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Nastassja Koen, Dan J Stein
Given the enormous contribution of anxiety disorders to the burden of disease, it is key to optimize their prevention and treatment. In this critical review we assess advances in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders, as well as remaining challenges, in recent decades, the field has seen rigorous clinical trial methods to quantify the efficacy and safety of serendipitously discovered agents, more focused development of medications with selective mechanisms of action, and the gradual translation of insights from laboratory research into proof-of-principle clinical trials...
2011: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
David A Schmerler, Stephanie Roller, Alberto J Espay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2016: Neurology
Ruisheng Song
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Diabetes Care
Kevin M Antshel, Teresa M Hargrave, Mihai Simonescu, Prashant Kaul, Kaitlin Hendricks, Stephen V Faraone
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurocognitive behavioral developmental disorder most commonly seen in childhood and adolescence, which often extends to the adult years. Relative to a decade ago, there has been extensive research into understanding the factors underlying ADHD, leading to far more treatment options available for both adolescents and adults with this disorder. Novel stimulant formulations have made it possible to tailor treatment to the duration of efficacy required by patients, and to help mitigate the potential for abuse, misuse and diversion...
June 10, 2011: BMC Medicine
Sandra J J Kooij, Susanne Bejerot, Andrew Blackwell, Herve Caci, Miquel Casas-Brugué, Pieter J Carpentier, Dan Edvinsson, John Fayyad, Karin Foeken, Michael Fitzgerald, Veronique Gaillac, Ylva Ginsberg, Chantal Henry, Johanna Krause, Michael B Lensing, Iris Manor, Helmut Niederhofer, Carlos Nunes-Filipe, Martin D Ohlmeier, Pierre Oswald, Stefano Pallanti, Artemios Pehlivanidis, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga, Maria Rastam, Doris Ryffel-Rawak, Steven Stes, Philip Asherson
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. METHODS: The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe...
September 3, 2010: BMC Psychiatry
Thomas G Slama, Alpesh Amin, Stephen A Brunton, Thomas M File, Gary Milkovich, Keith A Rodvold, Daniel F Sahm, Joseph Varon, David Weiland
In response to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, leading to increasing bacterial resistance and decreasing development of new antibiotics, the Council for Appropriate and Rational Antibiotic Therapy (CARAT) has developed criteria to guide appropriate and accurate antibiotic selection. The criteria, which are aimed at optimizing antibiotic therapy, include evidence-based results, therapeutic benefits, safety, optimal drug for the optimal duration, and cost-effectiveness.
July 2005: American Journal of Medicine
Souha S Kanj, Zeina A Kanafani
The development of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative pathogens has been progressive and relentless. Pathogens of particular concern include extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Classic agents used to treat these pathogens have become outdated. Of the few new drugs available, many have already become targets for bacterial mechanisms of resistance. This review describes the current approach to infections due to these resistant organisms and elaborates on the available treatment options...
March 2011: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Catherine M Oliphant, Gary M Green
With the recent introduction of agents such as gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, the traditional gram-negative coverage of fluoroquinolones has been expanded to include specific gram-positive organisms. Clinical applications beyond genitourinary tract infections include upper and lower respiratory infections, gastrointestinal infections, gynecologic infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and some skin and soft tissue infections. Most quinolones have excellent oral bioavailability, with serum drug concentrations equivalent to intravenous administration...
February 1, 2002: American Family Physician
Thomas F Lüscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2016: European Heart Journal
E S Husebye, B Allolio, W Arlt, K Badenhoop, S Bensing, C Betterle, A Falorni, E H Gan, A-L Hulting, A Kasperlik-Zaluska, O Kämpe, K Løvås, G Meyer, S H Pearce
Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI), or Addison's disease, is a rare, potentially deadly, but treatable disease. Most cases of PAI are caused by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex. Consequently, patients with PAI are at higher risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. The diagnosis of PAI is often delayed by many months, and most patients present with symptoms of acute adrenal insufficiency. Because PAI is rare, even medical specialists in this therapeutic area rarely manage more than a few patients...
