. Kidney function was evaluated through Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR, mL/min/1...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225102/medical-research-time-to-think-differently-about-diabetes
#18
Francesco Rubino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973181/-adipogenic-function-and-other-biologic-effects-of-insulin
#19
REVIEW
Y A Pankov
Studies on experimental animals with knockout of the insulin receptor gene Insr (in the whole body or in certain tissues) and/or related genes encoding proteins involved in realization of insulin signal transduction in target cells, have made an important contribution to the elucidation of insulin regulation of metabolism, particularly fat metabolism. Since the whole insulin secreted by b-cells, together with the products of gastrointestinal tract digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates reach the liver, the latter is the first organ on which this hormone acts...
January 2016: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26712027/gs%C3%AE-deficiency-in-adipose-tissue-improves-glucose-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity-without-an-effect-on-body-weight
#20
Yong-Qi Li, Yogendra B Shrestha, Min Chen, Tatyana Chanturiya, Oksana Gavrilova, Lee S Weinstein
Gsα, the G protein that transduces receptor-stimulated cAMP generation, mediates sympathetic nervous system stimulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), which are both potential targets for treating obesity, as well as lipolysis. We generated a mouse line with Gsα deficiency in mature BAT and WAT adipocytes (Ad-GsKO). Ad-GsKO mice had impaired BAT function, absent browning of WAT, and reduced lipolysis, and were therefore cold-intolerant. Despite the presence of these abnormalities, Ad-GsKO mice maintained normal energy balance on both standard and high-fat diets, associated with decreases in both lipolysis and lipid synthesis...
January 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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