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338 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125548/liquid-biopsy-and-therapeutic-targets-present-and-future-issues-in-thoracic-oncology
#1
REVIEW
Paul Hofman
The practice of liquid biopsy (LB) has revolutionized the care of patients with metastatic lung cancer. Many oncologists now use this approach in daily practice, applying precise procedures for the detection of activating or resistance mutations in EGFR. These tests are performed with plasma DNA and have been approved as companion diagnostic test for patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. ALK is another important target in lung cancer since it leads to treatment of patients who are positive for a rearrangement in ALK identified with tumor tissue...
November 10, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137182/current-and-prospective-protein-biomarkers-of-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Tatiana N Zamay, Galina S Zamay, Olga S Kolovskaya, Ruslan A Zukov, Marina M Petrova, Ana Gargaun, Maxim V Berezovski, Anna S Kichkailo
Lung cancer is a malignant lung tumor with various histological variants that arise from different cell types, such as bronchial epithelium, bronchioles, alveoli, or bronchial mucous glands. The clinical course and treatment efficacy of lung cancer depends on the histological variant of the tumor. Therefore, accurate identification of the histological type of cancer and respective protein biomarkers is crucial for adequate therapy. Due to the great diversity in the molecular-biological features of lung cancer histological types, detection is impossible without knowledge of the nature and origin of malignant cells, which release certain protein biomarkers into the bloodstream...
November 13, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120087/histological-evolution-from-primary-lung-adenocarcinoma-harboring-egfr-mutation-to-high-grade-neuroendocrine-carcinoma
#3
Jikai Zhao, Jinchen Shao, Ruiying Zhao, Rong Li, Keke Yu, Lei Zhu, Jie Zhang
BACKGROUND: Although patients with EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma benefit greatly from tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), they inevitably develop acquired resistance after an average of 10-14 months of continuous treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological data of eight patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutations that transformed into high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma after TKI therapy. Morphology scanning for neuroendocrine differentiation and immunohistochemistry for neuroendocrine markers CD56, chromogranin, and synaptophysin were performed on primary adenocarcinoma tissues and repeated biopsies...
November 9, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114466/spread-through-air-spaces-stas-a-comprehensive-update
#4
REVIEW
Arne Warth
The new concept of spread through air spaces (STAS) was introduced for pulmonary adenocarcinomas (ADC) in the 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) classification for lung cancer. Yet available data demonstrate that STAS is of high prognostic impact and associated with specific clinic-pathological characteristics. This article provides a comprehensive overview on recent developments in this field.
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114467/biology-of-invasive-mucinous-adenocarcinoma-of-the-lung
#5
REVIEW
Yoon Jin Cha, Hyo Sup Shim
Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) is a unique histologic subtype of lung adenocarcinoma. Recent studies document distinctive genetic alterations (e.g., NRG1 fusions) and a "mucinous gene signature" in IMAs, as well as differences in clinical responses to traditional chemotherapies in IMAs versus non-mucinous adenocarcinomas. Our understanding of the genetic and clinical characteristics of IMAs has expanded, confirming the uniqueness of IMAs. Accordingly, IMAs require different therapeutic approaches than do lung adenocarcinomas in general...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114468/classification-of-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-tumors-new-insights
#6
REVIEW
Giuseppe Pelosi, Angelica Sonzogni, Sergio Harari, Adriana Albini, Enrica Bresaola, Caterina Marchiò, Federica Massa, Luisella Righi, Gaia Gatti, Nikolaos Papanikolaou, Namrata Vijayvergia, Fiorella Calabrese, Mauro Papotti
Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (Lu-NETs) embrace a heterogeneous family of neoplasms classified into four histological variants, namely typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Defining criteria on resection specimens include mitotic count in 2 mm(2) and the presence or absence of necrosis, alongside a constellation of cytological and histological traits including cell size and shape, nuclear features and overall architecture...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114469/update-on-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma
#7
REVIEW
Kenzo Hiroshima, Mari Mino-Kenudson
High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung are classified into two categories: large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). While typical cases of LCNEC are morphologically distinct from SCLC, the differentiation between LCNEC and SCLC can be challenging in some cases. In fact, there are borderline high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas that morphologically fall between LCNEC and SCLC. Growing evidence suggests that LCNEC is a histologically and biologically heterogeneous group of tumors...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114471/beyond-alk-and-ros1-ret-ntrk-egfr-and-braf-gene-rearrangements-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Anna F Farago, Christopher G Azzoli
The discovery of gene rearrangements involving the receptor tyrosine kinase genes ALK and ROS1 has revolutionized management of the subset of non-small cell lung cancers characterized by these alterations. The oncogenic fusion proteins expressed in these tumors drive cancer cell growth and survival, and targeted inhibition of this signaling can lead to dramatic and durable responses in patients. While the best characterized gene fusions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) involve ALK and ROS1, fusions involving other kinases including RET, NTRK, EGFR and BRAF are now established as additional targetable drivers...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114472/molecular-diagnostics-of-lung-cancer-in-the-clinic
