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Shelli Farhadian, Payal Patel, Serena Spudich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are common in patients with HIV disease, even during suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This review article addresses the pathogenesis of HAND, focusing on important findings from the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: While HIV-associated dementia is now rare in settings with cART availability, mild forms of HAND are increasing in prevalence. Biomarkers of cellular injury, such as neurofilament light chain and neopterin, can detect early stages of neuroinflammation associated with HIV infection and are increased even in asymptomatic individuals with chronic HIV infection...
November 21, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Rafael F Duarte, María Salgado, Isabel Sánchez-Ortega, Montserrat Arnan, Carmen Canals, Eva Domingo-Domenech, Alberto Fernández-de-Sevilla, Eva González-Barca, Sara Morón-López, Nuria Nogues, Beatriz Patiño, Maria Carmen Puertas, Bonaventura Clotet, Lawrence D Petz, Sergio Querol, Javier Martinez-Picado
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic donor CCR5 Δ32 homozygous haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) provides the only evidence to date of long-term control of HIV infection. However, availability of conventional CCR5 Δ32 homozygous donors is insufficient to develop this as a therapeutic strategy further. METHODS: We present a 37-year-old patient with HIV-1 infection and aggressive lymphoma who had disease progression after five lines of radiochemotherapy including an autologous HCT, and in the absence of matched sibling donors, received an allogeneic HCT with four of six HLA-matched CCR5 Δ32 homozygous cord blood cells (StemCyte, Covina, CA), supported with purified CD34+ cells from a haploidentical sibling...
June 2015: Lancet HIV
Keshet Ronen, Amit Sharma, Julie Overbaugh
Rigorous testing of new HIV-prevention strategies is a time-consuming and expensive undertaking. Thus, making well informed decisions on which candidate-prevention approaches are most likely to provide the most benefit is critical to appropriately prioritizing clinical testing. In the case of biological interventions, the decision to test a given prevention approach in human trials rests largely on evidence of protection in preclinical studies. The ability of preclinical studies to predict efficacy in humans may depend on how well the model recapitulates key biological features of HIV transmission relevant to the question at hand...
November 2015: AIDS
John R Koethe, Heather Grome, Cathy A Jenkins, Spyros A Kalams, Timothy R Sterling
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effect of obesity on metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy with sustained virologic suppression. DESIGN: Observational, comparative cohort study with three group-matched arms: 35 nonobese and 35 obese HIV-infected persons on efavirenz, tenofovir and emtricitabine with plasma HIV-1 RNA  less than  50  copies/ml for more than 2 years, and 30 obese HIV-uninfected controls...
January 2, 2016: AIDS
Lawrence D Petz, John C Burnett, Haitang Li, Shirley Li, Richard Tonai, Milena Bakalinskaya, Elizabeth J Shpall, Sue Armitage, Joanne Kurtzberg, Donna M Regan, Pamela Clark, Sergio Querol, Jonathan A Gutman, Stephen R Spellman, Loren Gragert, John J Rossi
HIV-1 infection afflicts more than 35 million people worldwide, according to 2014 estimates from the World Health Organization. For those individuals who have access to antiretroviral therapy, these drugs can effectively suppress, but not cure, HIV-1 infection. Indeed, the only documented case for an HIV/AIDS cure was a patient with HIV-1 and acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a graft that carried the HIV-resistant CCR5-∆32/∆32 mutation. Other attempts to establish a cure for HIV/AIDS using HCT in patients with HIV-1 and malignancy have yielded mixed results, as encouraging evidence for virus eradication in a few cases has been offset by poor clinical outcomes due to the underlying cancer or other complications...
2015: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
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