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Nephrology Reviews

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54 papers 100 to 500 followers A collection of nephrology reviews and guidelines for future reference.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896892/recent-advances-in-ckd-and-esrd-a-literature-update
#1
REVIEW
Tushar Chopra, Mitchell H Rosner
The past year has seen interesting publications in the fields of chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. This review highlights some of these important papers and places their findings in the context of clinical care.
November 28, 2016: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864708/thyroid-dysfunction-and-kidney-disease-an-update
#2
REVIEW
Pedro Iglesias, María Auxiliadora Bajo, Rafael Selgas, Juan José Díez
Thyroid hormones influence renal development, kidney hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate and sodium and water homeostasis. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism affect renal function by direct renal effects as well as systemic hemodynamic, metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased serum creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate. The reverse effects have been reported in thyrotoxicosis. Most of renal manifestations of thyroid dysfunction are reversible with treatment...
November 18, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641990/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-chronic-kidney-disease-time-for-reappraisal
#3
REVIEW
Patrice Cacoub, Anne Claire Desbois, Corinne Isnard-Bagnis, Dario Rocatello, Clodoveo Ferri
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with tremendous morbidity and mortality due to liver complications. HCV infection is also associated with many extrahepatic manifestations including cardiovascular diseases, glucose metabolism impairment, cryoglobulinemia vasculitis, B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many studies have shown a strong association between HCV and CKD, by reporting (i) an increased prevalence of HCV infection in patients on haemodialysis, (ii) an increased incidence of CKD and proteinuria in HCV-infected patients, and (iii) the development of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis secondary to HCV-induced cryoglobulinemia vasculitis...
October 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719682/nomenclature-for-renal-replacement-therapy-in-acute-kidney-injury-basic-principles
#4
REVIEW
Mauro Neri, Gianluca Villa, Francesco Garzotto, Sean Bagshaw, Rinaldo Bellomo, Jorge Cerda, Fiorenza Ferrari, Silvia Guggia, Michael Joannidis, John Kellum, Jeong Chul Kim, Ravindra L Mehta, Zaccaria Ricci, Alberto Trevisani, Silvio Marafon, William R Clark, Jean-Louis Vincent, Claudio Ronco
This article reports the conclusions of a consensus expert conference on the basic principles and nomenclature of renal replacement therapy (RRT) currently utilized to manage acute kidney injury (AKI). This multidisciplinary consensus conference discusses common definitions, components, techniques, and operations of the machines and platforms used to deliver extracorporeal therapies, utilizing a "machine-centric" rather than a "patient-centric" approach. We provide a detailed description of the performance characteristics of membranes, filters, transmembrane transport of solutes and fluid, flows, and methods of measurement of delivered treatment, focusing on continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) which are utilized in the management of critically ill patients with AKI...
October 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821390/update-on-lupus-nephritis
#5
Salem Almaani, Alexa Meara, Brad H Rovin
SLE is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the kidneys in about 50% of patients. Lupus nephritis is a major risk factor for overall morbidity and mortality in SLE, and despite potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapies still ends in CKD or ESRD for too many patients. This review highlights recent updates in our understanding of disease epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment in an effort to establish a framework for lupus nephritis management that is patient-specific and oriented toward maintaining long-term kidney function in patients with lupus...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831511/diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention-of-hemodialysis-emergencies
#6
REVIEW
Manish Saha, Michael Allon
Given the high comorbidity in patients on hemodialysis and the complexity of the dialysis treatment, it is remarkable how rarely a life-threatening complication occurs during dialysis. The low rate of dialysis emergencies can be attributed to numerous safety features in modern dialysis machines; meticulous treatment and testing of the dialysate solution to prevent exposure to trace elements, toxins, and pathogens; adherence to detailed treatment protocols; and extensive training of dialysis staff to handle medical emergencies...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733943/updates-in-anca-associated-vasculitis
#7
REVIEW
Christian Pagnoux
Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are small-vessel vasculitides that include granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener's granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Renal-limited ANCA-associated vasculitides can be considered the fourth entity. Despite their rarity and still unknown cause(s), research pertaining to ANCA-associated vasculitides has been very active over the past decades. The pathogenic role of antimyeloperoxidase ANCA (MPO-ANCA) has been supported using several animal models, but that of antiproteinase 3 ANCA (PR3-ANCA) has not been as strongly demonstrated...
September 2016: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837947/recent-advances-in-our-understanding-of-recurrent%C3%A2-primary-glomerulonephritis-after-kidney%C3%A2-transplantation
#8
REVIEW
Fernando G Cosio, Daniel C Cattran
Recurrent glomerulonephritis (GN) is an important cause of kidney allograft failure, particularly in younger recipients. Approximately 15% of death-censored graft failures are due to recurrent GN, but this incidence is likely an underestimation of the magnitude of the problem. Overall, 18% to 22% of kidney allografts are lost due to GN, either recurrent or presumed de novo. The impact of recurrent GN on allograft survival was recognized from the earliest times in kidney transplantation. However, progress in this area has been slow, and our understanding of GN recurrence remains limited, in large part due to incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases...
