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Iv fluids/Electrolyte

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28 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174217/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia-compilation-of-the-guidelines
#1
REVIEW
Ewout J Hoorn, Robert Zietse
Hyponatremia is a common water balance disorder that often poses a diagnostic or therapeutic challenge. Therefore, guidelines were developed by professional organizations, one from within the United States (2013) and one from within Europe (2014). This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia, comparing the two guidelines and highlighting recent developments. Diagnostically, the initial step is to differentiate hypotonic from nonhypotonic hyponatremia. Hypotonic hyponatremia is further differentiated on the basis of urine osmolality, urine sodium level, and volume status...
May 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050897/fluid-resuscitation-in-human-sepsis-time-to-rewrite-history
#2
REVIEW
Liam Byrne, Frank Van Haren
Fluid resuscitation continues to be recommended as the first-line resuscitative therapy for all patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. The current acceptance of the therapy is based in part on long history and familiarity with its use in the resuscitation of other forms of shock, as well as on an incomplete and incorrect understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis. Recently, the safety of intravenous fluids in patients with sepsis has been called into question with both prospective and observational data suggesting improved outcomes with less fluid or no fluid...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248796/how-to-predict-oral-rehydration-failure-in-children-with-gastroenteritis
#3
Dorien Geurts, Ewout W Steyerberg, Henriëtte Moll, Rianne Oostenbrink
OBJECTIVES: Oral rehydration is the standard in most current guidelines for young children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Failure of oral rehydration can complicate the disease course, leading to morbidity due to severe dehydration. We aimed to identify prognostic factors of oral rehydration failure in children with AGE. METHODS: Design A prospective, observational study.Setting Emergency department (ED), Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2010- 2012...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522622/lactic-acidosis-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Jansen Seheult, Gerard Fitzpatrick, Gerard Boran
Lactate is one of the most crucial intermediates in carbohydrate and nonessential amino acid metabolism. The complexity of cellular interactions and metabolism means that lactate can be considered a waste product for one cell but a useful substrate for another. The presence of elevated lactate levels in critically ill patients has important implications for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a brief outline of the metabolism of lactate, the pathophysiology of lactic acidosis, the clinical significance of D-lactate, the role of lactate measurement in acutely ill patients, the methods used to measure lactate in blood or plasma and some of the methodological issues related to interferences in these assays, especially in the case of ethylene glycol poisoning...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26507493/a-rational-approach-to-fluid-therapy-in-sepsis
#5
REVIEW
P Marik, R Bellomo
Aggressive fluid resuscitation to achieve a central venous pressure (CVP) greater than 8 mm Hg has been promoted as the standard of care, in the management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. However recent clinical trials have demonstrated that this approach does not improve the outcome of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Pathophysiologically, sepsis is characterized by vasoplegia with loss of arterial tone, venodilation with sequestration of blood in the unstressed blood compartment and changes in ventricular function with reduced compliance and reduced preload responsiveness...
March 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536694/fluid-management-for-critically-ill-patients-a-review-of-the-current-state-of-fluid-therapy-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#6
REVIEW
Erin Frazee, Kianoush Kashani
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluids (IVF) are frequently utilized to restore intravascular volume in patients with distributive and hypovolemic shock. Although the benefits of the appropriate use of fluids in intensive care units (ICUs) and hospitals are well described, there is growing knowledge regarding the potential risks of volume overload and its impact on organ failure and mortality. To avoid volume overload and its associated complications, strategies to identify fluid responsiveness are developed and utilized more often among ICU patients...
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229641/sepsis-resuscitation-fluid-choice-and-dose
#7
REVIEW
Matthew W Semler, Todd W Rice
Sepsis is a common and life-threatening inflammatory response to severe infection treated with antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. Despite the central role of intravenous fluid in sepsis management, fundamental questions regarding which fluid and in what amount remain unanswered. Recent advances in understanding the physiologic response to fluid administration, and large clinical studies examining resuscitation strategies, fluid balance after resuscitation, colloid versus crystalloid solutions, and high- versus low-chloride crystalloids, inform the current approach to sepsis fluid management and suggest areas for future research...
June 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26662119/intravenous-fluids-in-children-and-young-people-summary-of-nice-guidance
#8
Julie Neilson, Frank O'Neill, Dalia Dawoud, Peter Crean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26835905/comparison-of-recommendations-in-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children
#9
Andrea Lo Vecchio, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Ilaria Liguoro, Eduardo Salazar Lindo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu, Alfredo Guarino
OBJECTIVE: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of child mortality and morbidity. This study aimed at systematically reviewing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on AGE to compare recommendations and provide the basis for developing single universal guidelines. METHODS: CPGs were identified by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane-Library, National Guideline Clearinghouse and Web sites of relevant societies/organizations producing and/or endorsing CPGs. RESULTS: The definition of AGE varies among the 15 CPGs identified...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192851/-features-of-fluid-therapy-in-children-with-severe-major-trauma
#10
K V Pshenisnov, Yu S Aleksandrovich, P I Mironov, Yu V Suhanov, O V Kuzmin, S A Blinov, A N Kondin
BACKGROUND: Fluid and transfusion therapy is proved to be a required component of treating children with severe major trauma significantly influencing the case outcome. OBJECTIVE: To analyze efficiency of fluid and transfusion therapy in children with severe major trauma and assess its correspondence with current recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 150 children aged from 0 to 18 years getting treatment in intensive care units of children's city hospitals of Saint Petersburg, Archangelsk, Ufa, Samara, and Leningrad region were included in the research...
