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Infectious diseases

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44 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235797/inhaled-corticosteroids-and-respiratory-infections-in-children-with-asthma-a-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Cristine Cazeiro, Cristina Silva, Susana Mayer, Vanessa Mariany, Claire Elizabeth Wainwright, Linjie Zhang
CONTEXT: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in adult patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between ICS use and risk of pneumonia and other respiratory infections in children with asthma. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed from inception until May 2015. We also searched clinicaltrials.gov and databases of pharmaceutical manufacturers. STUDY SELECTION: We selected randomized trials that compared ICS with placebo for at least 4 weeks in children with asthma...
March 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050897/fluid-resuscitation-in-human-sepsis-time-to-rewrite-history
#2
REVIEW
Liam Byrne, Frank Van Haren
Fluid resuscitation continues to be recommended as the first-line resuscitative therapy for all patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. The current acceptance of the therapy is based in part on long history and familiarity with its use in the resuscitation of other forms of shock, as well as on an incomplete and incorrect understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis. Recently, the safety of intravenous fluids in patients with sepsis has been called into question with both prospective and observational data suggesting improved outcomes with less fluid or no fluid...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248796/how-to-predict-oral-rehydration-failure-in-children-with-gastroenteritis
#3
Dorien Geurts, Ewout W Steyerberg, Henriëtte Moll, Rianne Oostenbrink
OBJECTIVES: Oral rehydration is the standard in most current guidelines for young children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Failure of oral rehydration can complicate the disease course, leading to morbidity due to severe dehydration. We aimed to identify prognostic factors of oral rehydration failure in children with AGE. METHODS: Design A prospective, observational study.Setting Emergency department (ED), Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2010- 2012...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25569020/the-role-of-tonsillectomy-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorders-associated-with-streptococcal-infections-pandas
#4
Daniel Demesh, Jordan M Virbalas, John P Bent
IMPORTANCE: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) in children describes neuropsychiatric symptom exacerbations that relate temporally to streptococcal infections. Recent case reports suggest tonsillectomy may effectively reduce these symptoms; however, no consensus treatment guidelines exist. This study examines whether tonsillectomy improves neuropsychiatric symptoms in children with PANDAS who have incomplete response to antibiotic therapy...
March 2015: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099222/a-users-guide-to-the-2016-surviving-sepsis-guidelines
#5
R Phillip Dellinger, Christa A Schorr, Mitchell M Levy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940788/urine-concentration-and-pyuria-for-identifying-uti-in-infants
#6
Pradip P Chaudhari, Michael C Monuteaux, Richard G Bachur
BACKGROUND: Varying urine white blood cell (WBC) thresholds have been recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) among young infants. These thresholds have not been studied with newer automated urinalysis systems that analyze uncentrifuged urine that might be influenced by urine concentration. Our objective was to determine the optimal urine WBC threshold for UTI in young infants by using an automated urinalysis system, stratified by urine concentration...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096515/tonsillectomy-versus-watchful-waiting-for-recurrent-throat-infection-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Anna Morad, Nila A Sathe, David O Francis, Melissa L McPheeters, Sivakumar Chinnadurai
CONTEXT: The effectiveness of tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy ("tonsillectomy") for recurrent throat infection compared with watchful waiting is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare sleep, cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes of tonsillectomy versus watchful waiting in children with recurrent throat infections. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. STUDY SELECTION: Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21482729/hiv-and-tuberculosis-a-deadly-human-syndemic
#8
REVIEW
Candice K Kwan, Joel D Ernst
A syndemic is defined as the convergence of two or more diseases that act synergistically to magnify the burden of disease. The intersection and syndemic interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have had deadly consequences around the world. Without adequate control of the TB-HIV syndemic, the long-term TB elimination target set for 2050 will not be reached. There is an urgent need for additional resources and novel approaches for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of both HIV and TB...
