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Pathology Collection

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74 papers 0 to 25 followers
Danielle C Costigan, Leona A Doyle
In recent years, there have been several important refinements in the classification of cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasms, including the description of new tumour types, along with the identification of novel and recurrent molecular genetic findings. In addition to providing new insights into tumour biology, many of these advances have had significant clinical consequences with regard to diagnostics, management, and prognostication. Newly described entities include pseudomyogenic haemangioendothelioma, haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumour, and fibroblastic connective tissue naevus, which are reviewed in the context of the principal differential diagnoses and significant clinical implications...
May 2016: Histopathology
Marisa R Nucci
Uterine mesenchymal tumors continue to be a challenge to diagnose due to their non-specific clinical presentation, often non-distinctive gross appearance, varied (and many times overlapping) morphologic appearance, and unsuspected pitfalls in immunohistochemical expression. This review will focus on endometrial stromal tumors and those features that help in their distinction. In particular, a practical approach to the diagnosis of endometrial stromal neoplasia will be covered including recognition as a stromal process in a biopsy/curettage and distinction from a highly cellular leiomyoma...
January 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
W Glenn McCluggage
The current 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumours of the uterus includes categories of carcinosarcoma, adenosarcoma, adenofibroma, adenomyoma and atypical polypoid adenomyoma, the last two lesions being composed of an admixture of benign epithelial and mesenchymal elements with a prominent smooth muscle component. In this review, each of these categories of uterine neoplasm is covered with an emphasis on practical tips for the surgical pathologist and new developments...
January 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Robert A Soslow
This review covers three areas in endometrial tumor pathology: International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging, the use of frozen section, and Lynch syndrome. The section on FIGO staging will emphasize problems that practicing pathologists often confront, such as measuring the depth of myometrial invasion, assessing for the presence of cervical stromal invasion, detecting low-volume lymph node metastases, and recognizing synchronous endometrial and ovarian tumors and artifacts. The frozen section portion of this review will focus on the performance characteristics of intraoperative examination of the uterus to determine tumor grade and depth of myometrial invasion, including suggestions for alternative methods...
January 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Sonia Gatius, Xavier Matias-Guiu
Serous carcinoma (SC) represents ~10% of endometrial carcinomas, but is responsible for almost 40% of cancer deaths. This article reviews the main pathological features, differential diagnosis, and the usefulness of molecular pathology and immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. Most helpful features for the diagnosis include: irregularly shaped and sized papillae, slit-like spaces, cell stratification and budding, highly atypical cells, architectural and cytological discordance in pseudoglandular tumors, as well as lack of endometrioid features...
January 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Anais Malpica
This article reviews the salient features of variants of endometrioid carcinoma (ECa) that can pose a diagnostic challenge and/or are associated with unique clinicopathological findings. Variants with distinct architectural and cytologic features include the following: (1) ECa with a villoglandular pattern (tumor with finger-like papillae lined by bland cells with a tendency for vascular/lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis once this pattern is seen within the myoinvasive component); (2) papillary ECa of intermediate grade (grade 2) (tumor that can be mistaken for serous carcinoma, as it contains papillae showing slightly irregular contours, moderately atypical cells, and it is associated with vascular/lymphatic invasion/lymph node metastasis, but with common association with mucinous metaplasia, MELF (microcystic, elongated, and fragmented) pattern of invasion, and wild p53 expression); (3) ECa with non-villous papillae (tumor containing pseudopapillae within glands with bland-appearing cytology commonly associated with abortive squamous differentiation and otherwise not different from usual ECa); (4) ECa with microglandular-like pattern (tumor that mimics microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix, often lacking the typical appearance of microglandular hyperplasia and showing Ki-67 index >10%, strong CD10 expression, and negative PAX-2, p63, and CD34); and (5) ECa with sex cord-like formations and hyalinization (tumor with interconnected cords and nests of bland epithelioid and spindled cells that merge with a typical component of low-grade ECa, usually associated with squamous differentiation and hyalinization)...