January 2016: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087980/fluid-therapy-in-the-perioperative-setting-a-clinical-review
#11
REVIEW
Anders Winther Voldby, Birgitte Brandstrup
BACKGROUND: Perioperative hypovolemia and fluid overload have effects on both complications following surgery and on patient survival. Therefore, the administration of intravenous fluids before, during, and after surgery at the right time and in the right amounts is of great importance. This review aims to analyze the literature concerning perioperative fluid therapy in abdominal surgery and to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice. RESULTS: Preoperative oral or intravenous administration of carbohydrate containing fluids has been shown to improve postoperative well-being and muscular strength and to reduce insulin resistance...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058509/the-half-life-of-infusion-fluids-an-educational-review
#12
Robert G Hahn, Gordon Lyons
An understanding of the half-life (T1/2) of infused fluids can help prevent iatrogenic problems such as volume overload and postoperative interstitial oedema. Simulations show that a prolongation of the T1/2 for crystalloid fluid increases the plasma volume and promotes accumulation of fluid in the interstitial fluid space. The T1/2 for crystalloids is usually 20 to 40 min in conscious humans but might extend to 80 min or longer in the presence of preoperative stress, dehydration, blood loss of <1 l or pregnancy...
July 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19812535/assessing-acid-base-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Horacio J Adrogué, F John Gennari, John H Galla, Nicolaos E Madias
Effective management of acid-base disorders depends on accurate diagnosis. Three distinct approaches are currently used in assessing acid-base disorders: the physiological approach, the base-excess approach, and the physicochemical approach. There are considerable differences among the three approaches. In this review, we first describe the conceptual framework of each approach, and comment on its attributes and drawbacks. We then highlight the application of each approach to patient care. We conclude with a brief synthesis and our recommendations for choosing an approach...
December 2009: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25372090/integration-of-acid-base-and-electrolyte-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Julian L Seifter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22403272/differential-diagnosis-of-nongap-metabolic-acidosis-value-of-a-systematic-approach
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Kraut, Nicolaos E Madias
Nongap metabolic acidosis is a common form of both acute and chronic metabolic acidosis. Because derangements in renal acid-base regulation are a common cause of nongap metabolic acidosis, studies to evaluate renal acidification often serve as the mainstay of differential diagnosis. However, in many cases, information obtained from the history and physical examination, evaluation of the electrolyte pattern (to determine if a nongap acidosis alone or a combined nongap and high anion gap metabolic acidosis is present), and examination of the serum potassium concentration (to characterize the disorder as hyperkalemic or hypokalemic in nature) is sufficient to make a presumptive diagnosis without more sophisticated studies...
April 2012: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26410149/understanding-acid-base-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Hernando Gomez, John A Kellum
The concentration of hydrogen ions is regulated in biologic solutions. There are currently 3 recognized approaches to assess changes in acid base status. First is the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, also called the physiologic approach, which uses the relationship between HCO3(-) and Pco2; the second is the standard base excess approach based on the Van Slyke equation. The third approach is the quantitative or Stewart approach, which uses the strong ion difference and the total weak acids. This article explores the origins of the current concepts framing the existing methods to analyze acid base balance...
October 2015: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26976277/crystalloid-fluid-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Sumeet Reddy, Laurence Weinberg, Paul Young
This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency medicine 2016. Other selected articles can be found online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2016. Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901.
March 15, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148740/optimal-dose-and-method-of-administration-of-intravenous-insulin-in-the-management-of-emergency-hyperkalemia-a-systematic-review
#18
Ziv Harel, Kamel S Kamel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder that can result in fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Despite the importance of insulin as a lifesaving intervention in the treatment of hyperkalemia in an emergency setting, there is no consensus on the dose or the method (bolus or infusion) of its administration. Our aim was to review data in the literature to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of insulin in the management of emergency hyperkalemia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988719/hypertonic-saline-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
REVIEW
Elyse Berger-Pelleiter, Marcel Émond, François Lauzier, Jean-François Shields, Alexis F Turgeon
OBJECTIVES: Hypertonic saline solutions are increasingly used to treat increased intracranial pressure following severe traumatic brain injury. However, whether hypertonic saline provides superior management of intracranial pressure and improves outcome is unclear. We thus conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effect of hypertonic saline in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Two researchers independently selected randomized controlled trials studying hypertonic saline in severe traumatic brain injury and collected data using a standardized abstraction form...
March 2016: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23984731/severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#20
REVIEW
Derek C Angus, Tom van der Poll
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 369, Issue 9, Page 840-851, August 2013.
August 29, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
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