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Internal Medicine Collection

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272 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Juan David Plata Internist - Infectious Disease Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789983/principles-of-fluid-management-and-stewardship-in-septic-shock-it-is-time-to-consider-the-four-d-s-and-the-four-phases-of-fluid-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Manu L N G Malbrain, Niels Van Regenmortel, Bernd Saugel, Brecht De Tavernier, Pieter-Jan Van Gaal, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Jean-Louis Teboul, Todd W Rice, Monty Mythen, Xavier Monnet
In patients with septic shock, the administration of fluids during initial hemodynamic resuscitation remains a major therapeutic challenge. We are faced with many open questions regarding the type, dose and timing of intravenous fluid administration. There are only four major indications for intravenous fluid administration: aside from resuscitation, intravenous fluids have many other uses including maintenance and replacement of total body water and electrolytes, as carriers for medications and for parenteral nutrition...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795386/myelodysplastic-syndromes-current-treatment-algorithm-2018
#2
David P Steensma
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) include a group of clonal myeloid neoplasms characterized by cytopenias due to ineffective hematopoiesis, abnormal blood and marrow cell morphology, and a risk of clonal evolution and progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Because outcomes for patients with MDS are heterogeneous, individual risk stratification using tools such as the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) is important in managing patients-including selecting candidates for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT), the only potentially curative therapy for MDS...
May 24, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675566/the-surviving-sepsis-campaign-bundle-2018-update
#3
EDITORIAL
Mitchell M Levy, Laura E Evans, Andrew Rhodes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791828/diagnosis-and-management-of-the-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
David Garcia, Doruk Erkan
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 378, Issue 21, Page 2010-2021, May 2018.
May 24, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739378/higher-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-are-associated-with-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-patients-in-a-low-income-tropical-setting-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Cuthbert Musarurwa, Lynn Sodai Zijenah, Doreen Zvipo Mhandire, Tsitsi Bandason, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Maria Mary Chipiti, Marshall Wesley Munjoma, Witmore Bayayi Mujaji
BACKGROUND: The inherent risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) in HIV- infected individuals is further enhanced by hypovitaminosis D. Interventions that offset HIV-associated immune deterioration potentially arrest disease progression and incidence of opportunistic infections including TB. Despite conflicting reports on association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and risk of TB, vitamin D (VD) supplementation remains a promising intervention. METHODS: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study on 145 HIV+ /pulmonary TB+ (PTB) and 139 HIV+ /PTB- hospitalised patients to investigate association of vitamin D status and risk of PTB...
May 8, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#6
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847636/point-of-care-c-reactive-protein-based-tuberculosis-screening-for-people-living-with-hiv-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#7
Christina Yoon, Fred C Semitala, Elly Atuhumuza, Jane Katende, Sandra Mwebe, Lucy Asege, Derek T Armstrong, Alfred O Andama, David W Dowdy, J Luke Davis, Laurence Huang, Moses Kamya, Adithya Cattamanchi
BACKGROUND: Symptom-based screening for tuberculosis is recommended for all people living with HIV. This recommendation results in unnecessary Xpert MTB/RIF testing in many individuals living in tuberculosis-endemic areas and thus poor implementation of intensified case finding and tuberculosis preventive therapy. Novel approaches to tuberculosis screening are needed to help achieve global targets for tuberculosis elimination. We assessed the performance of C-reactive protein (CRP) measured with a point-of-care assay as a screening tool for active pulmonary tuberculosis...
December 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691482/why-does-the-microbiome-affect-behaviour
#8
REVIEW
Katerina V-A Johnson, Kevin R Foster
Growing evidence indicates that the mammalian microbiome can affect behaviour, and several symbionts even produce neurotransmitters. One common explanation for these observations is that symbionts have evolved to manipulate host behaviour for their benefit. Here, we evaluate the manipulation hypothesis by applying evolutionary theory to recent work on the gut-brain axis. Although the theory predicts manipulation by symbionts under certain conditions, these appear rarely satisfied by the genetically diverse communities of the mammalian microbiome...
April 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679383/shortened-courses-of-antibiotics-for-bacterial-infections-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
REVIEW
Alexandra M Hanretty, Jason C Gallagher
Commonly prescribed durations of therapy for many, if not most, bacterial infections are not evidence-based. Misunderstandings by clinicians and patients alike influence perspectives on antibiotic use, including duration of therapy and its role in antibiotic resistance. To demonstrate that shorter durations of antibiotic therapy are as efficacious as longer durations for many infections, a systematic review was undertaken of English-language articles by using PubMed to identify articles for inclusion. Additionally, infection-specific guidelines were identified for review of recommendations...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020435/blood-pressure-targets-for-the-treatment-of-people-with-hypertension-and-cardiovascular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Luis Carlos Saiz, Javier Gorricho, Javier Garjón, Mª Concepción Celaya, Lourdes Muruzábal, Mª Del Mar Malón, Rodolfo Montoya, Antonio López
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a prominent preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. People with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease are at particularly high risk, so reducing blood pressure below standard targets may be beneficial. This strategy could reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity but could also increase adverse events. The optimal blood pressure target in people with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if 'lower' blood pressure targets (≤ 135/85 mmHg) are associated with reduction in mortality and morbidity as compared with 'standard' blood pressure targets (≤ 140 to 160/ 90 to 100 mmHg) in the treatment of people with hypertension and a history of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, peripheral vascular occlusive disease)...