April 2011: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071659/acg-clinical-guideline-treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#9
William D Chey, Grigorios I Leontiadis, Colin W Howden, Steven F Moss
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a common worldwide infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. H. pylori may also have a role in uninvestigated and functional dyspepsia, ulcer risk in patients taking low-dose aspirin or starting therapy with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, unexplained iron deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. While choosing a treatment regimen for H. pylori, patients should be asked about previous antibiotic exposure and this information should be incorporated into the decision-making process...
February 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049114/a-targeted-approach-for-congenital-cytomegalovirus-screening-within-newborn-hearing-screening
#10
Karen B Fowler, Faye P McCollister, Diane L Sabo, Angela G Shoup, Kris E Owen, Julie L Woodruff, Edith Cox, Lisa S Mohamed, Daniel I Choo, Suresh B Boppana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection remains a leading cause of childhood hearing loss. Currently universal CMV screening at birth does not exist in the United States. An alternative approach could be testing infants who do not pass their newborn hearing screening (NHS) for cCMV. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether a targeted approach will identify infants with CMV-related sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). METHODS: Infants born at 7 US medical centers received NHS and were also screened for cCMV while in the newborn nursery...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932390/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#11
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496381/chronic-diarrhea-diagnosis-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Lawrence R Schiller, Darrell S Pardi, Joseph H Sellin
Chronic diarrhea is a common problem affecting up to 5% of the population at a given time. Patients vary in their definition of diarrhea, citing loose stool consistency, increased frequency, urgency of bowel movements, or incontinence as key symptoms. Physicians have used increased frequency of defecation or increased stool weight as major criteria and distinguish acute diarrhea, often due to self-limited, acute infections, from chronic diarrhea, which has a broader differential diagnosis, by duration of symptoms; 4 weeks is a frequently used cutoff...
February 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321363/antibiotic-duration-and-timing-of-the-switch-from-intravenous-to-oral-route-for-bacterial-infections-in-children-systematic-review-and-guidelines
#13
REVIEW
Brendan J McMullan, David Andresen, Christopher C Blyth, Minyon L Avent, Asha C Bowen, Philip N Britton, Julia E Clark, Celia M Cooper, Nigel Curtis, Emma Goeman, Briony Hazelton, Gabrielle M Haeusler, Ameneh Khatami, James P Newcombe, Joshua Osowicki, Pamela Palasanthiran, Mike Starr, Tony Lai, Clare Nourse, Joshua R Francis, David Isaacs, Penelope A Bryant
Few studies are available to inform duration of intravenous antibiotics for children and when it is safe and appropriate to switch to oral antibiotics. We have systematically reviewed antibiotic duration and timing of intravenous to oral switch for 36 paediatric infectious diseases and developed evidence-graded recommendations on the basis of the review, guidelines, and expert consensus. We searched databases and obtained information from references identified and relevant guidelines. All eligible studies were assessed for quality...
August 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521441/executive-summary-management-of-adults-with-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-2016-clinical-practice-guidelines-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-and-the-american-thoracic-society
#14
Andre C Kalil, Mark L Metersky, Michael Klompas, John Muscedere, Daniel A Sweeney, Lucy B Palmer, Lena M Napolitano, Naomi P O'Grady, John G Bartlett, Jordi Carratalà, Ali A El Solh, Santiago Ewig, Paul D Fey, Thomas M File, Marcos I Restrepo, Jason A Roberts, Grant W Waterer, Peggy Cruse, Shandra L Knight, Jan L Brozek
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for patients at risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), including specialists in infectious diseases, pulmonary diseases, critical care, and surgeons, anesthesiologists, hospitalists, and any clinicians and healthcare providers caring for hospitalized patients with nosocomial pneumonia...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21440200/biomarkers-in-the-critically-ill-patient-procalcitonin
#15
REVIEW
Konrad Reinhart, Michael Meisner
Infection and/or sepsis biomarkers should help to make the diagnosis and thus initiate therapy earlier, help to differentiate between infectious and sterile inflammation, allow the use of more-specific antimicrobials, shorten the time of antimicrobial use, and ideally identify distinct phenotypes that may benefit from specific adjunctive sepsis therapies. Procalcitonin (PCT) was proposed as a sepsis and infection marker more than 15 years ago. Meanwhile, PCT has been evaluated in various clinical settings. In this review the present use of PCT on the ICU and in critically ill patients is summarized, included it's role for diagnosis of severe sepsis and septic shock and antibiotic stewardship with PCT...