February 2014: Journal of Internal Medicine
Naykky Singh Ospina, Alaa Al Nofal, Irina Bancos, Asma Javed, Khalid Benkhadra, Ekta Kapoor, Aida N Lteif, Neena Natt, M Hassan Murad
CONTEXT: The diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency is clinically challenging and often requires ACTH stimulation tests. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the high- (250 mcg) and low- (1 mcg) dose ACTH stimulation tests in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. METHODS: We searched six databases through February 2014. Pairs of independent reviewers selected studies and appraised the risk of bias. Diagnostic association measures were pooled across studies using a bivariate model...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Stefan R Bornstein, Bruno Allolio, Wiebke Arlt, Andreas Barthel, Andrew Don-Wauchope, Gary D Hammer, Eystein S Husebye, Deborah P Merke, M Hassan Murad, Constantine A Stratakis, David J Torpy
OBJECTIVE: This clinical practice guideline addresses the diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency. PARTICIPANTS: The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of the Endocrine Society, eight additional clinicians experienced with the disease, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The co-sponsoring associations (European Society of Endocrinology and the American Association for Clinical Chemistry) had participating members...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Paz de Miguel Novoa, Elena Torres Vela, Nuria Palacios García, Manuela Moreira Rodríguez, Icíar Solache Guerras, María de Los Ángeles Martínez de Salinas Santamaría, Anna Aulinas Masó
Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a disease characterized by a deficient production or action of glucocorticoids, with or without deficiency in mineral corticoids and/or adrenal androgens. It can result from disease intrinsic to the adrenal cortex (primary AI), from pituitary diseases that hamper the release of corticotropin (secondary AI) or from hypothalamic disorders that impair the secretion of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (tertiary AI). It is a disease with a low prevalence but its impact on the affected individual is very high as it can be life-threathening if not treated or lead to health problems if inadequately treated...
September 2014: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Tamara G Fong, Samir R Tulebaev, Sharon K Inouye
Delirium is a common and serious acute neuropsychiatric syndrome with core features of inattention and global cognitive dysfunction. The etiologies of delirium are diverse and multifactorial and often reflect the pathophysiological consequences of an acute medical illness, medical complication or drug intoxication. Delirium can have a widely variable presentation, and is often missed and underdiagnosed as a result. At present, the diagnosis of delirium is clinically based and depends on the presence or absence of certain features...
April 2009: Nature Reviews. Neurology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
(no author information available yet)
The abstracted set of recommendations presented here provides essential guidance both on the prevention of postoperative delirium in older patients at risk of delirium and on the treatment of older surgical patients with delirium, and is based on the 2014 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Guideline. The full version of the guideline, American Geriatrics Society Clinical Practice Guideline for Postoperative Delirium in Older Adults is available at the website of the AGS. The overall aims of the study were twofold: first, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the prevention of postoperative delirium in older adults; and second, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the treatment of postoperative delirium in older adults...
January 2015: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Abdo Asmar, Rajesh Mohandas, Charles S Wingo
Hypokalemia is common and can be associated with serious adverse consequences, including paralysis, ileus, cardiac arrhythmias, and death. As a result, the body maintains serum potassium concentration within very narrow limits by tightly regulated feedback and feed-forward systems. Whereas the consequences of symptomatic hypokalemia and severe potassium depletion are well appreciated, chronic mild hypokalemia can accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease, exacerbate systemic hypertension, and increase mortality...
September 2012: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Steven Karceski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2015: Neurology
Kathryn A Bowman, Elizabeth K Broussard, Christina M Surawicz
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained mainstream attention with its remarkable efficacy in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) when there are no other effective therapies. Methods of selecting donors and routes of administration vary among studies, but there are now randomized controlled trials showing efficacy of FMT in treating RCDI. Ongoing trials of FMT for other disease such as inflammatory bowel disease are underway; this therapy should not be used for these conditions unless there is strong evidence for efficacy...
2015: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
L Lee Hamm, Nazih Nakhoul, Kathleen S Hering-Smith
Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids...
December 7, 2015: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
2016-01-24 01:29:47
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