November 9, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641135/scleroderma-renal-crisis-and-renal-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Thasia G Woodworth, Yossra A Suliman, Daniel E Furst, Philip Clements
Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is a rare, potentially life-threatening complication that affects 2-15% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, also known as scleroderma). SRC typically presents in patients with early, rapidly progressive, diffuse cutaneous SSc within the first 3-5 years after the onset of a non-Raynaud sign or symptom. SRC is characterized by an acute, usually symptomatic increase in blood pressure, a rise in serum creatinine levels, oliguria and thrombotic microangiopathy in about 50% of patients...
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795549/nanomedicines-for-renal-disease-current-status-and-future-applications
#10
REVIEW
Nazila Kamaly, John C He, Dennis A Ausiello, Omid C Farokhzad
Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physico-chemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772627/not-the-usual-viral-suspects-parvovirus-b19-west-nile-virus-and-human-t-cell-lymphotrophic-virus-infections-after-kidney-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
Raymund R Razonable
Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing clinical disease due to uncommon opportunistic viral pathogens. Refractory anemia is classically associated with parvovirus B19 infection. West Nile virus has the propensity to cause fever and neurologic symptoms, while spastic paresis and lymphoma can be triggered by human T cell lymphotrophic virus. In this review article, the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of less common viruses are discussed in the setting of kidney transplantation...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774673/seminars-in-dialysis-the-100-most-highly-cited-papers
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807144/clinical-practice-guideline-on-management-of-older-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-stage-3b-or-higher-egfr-45-ml-min-1-73-m2
#13
Ken Farrington, Adrian Covic, Fillipo Aucella, Naomi Clyne, Leen de Vos, Andrew Findlay, Denis Fouque, Tomasz Grodzicki, Osasuyi Iyasere, Kitty J Jager, Hanneke Joosten, Juan Florencio Macias, Andrew Mooney, Dorothea Nitsch, Marijke Stryckers, Maarten Taal, James Tattersall, Dieneke Van Asselt, Nele Van den Noortgate, Ionut Nistor, Wim Van Biesen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695357/update-on-current-management-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#14
REVIEW
Nina E Diana, Saraladevi Naicker
The prevalence of HIV-associated chronic kidney disease (CKD) varies geographically and depends on the definition of CKD used, ranging from 4.7% to 38% globally. The incidence, however, has decreased with the use of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). A wide variety of histological patterns are seen in HIV-associated kidney diseases that include glomerular and tubulointerstitial pathology. In resource-rich settings, there has been a plateau in the incidence of end-stage renal disease secondary to HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN)...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670788/acute-kidney-injury-2016-diagnosis-and-diagnostic-workup
#15
Marlies Ostermann, Michael Joannidis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients.
September 27, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622885/fgf23-klotho-signaling-axis-in-the-kidney
#16
Reinhold G Erben, Olena Andrukhova
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone protecting against the potentially deleterious effects of hyperphosphatemia by suppression of phosphate reabsorption and of active vitamin D hormone synthesis in the kidney. The kidney is one of the main target organs of FGF23 signaling. The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent advances in the area of FGF23-Klotho signaling in the kidney. During recent years, it has become clear that FGF23 acts independently on proximal and distal tubular epithelium...
September 10, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217054/sepsis-pathophysiology-and-clinical-management
#17
REVIEW
Jeffrey E Gotts, Michael A Matthay
Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock represent increasingly severe systemic inflammatory responses to infection. Sepsis is common in the aging population, and it disproportionately affects patients with cancer and underlying immunosuppression. In its most severe form, sepsis causes multiple organ dysfunction that can produce a state of chronic critical illness characterized by severe immune dysfunction and catabolism. Much has been learnt about the pathogenesis of sepsis at the molecular, cell, and intact organ level...
May 23, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573731/epidemiology-diagnosis-and-management-of-hypertension-among-patients-on-chronic-dialysis
#18
REVIEW
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Rajiv Agarwal
The diagnosis and management of hypertension among patients on chronic dialysis is challenging. Routine peridialytic blood pressure recordings are unable to accurately diagnose hypertension and stratify cardiovascular risk. By contrast, blood pressure recordings taken outside the dialysis setting exhibit clear prognostic associations with survival and might facilitate the diagnosis and long-term management of hypertension. Once accurately diagnosed, management of hypertension in individuals on chronic dialysis should initially involve non-pharmacological strategies to control volume overload...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590096/assessing-acid-base-status-physiologic-versus-physicochemical-approach
#19
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599629/approach-to-the-treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#20
Kamel S Kamel, Martin Schreiber, Ana P C P Carlotti, Mitchell L Halperin
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a common cause of severe metabolic acidosis, remains a life-threatening condition due to complications of both the disease and its treatment. This Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case discusses DKA management, emphasizing complications of treatment. Because cerebral edema is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity, especially in children with DKA, we emphasize its pathophysiology and implications for therapy. The risk for cerebral edema may be minimized by avoiding a bolus of insulin, excessive saline resuscitation, and a decrease in effective plasma osmolality early in treatment...
September 3, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
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