#9
REVIEW
Lynette Sholl
According to current practice guidelines, all patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should undergo predictive biomarker testing. For squamous cell carcinoma patients, PD-L1 immunohistochemistry is indicated to select patients for immunotherapy in the first line. For lung adenocarcinoma, all patients with advanced disease should undergo testing for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, ALK and ROS1 rearrangements, and PD-L1 expression to predict response to EGFR, ALK, or ROS1 targeted inhibitors or immunotherapy, respectively...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114470/histopathologic-and-molecular-approach-to-staging-of-multiple-lung-nodules
#10
REVIEW
Frank Schneider, Sanja Dacic
Distinguishing multiple primary lung cancers from intrapulmonary metastases in patients with synchronous multifocal lung adenocarcinomas can be challenging. The most recent 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual (AJCC staging manual) distinguishes four disease patterns in patients with multiple lung nodules: (I) two or more distinct and histologically different masses (considered unrelated and staged as individual cancers); (II) multiple ground-glass or part-solid nodules, histologically of with lepidic growth pattern (considered separate tumors, T staged based on highest T stage lesion); (III) patchy areas of ground-glass and consolidations, histologically often invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas (considered single tumor with diffuse "pneumonic-type" involvement); and (IV) separate nodules with the same histologic features based on comprehensive histologic subtyping (considered intrapulmonary metastases)...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114473/immunohistochemistry-for-predictive-biomarkers-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Mari Mino-Kenudson
In the era of targeted therapy, predictive biomarker testing has become increasingly important for non-small cell lung cancer. Of multiple predictive biomarker testing methods, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is widely available and technically less challenging, can provide clinically meaningful results with a rapid turn-around-time and is more cost efficient than molecular platforms. In fact, several IHC assays for predictive biomarkers have already been implemented in routine pathology practice. In this review, we will discuss: (I) the details of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS (ROS1) IHC assays including the performance of multiple antibody clones, pros and cons of IHC platforms and various scoring systems to design an optimal algorithm for predictive biomarker testing; (II) issues associated with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) IHC assays; (III) appropriate pre-analytical tissue handling and selection of optimal tissue samples for predictive biomarker IHC...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057237/emerging-uses-of-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer-management-molecular-mechanisms-of-resistance
#12
REVIEW
Shirin Attarian, Numa Rahman, Balazs Halmos
Management of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has recently been transformed by molecularly targeted and immunotherapeutic agents. In patients with EGFR/ALK/ROS mutated NSCLC, first line molecular therapy is the standard of care. Moreover, immune checkpoint inhibitors are revolutionary treatment options for advanced NSCLC and are now the standard of care in front-line or later line settings. Both classes of agents have led to improved patient outcomes, however, primary resistance and development of acquired resistance to both targeted and immunotherapeutic agents is commonly observed, limiting the use of these agents in clinical settings...
September 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057240/emerging-uses-of-circulating-tumor-dna-in-advanced-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Melina Marmarelis, Jeffrey C Thompson, Charu Aggarwal, Tracey L Evans, Erica Carpenter, Roger B Cohen, Corey J Langer, Joshua Bauml
Targeted therapies have dramatically changed the treatment paradigm for a select group of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors harbor targetable genetic aberrations. Patients with such genetic changes enjoy excellent responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but resistance is nearly inevitable. Resistance to first line TKIs is heterogeneous and multifactorial-multiple resistance mechanisms have been reported, and different metastatic foci in the same patient may have distinct resistance mechanisms...
September 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050366/the-resistance-mechanisms-and-treatment-strategies-for-egfr-mutant-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Wen-Zhao Zhong, Qing Zhou, Yi-Long Wu
Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) have been established as the standard therapy for EGFR-sensitizing mutant advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, patients ultimately develop resistance to these drugs. There are several mechanisms of both primary and secondary resistance to EGFR-TKIs. The primary resistance mechanisms include point mutations in exon 18, deletions or insertions in exon 19, insertions, duplications and point mutations in exon 20 and point mutation in exon 21 of EGFR gene...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971587/concurrent-ros1-gene-rearrangement-and-kras-mutation-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
You-Cai Zhu, Xue-Ping Lin, Xiao-Feng Li, Li-Xin Wu, Hua-Fei Chen, Wen-Xian Wang, Chun-Wei Xu, Jian-Fa Shen, Jian-Guo Wei, Kai-Qi Du
Lung adenocarcinomas with gene rearrangement in the receptor tyrosine kinase ROS1 have emerged as a rare molecular subtype. Although these lung adenocarcinomas respond to ROS1tyrosine kinase inhibitors, many patients ultimately acquire resistance. ROS1gene rearrangement is generally mutually exclusive with other driver genomic alterations, such as those in EGFR, KRAS, or ALK, thus multiple genomic alterations are extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of a 42-year-old man diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma positive for a SDC4-ROS1 fusion, who was treated with crizotinib followed by three cycles of chemotherapy...
