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JB Renal ICU papers

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19 papers 0 to 25 followers
Marinos Pericleous, Alexander Sarnowski, Alice Moore, Rik Fijten, Murtaza Zaman
Several pathogenic processes have been implicated in the development of abdominal ascites. Portal hypertension, most usually in the context of liver cirrhosis, can explain about 75% of the cases, whereas infective, inflammatory and infiltrative aetiologies can account for the rest. In this article, we discuss the consensus best practice as published by three professional bodies for the management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). The aim of this study was to compare available clinical guidelines and identify areas of agreement and conflict...
March 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Eric A J Hoste, Wouter De Corte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent finding in critically ill patients and is associated with adverse outcomes. With the purpose of improving outcome of AKI, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) group, a group of experts in critical care nephrology, has presented a set of guidelines in 2012, based on the evidence gathered until mid 2011. This review will update these guidelines with recent evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Early application of a set of therapeutic measures - a bundle - is advised for the prevention and therapy of AKI...
December 2013: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Andrew Davenport, Jawad Ahmad, Ali Al-Khafaji, John A Kellum, Yuri S Genyk, Mitra K Nadim
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as the occurrence of renal dysfunction in a patient with end-stage liver cirrhosis in the absence of another identifiable cause of renal failure. The prognosis of HRS remains poor, with a median survival without liver transplantation of <6 months. However, understanding the pathogenesis of HRS has led to the introduction of treatments designed to increase renal perfusion and mean arterial blood pressure using vasopressors and albumin, which has led to improvement in renal function in ∼50% of patients...
January 2012: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Sameh K Morcos, Henrik S Thomsen, Judith A W Webb
In a previous survey we revealed uncertainty among responders about (a) whether or not to perform hemodialysis in patients with severely reduced renal function who had received contrast medium; and (b) when to perform hemodialysis in patients on regular treatment with hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory dialysis who received contrast medium. Therefore, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. The committee performed a Medline search...
December 2002: European Radiology
Neesh Pannu, Marcello Tonelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Contrast nephropathy is a common complication associated with angiographic procedures that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Recent clinical trials of prophylactic strategies have reported contradictory results. This review presents recent insights into the pathophysiology of contrast nephropathy and reviews trial results in this context. RECENT FINDINGS: A prediction rule has been developed to better identify patients at risk of developing contrast nephropathy...
May 2006: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Julian L Wichmann, Richard W Katzberg, Sheldon E Litwin, Peter L Zwerner, Carlo N De Cecco, Thomas J Vogl, Philip Costello, U Joseph Schoepf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2015: Circulation
Olga Baraldi, Chiara Valentini, Gabriele Donati, Giorgia Comai, Vania Cuna, Irene Capelli, Maria Laura Angelini, Maria Ilaria Moretti, Andrea Angeletti, Fabio Piscaglia, Gaetano La Manna
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in patients with end-stage liver disease and advanced cirrhosis regardless of the underlying cause. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a functional form of kidney failure, is one of the many possible causes of AKI. HRS is potentially reversible but involves highly complex pathogenetic mechanisms and equally complex clinical and therapeutic management. Once HRS has developed, it has a very poor prognosis. This review focuses on the diagnostic approach to HRS and discusses the therapeutic protocols currently adopted in clinical practice...
November 6, 2015: World Journal of Nephrology
Patrick M Honore, Rita Jacobs, Inne Hendrickx, Sean M Bagshaw, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Willem Boer, Elisabeth De Waele, Viola Van Gorp, Herbert D Spapen
Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (SAKI) remains an important challenge in critical care medicine. We reviewed current available evidence on prevention and treatment of SAKI with focus on some recent advances and developments. Prevention of SAKI starts with early and ample fluid resuscitation preferentially with crystalloid solutions. Balanced crystalloids have no proven superior benefit. Renal function can be evaluated by measuring lactate clearance rate, renal Doppler, or central venous oxygenation monitoring...
December 2015: Annals of Intensive Care
Norbert Lameire, Wim Van Biesen, Raymond Vanholder
This seminar covers the most recent information on definition, epidemiology, and clinical causes of acute renal failure. The mechanisms of acute prerenal failure and the potential interference by commonly used drugs of autoregulation of renal blood flow are discussed. We summarise some basic and recent insights into the haemodynamic and cellular pathophysiological mechanisms, mainly of postischaemic acute renal failure. Recent findings on the repair mechanisms of renal injury and the potential future therapeutic possibilities are discussed...