October 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590045/the-spread-of-true-and-false-news-online
#11
Soroush Vosoughi, Deb Roy, Sinan Aral
We investigated the differential diffusion of all of the verified true and false news stories distributed on Twitter from 2006 to 2017. The data comprise ~126,000 stories tweeted by ~3 million people more than 4.5 million times. We classified news as true or false using information from six independent fact-checking organizations that exhibited 95 to 98% agreement on the classifications. Falsehood diffused significantly farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth in all categories of information, and the effects were more pronounced for false political news than for false news about terrorism, natural disasters, science, urban legends, or financial information...
March 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608680/extended-versus-bolus-infusion-of-broad-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactams-for-febrile-neutropenia-an-unblinded-randomized-trial
#12
Ron Ram, Yael Halavy, Odelia Amit, Yael Paran, Eugene Katchman, Bruria Yachini, Svetlana Kor, Irit Avivi, Ronen Ben-Ami
Background: Febrile neutropenia may be a sign of severe infection, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients with hematologic malignancies. Extended infusion of β-lactam antibiotics is associated with greater clinical response than is bolus infusion in non-neutropenic critically ill patients, but data are lacking for febrile neutropenic patients. Methods: We designed a single-center, non-blinded randomized trial comparing extended infusion (4 hours) and bolus infusion (30 minutes) of piperacillin-tazobactam or ceftazidime in high-risk patients with febrile neutropenia...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617787/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neurocysticercosis-2017-clinical-practice-guidelines-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-and-the-american-society-of-tropical-medicine-and-hygiene-astmh
#13
A Clinton White, Christina M Coyle, Vedantam Rajshekhar, Gagandeep Singh, W Allen Hauser, Aaron Mohanty, Hector H Garcia, Theodore E Nash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562331/the-2018-european-heart-rhythm-association-practical-guide-on-the-use-of-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-executive-summary
#14
Jan Steffel, Peter Verhamme, Tatjana S Potpara, Pierre Albaladejo, Matthias Antz, Lien Desteghe, Karl Georg Haeusler, Jonas Oldgren, Holger Reinecke, Vanessa Roldan-Schilling, Nigel Rowell, Peter Sinnaeve, Ronan Collins, A John Camm, Hein Heidbüchel
The current manuscript is the Executive Summary of the second update to the original Practical Guide, published in 2013. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and have emerged as the preferred choice, particularly in patients newly started on anticoagulation. Both physicians and patients are becoming more accustomed to the use of these drugs in clinical practice. However, many unresolved questions on how to optimally use these agents in specific clinical situations remain...
March 19, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534630/antibiotic-use-in-the-intensive-care-unit-optimization-and-de-escalation
#15
Maureen Campion, Gail Scully
Appropriate antimicrobial therapy is essential to ensuring positive patient outcomes. Inappropriate or suboptimal utilization of antibiotics can lead to increased length of stay, multidrug-resistant infections, and mortality. Critically ill intensive care patients, particularly those with severe sepsis and septic shock, are at risk of antibiotic failure and secondary infections associated with incorrect antibiotic use. Through the initiation of active empiric antibiotic therapy based upon local susceptibilities, daily evaluation of signs and symptoms of infection and narrowing of antibiotic therapy when feasible, providers can streamline the treatment of common intensive care unit (ICU) infections...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069328/the-relationship-between-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-acute-myocardial-infarction
#16
Moises A Huaman, Eduardo Ticona, Gustavo Miranda, Richard J Kryscio, Raquel Mugruza, Ernesto Aranda, Paola L Rondan, David Henson, Cesar Ticona, Timothy R Sterling, Carl J Fichtenbaum, Beth A Garvy
Background: Tuberculosis has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated whether latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is associated with AMI. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 2 large national public hospital networks in Lima, Peru, between July 2015 and March 2017. Case patients were patients with a first time diagnosis of type 1 (spontaneous) AMI. Controls were patients without a history of AMI...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548009/duration-of-exposure-to-multiple-antibiotics-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-vre-bacteraemia-a-nested-case-control-study
#17
Theodore Gouliouris, Ben Warne, Edward J P Cartwright, Luke Bedford, Chathika K Weerasuriya, Kathy E Raven, Nick M Brown, M Estée Török, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Sharon J Peacock
Background: VRE bacteraemia has a high mortality and continues to defy control. Antibiotic risk factors for VRE bacteraemia have not been adequately defined. We aimed to determine the risk factors for VRE bacteraemia focusing on duration of antibiotic exposure. Methods: A retrospective matched nested case-control study was conducted amongst hospitalized patients at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490932/emerging-technologies-for-molecular-diagnosis-of-sepsis
#18
REVIEW
Mridu Sinha, Julietta Jupe, Hannah Mack, Todd P Coleman, Shelley M Lawrence, Stephanie I Fraley
Rapid and accurate profiling of infection-causing pathogens remains a significant challenge in modern health care. Despite advances in molecular diagnostic techniques, blood culture analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosing sepsis. However, this method is too slow and cumbersome to significantly influence the initial management of patients. The swift initiation of precise and targeted antibiotic therapies depends on the ability of a sepsis diagnostic test to capture clinically relevant organisms along with antimicrobial resistance within 1 to 3 h...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459427/pneumocystis-and-glucocorticoid-use-to-prophylax-or-not-to-prophylax-and-when-that-is-the-question
#19
EDITORIAL
Kevin L Winthrop, John W Baddley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957311/ten-simple-rules-for-structuring-papers
#20
EDITORIAL
Brett Mensh, Konrad Kording
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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