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Psychiatric Genetics

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13 papers 0 to 25 followers
Adam Klosin, Ben Lehner
Development never starts from a blank slate of DNA. Therefore, in principle, plenty beyond DNA could transmit phenotypic information from one generation to the next. However, the extent to which epigenetic information is actually transmitted between generations and whether this information is modulated by the environment are questions that have only recently started to be investigated at the molecular level. Here we review molecular work on inter-generation epigenetic effects in animals and highlight some principles of epigenetic transmission...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Elina Jokiranta-Olkoniemi, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Dan Sucksdorff, Auli Suominen, David Gyllenberg, Roshan Chudal, Susanna Leivonen, Mika Gissler, Alan S Brown, Andre Sourander
IMPORTANCE: Previous research has focused on examining the familial clustering of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is known about the clustering of other psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among siblings of persons with ASD. OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders among full siblings of probands with ASD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders used a population-based cohort that included children born from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2005, who received a diagnosis of ASD by December 31, 2007...
June 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Brian W Wu, Paula M Skidmore, Olivia R Orta, James Faulkner, Danielle Lambrick, Leigh Signal, Michelle A Williams, Lee Stoner
Despite continued research and growing public awareness, the incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) continues to accelerate. While a person may have a genetic predisposition to certain NCDs, the rapidly changing epidemiology of NCDs points to the importance of environmental, social, and behavioural determinants of health. Specifically, three lifestyle behaviours expose children to important environmental cues and stressors: physical activity, nutritional intake, and sleep behaviour. Failure to expose children to proper gene-environment interactions, through the aforementioned lifestyle behaviours, can and will predispose children to the development of NCDs...
January 13, 2016: Curēus
I M MacLeod, P J Bowman, C J Vander Jagt, M Haile-Mariam, K E Kemper, A J Chamberlain, C Schrooten, B J Hayes, M E Goddard
BACKGROUND: Dense SNP genotypes are often combined with complex trait phenotypes to map causal variants, study genetic architecture and provide genomic predictions for individuals with genotypes but no phenotype. A single method of analysis that jointly fits all genotypes in a Bayesian mixture model (BayesR) has been shown to competitively address all 3 purposes simultaneously. However, BayesR and other similar methods ignore prior biological knowledge and assume all genotypes are equally likely to affect the trait...
2016: BMC Genomics
Patrick E Rothwell
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and drug addiction do not share substantial comorbidity or obvious similarities in etiology or symptomatology. It is thus surprising that a number of recent studies implicate overlapping neural circuits and molecular signaling pathways in both disorders. The purpose of this review is to highlight this emerging intersection and consider implications for understanding the pathophysiology of these seemingly distinct disorders. One area of overlap involves neural circuits and neuromodulatory systems in the striatum and basal ganglia, which play an established role in addiction and reward but are increasingly implicated in clinical and preclinical studies of ASDs...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Nallathambi Jeyabalan, James P Clement
A cardinal feature of early stages of human brain development centers on the sensory, cognitive, and emotional experiences that shape neuronal-circuit formation and refinement. Consequently, alterations in these processes account for many psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Neurodevelopment disorders affect 3-4% of the world population. The impact of these disorders presents a major challenge to clinicians, geneticists, and neuroscientists. Mutations that cause neurodevelopmental disorders are commonly found in genes encoding proteins that regulate synaptic function...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Z D Kabir, A S Lee, A M Rajadhyaksha
Brain Cav 1.2 and Cav 1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels play key physiological roles in various neuronal processes that contribute to brain function. Genetic studies have recently identified CACNA1C as a candidate risk gene for bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and CACNA1D for BD and ASD, suggesting a contribution of Cav 1.2 and Cav 1.3 Ca(2+) signalling to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Once considered sole clinical entities, it is now clear that BD, SCZ, MDD and ASD share common phenotypic features, most likely due to overlapping neurocircuitry and common molecular mechanisms...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Fiona A Hagenbeek, Cornelis Kluft, Thomas Hankemeier, Meike Bartels, Harmen H M Draisma, Christel M Middeldorp, Ruud Berger, Antonio Noto, Milena Lussu, René Pool, Vassilios Fanos, Dorret I Boomsma
Human aggression encompasses a wide range of behaviors and is related to many psychiatric disorders. We introduce the different classification systems of aggression and related disorders as a basis for discussing biochemical biomarkers and then present an overview of studies in humans (published between 1990 and 2015) that reported statistically significant associations of biochemical biomarkers with aggression, DSM-IV disorders involving aggression, and their subtypes. The markers are of different types, including inflammation markers, neurotransmitters, lipoproteins, and hormones from various classes...
July 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Erika Check Hayden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 25, 2016: Nature
Anna M Kietrys, Eric T Kool
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 25, 2016: Nature
Robert Plomin, Eva Krapohl, Paul F O'Reilly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Ashley E Nordsletten, Henrik Larsson, James J Crowley, Catarina Almqvist, Paul Lichtenstein, David Mataix-Cols
IMPORTANCE: Psychiatric disorders are heritable, polygenic traits, which often share risk alleles and for which nonrandom mating has been suggested. However, despite the potential etiological implications, the scale of nonrandom mating within and across major psychiatric conditions remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the nature and extent of nonrandom mating within and across a broad range of psychiatric conditions at the population level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort using Swedish population registers...
April 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
G Bradley Schaefer
Early presumptions opined that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was related to the rearing of these children by emotionally-distant mothers. Advances in the 1960s and 1970s clearly demonstrated the biologic basis of autism with a high heritability. Recent advances have demonstrated that specific etiologic factors in autism spectrum disorders can be identified in 30%-40% of cases. Based on early reports newer, emerging genomic technologies are likely to increase this diagnostic yield to over 50%. To date these investigations have focused on etiologic factors that are largely mono-factorial...
January 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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