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Cancer treatment

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32 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Faye Kehler Family Physician and GP Anesthetist since 1987 interested in all aspects of Medicine
Ji-Yeon Yang, Kosuke Yoshihara, Kenichi Tanaka, Masayuki Hatae, Hideaki Masuzaki, Hiroaki Itamochi, Masashi Takano, Kimio Ushijima, Janos L Tanyi, George Coukos, Yiling Lu, Gordon B Mills, Roel G W Verhaak
Patients with ovarian cancer are at high risk of tumor recurrence. Prediction of therapy outcome may provide therapeutic avenues to improve patient outcomes. Using reverse-phase protein arrays, we generated ovarian carcinoma protein expression profiles on 412 cases from TCGA and constructed a PRotein-driven index of OVARian cancer (PROVAR). PROVAR significantly discriminated an independent cohort of 226 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas into groups of high risk and low risk of tumor recurrence as well as short-term and long-term survivors...
September 2013: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Abdulmohsen Al Kushi, Peter Lim, Christina Aquino-Parsons, C Blake Gilks
On the basis of pathogenesis, two types of endometrial cancer can be recognized. Type 1 endometrial carcinomas are relatively indolent tumors that develop after prolonged estrogen stimulation, on a background of endometrial hyperplasia. Type 2 endometrial carcinomas are aggressive tumors that are not associated with hyperplasia or estrogen excess. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor proliferative activity in early-stage endometrial cancer by using mitotic index and immunostaining, comparing Type 1 (endometrioid) and Type 2 (papillary serous carcinoma) tumors...
April 2002: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Shilajit D Kundu, Darren R Feldman, Brett S Carver, Amit Gupta, George J Bosl, Robert J Motzer, Dean F Bajorin, Joel Sheinfeld
PURPOSE: Patients with good risk nonseminomatous germ cell tumors received induction chemotherapy with 4 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EPx4) or 3 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEPx3). We report the histological results at post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection after induction chemotherapy in patients treated with etoposide and cisplatin or bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin for good risk nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed in 579 patients after induction chemotherapy...
February 2015: Journal of Urology
Chih-Hao Chen, Tze-Chien Chen, Wen-Chien Huang, Tung-Ying Chen, Hung-Chang Liu
Extragonadal germ cell tumors are relatively rare, particularly malignant yolk sac tumors arising in the lung parenchyma. We report a case of a huge malignant yolk sac tumor in the right middle lobe. The patient was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by complete resection of the tumor.
February 2008: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero, Narciso Hernández-Toriz, Gladell P Paner
Although well recognized in the literature, the contemporary clinicopathologic data regarding choriocarcinoma (CC) as a pure or the predominant component of a testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) are limited. Herein, we present a series of pure CC and predominant CC in mixed GCT of the testis obtained from a single oncology institution. A comprehensive histologic review of 1010 orchiectomies from 1999 to 2011 yielded 6 (0.6%) pure CC and 9 (0.9%) mixed GCT cases with a predominant CC component. Patients' ages ranged from 20 to 39 years (median 29 y)...
January 2014: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
R W Grady
Over the last 3 decades, the management of pediatric yolk sac tumors of the testis has changed significantly. These changes reflect improvement in the treatment of testicular tumors in adults and children, such as the advent of platinum-based chemotherapy regimens. They also reflect increased understanding of the biology and natural history of prepubertal yolk sac tumors of the testis as a unique disease entity.
August 2000: Urologic Clinics of North America
Xu-Dong Yao, Ya-Ping Hong, Ding-Wei Ye, Chao-Fu Wang
BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. CASE: A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities...
2012: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Angiolo Gadducci, Nicoletta Biglia, Roberta Tana, Stefania Cosio, Martina Gallo
Metformin exerts antitumor effects mainly through AMP-activated protein kinase [AMPK] activation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K]-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] inhibition. This drug leads to activation of the cellular energy-sensing liver kinase B1 [LKB1]/AMPK pathway. LKB1 is implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in molecular pathogenesis of different malignancies. AMPK is a serine/threonine protein kinase that acts as an ultra-sensitive cellular energy sensor maintaining the energy balance within the cell...
