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Infectious Diseases

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27 papers 25 to 100 followers
Olivia Cometti Favalessa, Márcia dos Santos Lázera, Bodo Wanke, Luciana Trilles, Doracilde Terumi Takahara, Tomoko Tadano, Luciana Basili Dias, Ananda Castro Vieira, Glaúcia Vanessa Novack, Rosane Christine Hahn
Cryptococcus gattii, a species belonging to the Cryptococcus complex which occurs endemically in tropical and subtropical regions, has been reported as a causative agent of cryptococcosis in healthy individuals. We report a case of meningitis in HIV-negative patient from Cuiaba, MT, in the Midwestern region of Brazil. Cryptococcus gattii AFLP6/VGII was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and molecular typing was performed by URA5-RFLP. The in vitro susceptibility profile was determined using the standard method according to the document M27A3, CLSI 2008...
October 2014: Mycoses
Sharon C-A Chen, Wieland Meyer, Tania C Sorrell
Understanding of the taxonomy and phylogeny of Cryptococcus gattii has been advanced by modern molecular techniques. C. gattii probably diverged from Cryptococcus neoformans between 16 million and 160 million years ago, depending on the dating methods applied, and maintains diversity by recombining in nature. South America is the likely source of the virulent C. gattii VGII molecular types that have emerged in North America. C. gattii shares major virulence determinants with C. neoformans, although genomic and transcriptomic studies revealed that despite similar genomes, the VGIIa and VGIIb subtypes employ very different transcriptional circuits and manifest differences in virulence phenotypes...
October 2014: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Carolina Coelho, Anamelia L Bocca, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen with worldwide distribution. Serological studies of human populations show a high prevalence of human infection, which rarely progresses to disease in immunocompetent hosts. However, decreased host immunity places individuals at high risk for cryptococcal disease. The disease can result from acute infection or reactivation of latent infection, in which yeasts within granulomas and host macrophages emerge to cause disease. In this review, we summarize what is known about the cellular recognition, ingestion, and killing of C...
2014: Annual Review of Pathology
Carlos Franco-Paredes, Tanea Womack, Teri Bohlmeyer, Brenda Sellers, Allison Hays, Kalpesh Patel, Jairo Lizarazo, Shawn R Lockhart, Wajid Siddiqui, Kieren A Marr
Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. By inhalation and subsequent pulmonary infection, it may disseminate to the CNS and cause meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Most cases occur in immunosuppressed hosts, including patients with HIV/AIDS, patients receiving immunosuppressing drugs, and solid organ transplant recipients. However, cryptococcosis also occurs in individuals with apparently healthy immune systems. A growing number of cases are caused by C gattii, with infections occurring in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals...
March 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Sharon C-A Chen, Tony M Korman, Monica A Slavin, Deborah Marriott, Karen Byth, Narin Bak, Bart J Currie, Krispin Hajkowicz, Christopher H Heath, Sarah Kidd, William J H McBride, Wieland Meyer, Ronan Murray, E Geoffrey Playford, Tania C Sorrell
BACKGROUND: We describe antifungal therapy and management of complications due to Cryptococcus gattii infection in 86 Australian patients followed for at least 12 months. METHODS: Patient data from culture-confirmed cases (2000-2007) were recorded at diagnosis, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Clinical, laboratory, and treatment variables associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) were determined. RESULTS: Seven of 10 patients with lung infection received amphotericin B (AMB) induction therapy (6 with 5-flucytosine [5-FC] for a median of 2 weeks); median duration of therapy including azole eradication therapy was 41 weeks, with a complete/partial clinical response in 78%...
August 2013: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sharon C-A Chen, Monica A Slavin, Christopher H Heath, E Geoffrey Playford, Karen Byth, Deborah Marriott, Sarah E Kidd, Narin Bak, Bart Currie, Krispin Hajkowicz, Tony M Korman, William J H McBride, Wieland Meyer, Ronan Murray, Tania C Sorrell
BACKGROUND: Longer-term morbidity and outcomes of Cryptococcus gattii infection are not described. We analyzed clinical, microbiological, and outcome data in Australian patients followed for 12 months, to identify prognostic determinants. METHODS: Culture-confirmed C. gattii cases from 2000 to 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical, microbiological, radiological, and outcome data were recorded at diagnosis and at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Clinical and laboratory variables associated with mortality and with death and/or neurological sequelae were determined...
