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Thomas Spentzas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Jasna Jancic, Blazo Nikolic, Nikola Ivancevic, Vesna Djuric, Ivan Zaletel, Dejan Stevanovic, Sasa Peric, John N van den Anker, Janko Samardzic
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS is increasingly recognized in the pediatric population, and it is usually diagnosed around 15 years of age. The exact etiology of MS is still not known, although autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors play important roles in its development, making it a multifactorial disease. The disease in children almost always presents in the relapsing-remittent form. The therapy involves treatment of relapses, and immunomodulatory and symptomatic treatment...
September 17, 2016: Neurology and Therapy
Ryosuke Hanaya, Kazunori Arita
The administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is the first treatment of epilepsy, one of the most common neurological diseases. Therapeutic guidelines include newer AEDs as front-line drugs; monotherapy with new AEDs is delivered in Japan. While about 70% of patients obtain good seizure control by taking one to three AEDs, about 60% experience adverse effects and 33% have to change drugs. Compared to traditional AEDs, the prolonged administration of new AEDs elicits fewer adverse effects and fewer drug interactions and their teratogenicity may be lower...
May 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Doug King, Matt Brughelli, Patria Hume, Conor Gissane
BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussions are a subset of mild traumatic brain injuries and are a concern for many sporting activities worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To review and update the literature in regard to the history, pathophysiology, recognition, assessment, management and knowledge of concussion. METHODS: Searches of electronic literature databases were performed to identify studies published up until April 2013. RESULTS: 292 publications focussing on concussion met the inclusion criteria, and so they were quality rated and reviewed...
April 2014: Sports Medicine
Kevin M Guskiewicz, Johna Register-Mihalik, Paul McCrory, Michael McCrea, Karen Johnston, Michael Makdissi, Jirí Dvorák, Gavin Davis, Willem Meeuwisse
The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2), which evolved from the 2008 Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) Consensus meeting, has been widely used internationally for the past 4 years. Although the instrument is considered very practical and moderately effective for use by clinicians who manage concussion, the utility and sensitivity of a 100-point scoring system for the SCAT2 has been questioned. The 2012 CISG Consensus Meeting provided an opportunity for several of the world's leading concussion researchers and clinicians to present data and to share experiences using the SCAT2...
April 2013: British Journal of Sports Medicine
David N Louis, Arie Perry, Guido Reifenberger, Andreas von Deimling, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Webster K Cavenee, Hiroko Ohgaki, Otmar D Wiestler, Paul Kleihues, David W Ellison
The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System is both a conceptual and practical advance over its 2007 predecessor. For the first time, the WHO classification of CNS tumors uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to define many tumor entities, thus formulating a concept for how CNS tumor diagnoses should be structured in the molecular era. As such, the 2016 CNS WHO presents major restructuring of the diffuse gliomas, medulloblastomas and other embryonal tumors, and incorporates new entities that are defined by both histology and molecular features, including glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype and glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant; RELA fusion-positive ependymoma; medulloblastoma, WNT-activated and medulloblastoma, SHH-activated; and embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered...
June 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Jaume Campistol, María Díez-Juan, Laura Callejón, Aroa Fernandez-De Miguel, Mercedes Casado, Angels Garcia Cazorla, Reymundo Lozano, Rafael Artuch
AIM: To perform metabolic testing on 406 patients (age range 3-22y [mean 6.71, SD 4.15], 343 males and 63 females) with nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to assess the diagnostic yield. In addition, we reviewed our hospital's clinical database of 8500 patients who had undergone metabolic testing to be identified for inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), and described the characteristics of those with IEM and nonsyndromic ASD. METHOD: Neuropsychological evaluation included the Social Communication Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist...
August 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Katharina Vezyroglou, J Helen Cross
The mainstay of treatment of epilepsy has been antiepileptic drugs; however, despite the emergence of new agents, a consistent proportion remain drug-resistant. Newer AEDs show promise. However, as it becomes clear that the epilepsies are a group of diseases rather than a single disorder the prospect of targeted treatment in some may become a reality.
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Kelly G Knupp, Jason Coryell, Katherine C Nickels, Nicole Ryan, Erin Leister, Tobias Loddenkemper, Zachary Grinspan, Adam L Hartman, Eric H Kossoff, William D Gaillard, John R Mytinger, Sucheta Joshi, Renée A Shellhaas, Joseph Sullivan, Dennis Dlugos, Lorie Hamikawa, Anne T Berg, John Millichap, Douglas R Nordli, Elaine Wirrell
OBJECTIVE: Infantile spasms are seizures associated with a severe epileptic encephalopathy presenting in the first 2 years of life, and optimal treatment continues to be debated. This study evaluates early and sustained response to initial treatments and addresses both clinical remission and electrographic resolution of hypsarrhythmia. Secondarily, it assesses whether response to treatment differs by etiology or developmental status. METHODS: The National Infantile Spasms Consortium established a multicenter, prospective database enrolling infants with new diagnosis of infantile spasms...
March 2016: Annals of Neurology
Elaine C Wirrell, Renée A Shellhaas, Charuta Joshi, Cynthia Keator, Shilpi Kumar, Wendy G Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the etiology of new-onset infantile spasms and evaluate the yield of genetic and metabolic investigations in those without obvious cause after initial clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Twenty-one U.S. pediatric epilepsy centers prospectively enrolled infants with newly diagnosed West syndrome in a central database. Etiology and investigations performed within 3 months of diagnosis were documented...
April 2015: Epilepsia
Shouja Alam, Andrew L Lux
To evaluate and manage epileptic seizures and other paroxysmal events in infants, it is necessary to ask five key questions: (1) Is this a type of epilepsy?; (2) What seizure type(s) are occurring?; (3) Do these seizure types, combined with factors such as age at onset and EEG features, constitute an 'epilepsy syndrome'?; (4) What investigations do we need to do in searching for an underlying aetiology? and finally, (5) What is the prognosis for neurological and developmental state in later life? This review considers epilepsies that have an onset in infancy but after the perinatal period, outlines the commoner epilepsy syndromes occurring in this age group and describes paroxysmal events that can mimic epilepsy...
November 2012: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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