September 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Guillemette Laval, Blandine Marcelin-Benazech, Frédéric Guirimand, Laure Chauvenet, Laure Copel, Aurélie Durand, Eric Francois, Martine Gabolde, Pascale Mariani, Christine Rebischung, Vincent Servois, Eric Terrebonne, Catherine Arvieux
This article reports on the clinical practice guidelines developed by a multidisciplinary group working on the indications and uses of the various available treatment options for relieving intestinal obstruction or its symptoms in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. These guidelines are based on a literature review and expert opinion. The recommended strategy involves a clinical and radiological evaluation, of which CT of the abdomen is a crucial component. The results, together with an analysis of the prognostic criteria, are used to determine whether surgery or stenting is the best option...
July 2014: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Mohd Wahid, Arshad Jawed, Raju K Mandal, Sajad A Dar, Saif Khan, Naseem Akhter, Shafiul Haque
The advent of more sophisticated studies published has clarified the understating of the root cause of various skin cancers or basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). The remarkable role is played by the comprehensive work done on unraveling the mechanism controlling the function of hedgehog (Hh) pathway. The defective Hh pathway has been found as the major cause for BCCs as activated Hh signaling within primary cilia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of BCCs. The BCC accounts for up to 40% of all cancers in the US, with growing incidences in other countries as well...
February 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Daniel J Kim, James Kim, Katrina Spaunhurst, Javier Montoya, Rita Khodosh, Kalyani Chandra, Teresa Fu, Anita Gilliam, Monserrat Molgo, Philip A Beachy, Jean Y Tang
PURPOSE: Itraconazole, a US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal drug, inhibits the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway, a crucial driver of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tumorigenesis, and reduces BCC growth in mice. We assessed the effect of itraconazole on the HH pathway and on tumor size in human BCC tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with ≥ one BCC tumor > 4 mm in diameter were enrolled onto two cohorts to receive oral itraconazole 200 mg twice per day for 1 month (cohort A) or 100 mg twice per day for an average of 2...
March 10, 2014: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Rossana Berardi, Silvia Rinaldi, Miriam Caramanti, Christian Grohè, Matteo Santoni, Francesca Morgese, Mariangela Torniai, Agnese Savini, Ilaria Fiordoliva, Stefano Cascinu
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder in cancer patients. It may be related to cancer, to anti-cancer therapy or to other concomitant treatments. In this setting hyponatremia is often caused by the syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion, which is due to the ectopic production of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin), to extracellular fluid depletion, to renal toxicity caused by chemotherapy or to other underlying conditions. Recent studies suggested that hyponatremia might be considered a negative prognostic factor for cancer patients therefore its early detection, monitoring and management might improve the patient's outcome...
June 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Robert J Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Clair Beard, Sam Bhayani, Graeme B Bolger, Sam S Chang, Toni K Choueiri, Brian A Costello, Ithaar H Derweesh, Shilpa Gupta, Steven L Hancock, Jenny J Kim, Timothy M Kuzel, Elaine T Lam, Clayton Lau, Ellis G Levine, Daniel W Lin, M Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Roberto Pili, Elizabeth R Plimack, Edward N Rampersaud, Bruce G Redman, Charles J Ryan, Joel Sheinfeld, Brian Shuch, Kanishka Sircar, Brad Somer, Richard B Wilder, Mary Dwyer, Rashmi Kumar
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) account for 95% of testicular cancers. Testicular GCTs constitute the most common solid tumor in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years, and the incidence of testicular GCTs has been increasing in the past 2 decades. Testicular GCTs are classified into 2 broad groups--pure seminoma and nonseminoma--which are treated differently. Pure seminomas, unlike nonseminomas, are more likely to be localized to the testis at presentation. Nonseminoma is the more clinically aggressive tumor associated with elevated serum concentrations of alphafetoprotein (AFP)...