January 29, 2005: Lancet
Janice L Zimmerman, Michael C Shen
Rhabdomyolysis is a well-known clinical syndrome of muscle injury associated with myoglobinuria, electrolyte abnormalities, and often acute kidney injury (AKI). The pathophysiology involves injury to the myocyte membrane and/or altered energy production that results in increased intracellular calcium concentrations and initiation of destructive processes. Myoglobin has been identified as the primary muscle constituent contributing to renal damage in rhabdomyolysis. Although rhabdomyolysis was first described with crush injuries and trauma, more common causes in hospitalized patients at present include prescription and over-the-counter medications, alcohol, and illicit drugs...
September 2013: Chest
Xavier Bosch, Esteban Poch, Josep M Grau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2009: New England Journal of Medicine
S G Holt, K P Moore
Rhabdomyolysis is a major cause of acute renal failure, and recent experimental data have provided a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the renal dysfunction. Renal failure is due to renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage caused by oxidant injury, and possibly tubular obstruction. Recent studies have provided greater insight into the rationale behind current therapy and potential treatment strategies. This review thus aims to summarise current understanding of the causes, pathogenesis and treatment of renal failure caused by rhabdomyolysis...
May 2001: Intensive Care Medicine
Andrea M Pakula, Ruby A Skinner
PURPOSE: A comprehensive review of the literature to provide a focused and thorough update on the issue of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the surgical patient. METHODS: A PubMed and Medline search was performed and keywords included AKI, renal failure, critically ill, and renal replacement therapy (RRT). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A common clinical problem encountered in critically ill patients is AKI. The recent consensus definitions for the diagnosis and classification of AKI (ie, Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease/Acute Kidney Injury Network) have enabled us to standardize the severity of AKI and facilitate strategies for prevention...
June 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Paul E Marik
Current teaching and guidelines suggest that aggressive fluid resuscitation is the best initial approach to the patient with hemodynamic instability. The source of this wisdom is difficult to discern, however, Early Goal Directed therapy (EGDT) as championed by Rivers et al. and the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines appears to have established this as the irrefutable truth. However, over the last decade it has become clear that aggressive fluid resuscitation leading to fluid overload is associated with increased morbidity and mortality across a diverse group of patients, including patients with severe sepsis as well as elective surgical and trauma patients and those with pancreatitis...
2014: Annals of Intensive Care
Hernando Gomez, Can Ince, Daniel De Backer, Peter Pickkers, Didier Payen, John Hotchkiss, John A Kellum
Given that the leading clinical conditions associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), namely, sepsis, major surgery, heart failure, and hypovolemia, are all associated with shock, it is tempting to attribute all AKI to ischemia on the basis of macrohemodynamic changes. However, an increasing body of evidence has suggested that in many patients, AKI can occur in the absence of overt signs of global renal hypoperfusion. Indeed, sepsis-induced AKI can occur in the setting of normal or even increased renal blood flow...
January 2014: Shock
John A Kellum, Norbert Lameire
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious problem affecting millions and causing death and disability for many. In 2012, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes completed the first ever, international, multidisciplinary, clinical practice guideline for AKI. The guideline is based on evidence review and appraisal, and covers AKI definition, risk assessment, evaluation, prevention, and treatment. In this review we summarize key aspects of the guideline including definition and staging of AKI, as well as evaluation and nondialytic management...
February 4, 2013: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Joseph V Bonventre, Li Yang
Ischemic kidney injury often occurs in the context of multiple organ failure and sepsis. Here, we review the major components of this dynamic process, which involves hemodynamic alterations, inflammation, and endothelial and epithelial cell injury, followed by repair that can be adaptive and restore epithelial integrity or maladaptive, leading to chronic kidney disease. Better understanding of the cellular pathophysiological processes underlying kidney injury and repair will hopefully result in the design of more targeted therapies to prevent the injury, hasten repair, and minimize chronic progressive kidney disease...
November 2011: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Rinaldo Bellomo
Acute renal failure (now acute kidney injury) is a common complication of critical illness affecting between 30 and 60% of critically ill patients. The development of a consensus definition (RIFLE--risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage system) has allowed standardization of reporting and epidemiological work. Multicenter multinational epidemiological studies indicate that sepsis is now the most common cause of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit (ICU) followed by cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury...
October 2011: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
J Gary Abuelo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2007: New England Journal of Medicine
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