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JB Antibiotic stewardship

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Sandra I Berríos-Torres, Craig A Umscheid, Dale W Bratzler, Brian Leas, Erin C Stone, Rachel R Kelz, Caroline E Reinke, Sherry Morgan, Joseph S Solomkin, John E Mazuski, E Patchen Dellinger, Kamal M F Itani, Elie F Berbari, John Segreti, Javad Parvizi, Joan Blanchard, George Allen, Jan A J W Kluytmans, Rodney Donlan, William P Schecter
Importance: The human and financial costs of treating surgical site infections (SSIs) are increasing. The number of surgical procedures performed in the United States continues to rise, and surgical patients are initially seen with increasingly complex comorbidities. It is estimated that approximately half of SSIs are deemed preventable using evidence-based strategies. Objective: To provide new and updated evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of SSI...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Surgery
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common infections associated with health care, but its importance as a global health priority is not fully understood. We quantified the burden of SSI after gastrointestinal surgery in countries in all parts of the world. METHODS: This international, prospective, multicentre cohort study included consecutive patients undergoing elective or emergency gastrointestinal resection within 2-week time periods at any health-care facility in any country...
May 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Alison H Holmes, Luke S P Moore, Arnfinn Sundsfjord, Martin Steinbakk, Sadie Regmi, Abhilasha Karkey, Philippe J Guerin, Laura J V Piddock
To combat the threat to human health and biosecurity from antimicrobial resistance, an understanding of its mechanisms and drivers is needed. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms is a natural phenomenon, yet antimicrobial resistance selection has been driven by antimicrobial exposure in health care, agriculture, and the environment. Onward transmission is affected by standards of infection control, sanitation, access to clean water, access to assured quality antimicrobials and diagnostics, travel, and migration...
January 9, 2016: Lancet
Jessica M A Blair, Mark A Webber, Alison J Baylay, David O Ogbolu, Laura J V Piddock
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are difficult or impossible to treat are becoming increasingly common and are causing a global health crisis. Antibiotic resistance is encoded by several genes, many of which can transfer between bacteria. New resistance mechanisms are constantly being described, and new genes and vectors of transmission are identified on a regular basis. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which bacteria are either intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to antibiotics, including the prevention of access to drug targets, changes in the structure and protection of antibiotic targets and the direct modification or inactivation of antibiotics...
January 2015: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Marin H Kollef, Scott T Micek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Caroline M A van den Bosch, Suzanne E Geerlings, Stephanie Natsch, Jan M Prins, Marlies E J L Hulscher
BACKGROUND: An important requirement for an effective antibiotic stewardship program is the ability to measure appropriateness of antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to develop quality indicators (QIs) that can be used to measure appropriateness of antibiotic use in the treatment of all bacterial infections in hospitalized adult patients. METHODS: A RAND-modified Delphi procedure was used to develop a set of QIs. Potential QIs were retrieved from the literature...
January 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Loria A Pollack, Arjun Srinivasan
The proven benefits of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) for optimizing antibiotic use and minimizing adverse events, such as Clostridium difficile and antibiotic resistance, have prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to recommend that all hospitals have an ASP. This article summarizes Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs, a recently released CDC document focused on defining the infrastructure and practices of coordinated multidisciplinary programs to improve antibiotic use and patient care in US hospitals...
October 15, 2014: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Graeme N Forrest, Trevor C Van Schooneveld, Ravina Kullar, Lucas T Schulz, Phu Duong, Michael Postelnick
Electronic health records (EHRs) and clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have the potential to enhance antimicrobial stewardship. Numerous EHRs and CDSSs are available and have the potential to enable all clinicians and antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) to more efficiently review pharmacy, microbiology, and clinical data. Literature evaluating the impact of EHRs and CDSSs on patient outcomes is lacking, although EHRs with integrated CDSSs have demonstrated improvements in clinical and economic outcomes...