June 2015: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Mizuki Onozawa, Koji Kawai, Takahiro Yamamoto, Shiro Hinotsu, Sadamu Tsukamoto, Kazunori Hattori, Naoto Miyanaga, Toru Shimazui, Hideyuki Akaza
BACKGROUND: Since the advent of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the majority of metastatic testicular cancers can be cured by chemotherapy followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). However, postchemotherapy RPLND confers no therapeutic benefit if the residual mass contains no viable cells. Therefore, to determine which parameters predict a patient's likelihood of having only necrosis in the residual mass, we retrospectively analyzed clinical parameters of patients who underwent postchemotherapy RPLND...
July 2004: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Giuseppe Curigliano, Daniela Cardinale, Susan Dent, Carmen Criscitiello, Olexiy Aseyev, Daniel Lenihan, Carlo Maria Cipolla
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Cancer and heart disease are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world. Modern treatment strategies have led to an improvement in the chances of surviving a diagnosis of cancer; however, these gains can come at a cost. Patients may experience adverse cardiovascular events related to their cancer treatment or as a result of an exacerbation of underlying cardiovascular disease. With longer periods of survival, late effects of cancer treatment may become clinically evident years or decades after completion of therapy...
July 2016: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
P Giannatempo, T Greco, L Mariani, N Nicolai, S Tana, E Farè, D Raggi, L Piva, M Catanzaro, D Biasoni, T Torelli, S Stagni, B Avuzzi, M Maffezzini, G Landoni, F De Braud, A M Gianni, G Sonpavde, R Salvioni, A Necchi
BACKGROUND: Outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) compared with chemotherapy (CT) remain poorly defined for clinical stage (CS) IIA and IIB seminoma. We aimed to evaluate the current role of the two treatment modalities in this setting of testicular seminoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis (MA) was carried out to identify all evaluable studies. Search was limited to studies published after 1990 and included the Medline, Embase databases, and abstracts from ASCO (GU), ESMO, AUA, and ASTRO meetings up to April 2014...
April 2015: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Harold J Burstein, Christina Lacchetti, Holly Anderson, Thomas A Buchholz, Nancy E Davidson, Karen E Gelmon, Sharon H Giordano, Clifford A Hudis, Alexander J Solky, Vered Stearns, Eric P Winer, Jennifer J Griggs
PURPOSE: To update the ASCO adjuvant endocrine therapy guideline based on emerging data concerning the benefits and risks of ovarian suppression in addition to standard adjuvant therapy in premenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. METHODS: ASCO convened an Update Panel and conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials investigating ovarian suppression. RESULTS: Two trials investigating the addition of ovarian suppression to tamoxifen did not show an overall clinical benefit for ovarian suppression...
May 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Dario Baratti, Shigeki Kusamura, Filippo Pietrantonio, Marcello Guaglio, Monica Niger, Marcello Deraco
Peritoneal metastases (PM) from colorectal cancer (CRC) were traditionally associated with bad prognosis. Only recently, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has resulted in survival improvements. A systematic literature search between January 2010 and June 2015 was performed. Studies were selected and appraised according to predetermined criteria. Nineteen cohort studies, and thirteen comparative studies of CRS/HIPEC were included. The weighted median overall survival was 31...
April 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Ombretta Annibali, Francesco Sabatino, Flavio Mantelli, Odoardo Maria Olimpieri, Stefano Bonini, Giuseppe Avvisati
Over the last decades, we have witnessed an increase in the incidence of primary ocular adnexa lymphomas (POALs) probably because advances in imaging techniques have enabled precise biopsies of the tumors. The ocular tissue biopsy, before the initiation of the appropriate treatment, is mandatory and necessary for a correct diagnosis of POALs by the use of immunophenotyping and a correct molecular classification. Only in a minority of cases the ocular adnexa are secondarily affected by a systemic disease. Among the POALs, the most common is the primary extra nodal lymphoma of MALT-type (POAML)...
April 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
S Vincent Rajkumar, Shaji Kumar
The diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma has changed dramatically in the past decade. The disease definition has been updated to include highly specific biomarkers in addition to established markers of end-organ damage. The staging system has been revised to combine both measures of tumor burden and disease biology. Advances in therapy have resulted in a marked improvement in overall survival. New drugs introduced in the past few years include carfilzomib, pomalidomide, panobinostat, ixazomib, elotuzumab, and daratumumab...
January 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
2016-02-12 00:07:14
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