January 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Brigitte M Ronnett
Endocervical adenocarcinomas can be classified into two main types of tumors, namely, those related to high-risk human papillomavirus and those unrelated to high-risk human papillomavirus. The former, representing the vast majority, are referred to as endocervical adenocarcinomas of usual type and the latter are dominated by the gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinomas. Commonly encountered diagnostic problems concerning these endocervical adenocarcinomas include: (1) diagnosing invasion for endocervical adenocarcinomas of usual type, particularly superficial forms which must be distinguished from extensive endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ; (2) distinguishing high-risk human papillomavirus-related endocervical adenocarcinomas from endometrial endometrioid carcinomas; and (3) distinguishing benign/hyperplastic mucinous endocervical glandular proliferations from gastric-type mucinous endocervical adenocarcinomas, particularly minimal deviation adenocarcinoma...
January 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Esther Oliva
Among mesenchymal tumors of the uterus, smooth muscle neoplasms are most common. The wide morphologic spectrum, especially within the category of leiomyomas, is responsible for diagnostic problems more frequently with leiomyosarcoma (including mitotically active, apoplectic, and leiomyoma with bizarre nuclei) but also with endometrial stromal tumors. In the former scenario, clinical information, gross appearance as well as strict utilization of morphologic criteria including cytologic atypia, mitotic activity, and tumor cell necrosis are clues in establishing the correct diagnosis...
January 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Claire Carleton, Lien Hoang, Shatrughan Sah, Takako Kiyokawa, Yevgeniy S Karamurzin, Karen L Talia, Kay J Park, W Glenn McCluggage
Adenocarcinomas exhibiting gastric differentiation represent a recently described and uncommon subtype of non-human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical adenocarcinoma. They comprise a spectrum from a well-differentiated variant (adenoma malignum/mucinous variant of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma) to a more poorly differentiated overtly malignant form, generally referred to as gastric-type adenocarcinoma. Rarely, such tumors have also been described as primary vaginal neoplasms. Gastric-type adenocarcinomas exhibit considerable morphologic overlap with adenocarcinomas originating outside the female genital tract, especially mucinous adenocarcinomas arising in the pancreas and biliary tract...
May 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Thomas G Papathomas, Eugenio Pucci, Thomas J Giordano, Hao Lu, Eleonora Duregon, Marco Volante, Mauro Papotti, Ricardo V Lloyd, Arthur S Tischler, Francien H van Nederveen, Vania Nose, Lori Erickson, Ozgur Mete, Sylvia L Asa, John Turchini, Anthony J Gill, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Kassiani Skordilis, Timothy J Stephenson, Frédérique Tissier, Richard A Feelders, Marcel Smid, Alex Nigg, Esther Korpershoek, Peter J van der Spek, Winand N M Dinjens, Andrew P Stubbs, Ronald R de Krijger
Despite the established role of Ki67 labeling index in prognostic stratification of adrenocortical carcinomas and its recent integration into treatment flow charts, the reproducibility of the assessment method has not been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate interobserver variability among endocrine pathologists using a web-based virtual microscopy approach. Ki67-stained slides of 76 adrenocortical carcinomas were analyzed independently by 14 observers, each according to their method of preference including eyeballing, formal manual counting, and digital image analysis...
April 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Rose Lou Marie C Agbay, Sanam Loghavi, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Joseph D Khoury
Patients with low-grade (clinically indolent) lymphomas are at risk to undergo transformation to high-grade (clinically aggressive) lymphoma, although transformation only occurs in a subset of patients. When transformation occurs it is a critical event that determines the course of disease and is associated with unfavorable patient outcomes. Accurate detection of transformation, predictive biomarkers, and identification of specific molecular pathways implicated in the pathobiology of transformation will facilitate personalized therapeutic approaches and underpin advances in clinical outcomes...