October 3, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024471/programmed-death-ligand-1-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-comparison-among-cytology-small-biopsy-and-surgical-resection-specimens
#16
Jonas J Heymann, William A Bulman, David Swinarski, Carlos A Pagan, John P Crapanzano, Mehrvash Haghighi, Ladan Fazlollahi, Mark B Stoopler, Joshua R Sonett, Adrian G Sacher, Catherine A Shu, Naiyer A Rizvi, Anjali Saqi
BACKGROUND: One immunotherapeutic agent for patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma, pembrolizumab, has a companion immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based assay that predicts response by quantifying programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. The current study assessed the feasibility of quantifying PD-L1 expression using cytologic non-small cell lung carcinoma specimens and compared the results with those from small biopsy and surgical resection specimens. METHODS: PD-L1 expression was quantified using the IHC-based 22C3 pharmDx assay, with "positivity" defined as staining in ≥50% viable tumor cells; ≥ 100 tumor cells were required for test adequacy...
October 12, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713683/do-we-really-care-about-incidental-lung-nodules-review-of-atypical-lung-carcinoid-and-a-proposal-for-systematic-patient-follow-up
#17
Henal Motiwala, Itisha Bansal, Pradeep Goyal, Olena Dorokhova, Yogesh Kumar, Thomas D Olsavsky, Albert DiMeo, Nishant Gupta
Atypical lung carcinoids are intermediate-grade neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with malignant potential. They are often detected incidentally on imaging done for non-related causes, as the patients are frequently asymptomatic. Histopathology is required to confirm the diagnosis with immunohistochemistry (IHC). Due to their indolent nature, these are often diagnosed only in the advanced stages. Treatment options include chemoradiation for widespread disease versus surgery for local or minimally invasive disease...
June 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878661/the-successful-treatment-of-pulmonary-pleomorphic-carcinoma-with-pembrolizumab-a-case-report
#18
Yoko Matsumoto, Tamaki Miura, Hajime Horiuchi, Kazuhiro Usui
Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinomas are rare malignant tumors, and no standard treatments have been established. We herein report the successful treatment of a patient with pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma with pembrolizumab. A 51-year-old man who was a current smoker presented to our hospital due to dyspnea and hemosputum. Chest X-ray showed right-sided pneumothorax with pleural effusion; chest tube drainage was therefore performed. Computed tomography after chest tube drainage showed a cavitary nodule in the right upper lobe and right hilar and bilateral mediastinal lymphadenopathy...
May 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952142/relationship-between-non-tru-lung-adenocarcinomas-and-bronchiolar-metaplasia-potential-implication-in-their-histogenesis
#19
Koji Okudela, Yoko Kojima, Mai Matsumura, Hiromasa Arai, Shigeaki Umeda, Yoko Tateishi, Hideaki Mitsui, Takehisa Suzuki, Michihiko Tajiri, Takashi Ogura, Kenichi Ohashi
Lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) have been roughly divided into two groups: the terminal respiratory unit (TRU) type and non-TRU type. These ADCs appear to develop through exclusive carcinogenetic pathways because of differences in their cellular morphologies and the profiles of protein expression and genetic alterations. The TRU type develops from atypical adenomatous hyperplasia as a precursor. On the other hand, the histogenesis of the non-TRU type has not yet been defined in detail. We herein investigated histopathological changes in the non-tumor lung tissues of patients with non-TRU-type ADCs in order to define their potential histogenesis...
September 27, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940943/associations-between-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutations-and-histological-subtypes-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-according-to-the-iaslc-ats-ers-classification-in-chinese-patients
#20
Tengteng Wang, Yi Zhang, Baodong Liu, Mu Hu, Naikang Zhou, Xiuyi Zhi
BACKGROUND: This retrospective study was conducted to investigate the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and histological subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma according to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) classification in Chinese patients. METHODS: Three hundred and seventy six surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas from Chinese PLA General Hospital were included in the study...
November 2017: Thoracic Cancer
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