October 15, 2014: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ramanan Laxminarayan, Adriano Duse, Chand Wattal, Anita K M Zaidi, Heiman F L Wertheim, Nithima Sumpradit, Erika Vlieghe, Gabriel Levy Hara, Ian M Gould, Herman Goossens, Christina Greko, Anthony D So, Maryam Bigdeli, Göran Tomson, Will Woodhouse, Eva Ombaka, Arturo Quizhpe Peralta, Farah Naz Qamar, Fatima Mir, Sam Kariuki, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Anthony Coates, Richard Bergstrom, Gerard D Wright, Eric D Brown, Otto Cars
The causes of antibiotic resistance are complex and include human behaviour at many levels of society; the consequences affect everybody in the world. Similarities with climate change are evident. Many efforts have been made to describe the many different facets of antibiotic resistance and the interventions needed to meet the challenge. However, coordinated action is largely absent, especially at the political level, both nationally and internationally. Antibiotics paved the way for unprecedented medical and societal developments, and are today indispensible in all health systems...
December 2013: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Ian H Spicknall, Betsy Foxman, Carl F Marrs, Joseph N S Eisenberg
Antibiotic-resistant infections complicate treatment and increase morbidity and mortality. Mathematical modeling has played an integral role in improving our understanding of antibiotic resistance. In these models, parameter sensitivity is often assessed, while model structure sensitivity is not. To examine the implications of this, we first reviewed the literature on antibiotic-resistance modeling published between 1993 and 2011. We then classified each article's model structure into one or more of 6 categories based on the assumptions made in those articles regarding within-host and population-level competition between antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains...
August 15, 2013: American Journal of Epidemiology
Céline Pulcini, Karen Bush, William A Craig, Niels Frimodt-Møller, M Lindsay Grayson, Johan W Mouton, John Turnidge, Stephan Harbarth, Inge C Gyssens
In view of the alarming spread of antimicrobial resistance in the absence of new antibiotics, this study aimed at assessing the availability of potentially useful older antibiotics. A survey was performed in 38 countries among experts including hospital pharmacists, microbiologists, and infectious disease specialists in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia. An international expert panel selected systemic antibacterial drugs for their potential to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria or their unique value for specific criteria...
January 15, 2012: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Nirmal K Ganguly, N K Arora, Sujith J Chandy, Mohamed Nadeem Fairoze, J P S Gill, Usha Gupta, Shah Hossain, Sadhna Joglekar, P C Joshi, Manish Kakkar, Anita Kotwani, Ashok Rattan, H Sudarshan, Kurien Thomas, Chand Wattal, Alice Easton, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Antibiotic resistance, a global concern, is particularly pressing in developing nations, including India, where the burden of infectious disease is high and healthcare spending is low. The Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership (GARP) was established to develop actionable policy recommendations specifically relevant to low- and middle-income countries where suboptimal access to antibiotics - not a major concern in high-income countries - is possibly as severe a problem as is the spread of resistant organisms...
September 2011: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Thomas G Slama, Alpesh Amin, Stephen A Brunton, Thomas M File, Gary Milkovich, Keith A Rodvold, Daniel F Sahm, Joseph Varon, David Weiland
In response to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, leading to increasing bacterial resistance and decreasing development of new antibiotics, the Council for Appropriate and Rational Antibiotic Therapy (CARAT) has developed criteria to guide appropriate and accurate antibiotic selection. The criteria, which are aimed at optimizing antibiotic therapy, include evidence-based results, therapeutic benefits, safety, optimal drug for the optimal duration, and cost-effectiveness.
July 2005: American Journal of Medicine
P S Stewart, J W Costerton
Bacteria that adhere to implanted medical devices or damaged tissue can encase themselves in a hydrated matrix of polysaccharide and protein, and form a slimy layer known as a biofilm. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in the biofilm mode of growth contributes to the chronicity of infections such as those associated with implanted medical devices. The mechanisms of resistance in biofilms are different from the now familiar plasmids, transposons, and mutations that confer innate resistance to individual bacterial cells...
July 14, 2001: Lancet
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