January 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Jonathan I Epstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Daniela Mihic-Probst, Chris Shea, Lyn Duncan, Arnaud de la Fouchardiere, Gilles Landman, Jennifer Landsberg, Joost ven den Oord, Lori Lowe, Martin G Cook, Sook Jung Yun, Loren Clarke, Jane Messina, David E Elder, Raymond L Barnhill
The following communication summarizes the proceedings of a 1-day Workshop of the International Melanoma Pathology Study Group, which was devoted to thin melanoma. The definitions and histologic criteria for thin melanoma were reviewed. The principal differential diagnostic problems mentioned included the distinction of thin melanoma from nevi, especially from nevi of special site, irritated nevi, inflamed and regressing nevi, and dysplastic nevi. Histologic criteria for this analysis were discussed and the importance of clinico-pathologic correlation, especially in acral sites, was emphasized...
January 2016: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Evelyn T Bruner
The placenta is one of the most common gross pathology specimens encountered by surgical pathologists, yet primary tumors are exceptionally rare and even rarer are entities with the potential to mimic malignancy. There are many nonneoplasticmass forming lesions in the placenta that are important to be aware of as many of these can be associated with adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus. Also important are entities which may be observed microscopically in the placenta and potentially confused as a malignancy...
January 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Sherry D Okun, David N Lewin
The widespread use of abdominal ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has resulted in an increased identification of asymptomatic pancreatic lesions. Preoperative diagnoses of pancreatic lesions can be difficult. Solid and cystic lesions and anatomic variants of normal can all mimic tumor clinically and radiologically. Newer imaging modalities have increased the likelihood of the accurate diagnosis of non-neoplastic pancreatic disease, however, despite the many advances; it still remains a challenge to differentiate rarer non-neoplastic entities and inflammatory masses from adenocarcinoma, preoperatively...
January 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Alberto M Marchevsky, Mark R Wick
Small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC) is a well characterized form of lung cancer that is frequently already metastatic at diagnosis. Thus, patients with SCLC are usually treated with chemotherapy, and therefore emphasis has been placed on distinguishing that tumor from squamous cell carcinomas, large cell carcinomas and other pulmonary neoplasms that can more often be managed surgically. SCLC can be readily and accurately diagnosed in biopsy specimens or cytological preparations, but in selected cases, it can pose difficult diagnostic dilemmas...
November 2015: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Stacey A Simons, Julia A Bridge, Marino E Leon
The differential diagnosis for small round cell tumors in the sinonasal tract is diverse and as the body of literature documenting not only uncommon presentations but also availability of ancillary studies grows, so does the need for a reminder to take a conservative and thorough approach before rendering a diagnosis. Small tissue samples are particularly problematic, with limitations that include volume of tumor cells available for studies, lack of architectural context and a non-specific gross description...
March 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Andres Matoso, Ying-Bei Chen, Vishal Rao, Lu Wang, Liang Cheng, Jonathan I Epstein
There is a lack of standardized nomenclature for renal cysts lined by multiple cell layers or with short papillary projections but without nests of epithelial cells within the stroma. We retrieved 29 cases (15 nephrectomies, 14 partial nephrectomies) from the surgical pathology files of Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1993 to 2014 and performed immunohistochemistry for CK7, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), CAIX, and CD10 and fluorescence in situ hybridization for trisomy 7 and 17 and 3p deletion. The mean age at excision was 58 years (range, 29 to 80 y) with 16 men and 13 women...
February 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Alana D Ranzi, Jéssica N L da Silva, Túlio M Graziottin, Nicola Annels, Claudia G Bica
Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most frequent urinary tract neoplasm. BCa results in significant mortality when the disease presents as muscle invasive. Around 75% to 80% of patients present with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), but recurrence and progression are significant issues, compelling current guidelines to recommend long-term surveillance. There is therefore an urgent and unmet need to identify and validate accurate biomarkers for the detection of disease recurrence to improve quality of life for the patients and reduce costs for health care providers, while maintaining or improving current outcomes...
March 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Jamie Koo, Deepti Dhall
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) can often present with metastatic disease before the primary tumor is discovered. Metastatic lesions are generally classified as well differentiated and poorly differentiated for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. In addition, for well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs), pathologists are expected to determine the site of origin, if not already known, and grade the tumors. However, it is often difficult for pathologists to provide this information with certainty without knowing the site of tumor origin, as different criteria have been proposed by WHO for classification of gastrointestinal and pulmonary NENs...
November 2015: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
2016-02-10 18:16:45
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