April 2011: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229641/sepsis-resuscitation-fluid-choice-and-dose
#16
REVIEW
Matthew W Semler, Todd W Rice
Sepsis is a common and life-threatening inflammatory response to severe infection treated with antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. Despite the central role of intravenous fluid in sepsis management, fundamental questions regarding which fluid and in what amount remain unanswered. Recent advances in understanding the physiologic response to fluid administration, and large clinical studies examining resuscitation strategies, fluid balance after resuscitation, colloid versus crystalloid solutions, and high- versus low-chloride crystalloids, inform the current approach to sepsis fluid management and suggest areas for future research...
June 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010018/fetal-inflammation-associated-with-minimal-acute-morbidity-in-moderate-late-preterm-infants
#17
Tate Gisslen, Manuel Alvarez, Casey Wells, Man-Ting Soo, Donna S Lambers, Christine L Knox, Jareen K Meinzen-Derr, Claire A Chougnet, Alan H Jobe, Suhas G Kallapur
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to acute chorioamnionitis and fetal inflammation caused short-term adverse outcomes. DESIGN: This is a prospective observational study: subjects were mothers delivering at 32-36 weeks gestation and their preterm infants at a large urban tertiary level III perinatal unit (N=477 infants). Placentae and fetal membranes were scored for acute histological chorioamnionitis based on the Redline criteria. Fetal inflammation was characterised by histological diagnosis of funisitis (umbilical cord inflammation), increased cord blood cytokines measured by ELISA, and activation of the inflammatory cells infiltrating the placenta and fetal membranes measured by immunohistology...
March 23, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26835905/comparison-of-recommendations-in-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children
#18
Andrea Lo Vecchio, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Ilaria Liguoro, Eduardo Salazar Lindo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu, Alfredo Guarino
OBJECTIVE: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of child mortality and morbidity. This study aimed at systematically reviewing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on AGE to compare recommendations and provide the basis for developing single universal guidelines. METHODS: CPGs were identified by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane-Library, National Guideline Clearinghouse and Web sites of relevant societies/organizations producing and/or endorsing CPGs. RESULTS: The definition of AGE varies among the 15 CPGs identified...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217054/sepsis-pathophysiology-and-clinical-management
#19
REVIEW
Jeffrey E Gotts, Michael A Matthay
Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock represent increasingly severe systemic inflammatory responses to infection. Sepsis is common in the aging population, and it disproportionately affects patients with cancer and underlying immunosuppression. In its most severe form, sepsis causes multiple organ dysfunction that can produce a state of chronic critical illness characterized by severe immune dysfunction and catabolism. Much has been learnt about the pathogenesis of sepsis at the molecular, cell, and intact organ level...
May 23, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184564/advances-in-antibiotic-therapy-in-the-critically-ill
#20
REVIEW
Jean-Louis Vincent, Matteo Bassetti, Bruno François, George Karam, Jean Chastre, Antoni Torres, Jason A Roberts, Fabio S Taccone, Jordi Rello, Thierry Calandra, Daniel De Backer, Tobias Welte, Massimo Antonelli
Infections occur frequently in critically ill patients and their management can be challenging for various reasons, including delayed diagnosis, difficulties identifying causative microorganisms, and the high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains. In this review, we briefly discuss the importance of early infection diagnosis, before considering in more detail some of the key issues related to antibiotic management in these patients, including controversies surrounding use of combination or monotherapy, duration of therapy, and de-escalation...
May 17, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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