September 2012: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Peter Phillips, Eleni Galanis, Laura MacDougall, Mei Y Chong, Robert Balshaw, Victoria J Cook, William Bowie, Theodore Steiner, Linda Hoang, Muhammad Morshed, Wayne Ghesquiere, David M Forrest, Diane Roscoe, Patrick Doyle, Pamela C Kibsey, Thomas Connolly, Yazdan Mirzanejad, Darby Thompson
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus gattii (Cg) infection emerged in British Columbia in 1999. A longitudinal, clinical description of patients has not been reported. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for Cg patients identified through surveillance (1999-2007). Risk factors for Cg mortality were explored using multivariate Cox regression; longitudinal patterns in serum cryptococcal antigen (SCrAg) titers and the probability of chest cryptococcomas over time were estimated using cubic B-splines in mixed-effects regression models...
May 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Emily L Larkin, Sharvari Dharmaiah, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Echinocandins have been in use for over 15 years, starting with the first approval in 2001. Current trends, such as increasing resistance to fluconazole and shifts toward non-albicans spp. of Candida, suggest a growing role for echinocandins, as reflected by recent (2016) updates to guidelines that recommend echinocandins as first-line treatment for candidaemia. The efficacy, tolerability, and safety of echinocandins and their target site of action (1,3-β-d-glucan synthesis) have prompted research into potential new uses, such as for treatment of biofilm infections, MDR Candida auris and dermatophytes...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Romuald Bellmann, Piotr Smuszkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Because of the high mortality of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), appropriate exposure to antifungals appears to be crucial for therapeutic efficacy and safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review summarises published pharmacokinetic data on systemically administered antifungals focusing on co-morbidities, target-site penetration, and combination antifungal therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: Amphotericin B is eliminated unchanged via urine and faeces...
December 2017: Infection
Angela M Caliendo, Richard L Hodinka
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 377, Issue 17, Page 1685-1687, October 2017.
October 26, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Rosa Faner, Alvar Agustí
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
November 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Yasuyuki Kakihana, Takashi Ito, Mayumi Nakahara, Keiji Yamaguchi, Tomotsugu Yasuda
Sepsis is aggravated by an inappropriate immune response to invading microorganisms, which occasionally leads to multiple organ failure. Several lines of evidence suggest that the ventricular myocardium is depressed during sepsis with features of diastolic dysfunction. Potential candidates responsible for septic cardiomyopathy include pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), cytokines, and nitric oxide. Extracellular histones and high-mobility group box 1 that function as endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) also contribute to the myocardial dysfunction associated with sepsis...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Anthony S Fauci, David M Morens
The explosive pandemic of Zika virus infection occurring throughout South America, Central America, and the Caribbean (see map) and potentially threatening the United States is the most recent of four unexpected arrivals of important arthropod-borne viral diseases in the Western Hemisphere over the..
February 18, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Peter G Pappas, Carol A Kauffman, David R Andes, Cornelius J Clancy, Kieren A Marr, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Annette C Reboli, Mindy G Schuster, Jose A Vazquez, Thomas J Walsh, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Jack D Sobel
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.
February 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
C Robert Horsburgh, Clifton E Barry, Christoph Lange
Tuberculosis, a scourge since prehistoric times, affects more than 9 million people and causes the death of 1.5 million people each year. Effective treatment has been available for 60 years, but such treatment takes at least 6 months, and resistance to the drugs, which is increasing throughout the..
November 26, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Natalie Harrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Bart Jan Kullberg, Maiken C Arendrup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Tajamul Hussain, Rafi A Jan
A 46-year-old farmer presented to the emergency department 3 hours after his penis was bitten by a snake while he was urinating in an open field. The snake was identified by the patient as "gunas," which is the local name of the Levantine viper (Macrovipera lebetina). Physical examination revealed..
September 10, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
2016-01-18 09:05:28
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