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Henna Wong, Nicola Curry, Simon J Stanworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Death from uncontrolled haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of trauma-related mortality and is potentially preventable. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) have focused attention on the role of blood products and procoagulants in mitigating the sequelae of TIC and how these therapies can be improved. RECENT FINDINGS: A host of preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated blood product availability and efficacy in trauma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Jeffrey L Carson, Gordon Guyatt, Nancy M Heddle, Brenda J Grossman, Claudia S Cohn, Mark K Fung, Terry Gernsheimer, John B Holcomb, Lewis J Kaplan, Louis M Katz, Nikki Peterson, Glenn Ramsey, Sunil V Rao, John D Roback, Aryeh Shander, Aaron A R Tobian
Importance: More than 100 million units of blood are collected worldwide each year, yet the indication for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and the optimal length of RBC storage prior to transfusion are uncertain. Objective: To provide recommendations for the target hemoglobin level for RBC transfusion among hospitalized adult patients who are hemodynamically stable and the length of time RBCs should be stored prior to transfusion. Evidence Review: Reference librarians conducted a literature search for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating hemoglobin thresholds for RBC transfusion (1950-May 2016) and RBC storage duration (1948-May 2016) without language restrictions...
October 12, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Edward Litton, Stuart Baker, Wendy N Erber, Shannon Farmer, Janet Ferrier, Craig French, Joel Gummer, David Hawkins, Alisa Higgins, Axel Hofmann, Bart De Keulenaer, Julie McMorrow, John K Olynyk, Toby Richards, Simon Towler, Robert Trengove, Steve Webb
PURPOSE: Both anaemia and allogenic red blood cell transfusion are common and potentially harmful in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Whilst intravenous iron may decrease anaemia and RBC transfusion requirement, the safety and efficacy of administering iron intravenously to critically ill patients is uncertain. METHODS: The multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded Intravenous Iron or Placebo for Anaemia in Intensive Care (IRONMAN) study was designed to test the hypothesis that, in anaemic critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit, early administration of intravenous iron, compared with placebo, reduces allogeneic red blood cell transfusion during hospital stay and increases the haemoglobin level at the time of hospital discharge...
September 30, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Erica Simon, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) affects approximately 100,000 individuals in the United States. Due to alterations in the structural conformation of hemoglobin molecules under deoxygenated conditions, patients with SCD are predisposed to numerous sequelae, many of which require acute intervention. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to provide emergency physicians with an evidence-based update regarding the diagnosis and management of SCD complications. DISCUSSION: SCD patients experience significant morbidity and mortality secondary to cerebrovascular accident, acute chest syndrome, acute vaso-occlusive pain crises, SCD-related multi-organ failure, cholecystitis, acute intrahepatic cholestasis, acute sickle hepatic crisis, acute hepatic sequestration, priapism, and renal disease...
October 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Y E Chee, S E Liu, M G Irwin
Management of acute coagulopathy and blood loss during major vascular procedures poses a significant haemostatic challenge to anaesthetists. The acute coagulopathy is multifactorial in origin with tissue injury and hypotension as the precipitating factors, followed by dilution, hypothermia, acidemia, hyperfibrinolysis and systemic inflammatory response, all acting as a self-perpetuating spiral of events. The problem is confounded by the high prevalence of antithrombotic agent use in these patients and intraoperative heparin administration...
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Marcel Levi
BACKGROUND: Recently, a new generation of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) with a greater specificity towards activated coagulation factors was introduced based on encouraging results for efficacy and safety in clinical studies. An initial limitation of these new drugs was the absence of an adequate strategy to reverse the effect if a bleeding event occurs or an urgent invasive procedure has to be carried out. MAIN TEXT: Specific reversing agents for DOACs have become available, however, and are now evaluated in clinical studies...
August 20, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Burcin Halacli, Nese Unver, Sevil Oskay Halacli, Hande Canpinar, Ebru Ortac Ersoy, Serpil Ocal, Dicle Guc, Yahya Buyukasik, Arzu Topeli
PURPOSE: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by uncontrolled inflammation and has common clinical and laboratory features with sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate patients treated with severe sepsis who had bicytopenia for the presence of HLH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with severe sepsis who were non-responsive to treatment and developed at least bicytopenia were included. Peripheral blood samples were collected and stored for later evaluation for natural killer (NK) activity and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels...
October 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Benjamin S Salter, Menachem M Weiner, Muoi A Trinh, Joshua Heller, Adam S Evans, David H Adams, Gregory W Fischer
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a profoundly dangerous, potentially lethal, immunologically mediated adverse drug reaction to unfractionated heparin or, less commonly, to low-molecular weight heparin. In this comprehensive review, the authors highlight heparin-induced thrombocytopenia's risk factors, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic principles, and treatment. The authors place special emphasis on the management of patients requiring procedures using cardiopulmonary bypass or interventions in the catheterization laboratory...
May 31, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Justin J J Watson, Shibani Pati, Martin A Schreiber
Traumatic hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death after trauma. Early transfusion of plasma and balanced transfusion have been shown to optimize survival, mitigate the acute coagulopathy of trauma, and restore the endothelial glycocalyx. There are a myriad of plasma formulations available worldwide, including fresh frozen plasma, thawed plasma, liquid plasma, plasma frozen within 24 h, and lyophilized plasma (LP). Significant equipoise exists in the literature regarding the optimal plasma formulation...
November 2016: Shock
Richard A Marlar, Bernadette Clement, Jana Gausman
When administering unfractionated heparin (UFH), therapeutic levels of anticoagulation must be achieved rapidly and maintained consistently in the therapeutic range. The basic assays for monitoring UFH therapy are the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and/or the chromogenic antifactor Xa or antithrombin assays. For many laboratories, the APTT is the preferred standard of practice; however, the APTT is a surrogate marker that only estimates the heparin concentration. Many factors, including patient variation, reagents of the APTT, UFH composition, and concentration can influence the APTT result...
June 6, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Cristina Santoro, Fulvio Massaro, Salvatore Venosi, Saveria Capria, Erminia Baldacci, Roberto Foà, Maria Gabriella Mazzucconi
Congenital afibrinogenemia (CA) is a disease characterized by a complex pathophysiology, involving both the procoagulant and fibrinolytic systems, as well as platelet activity. Although hemorrhagic diathesis represents the most frequent clinical presentation of this disorder, severe thrombotic events can occur. It is not yet clear if these events are strictly related to the disease itself or to the fibrinogen replacement therapy. Different hypotheses on the pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed. It is well known that fibrinogen/fibrin has a role in the downregulation of thrombin generation in plasma...
July 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Andreas Drolz, Thomas Horvatits, Kevin Roedl, Karoline Rutter, Katharina Staufer, Nikolaus Kneidinger, Ulrike Holzinger, Christian Zauner, Peter Schellongowski, Gottfried Heinz, Thomas Perkmann, Stefan Kluge, Michael Trauner, Valentin Fuhrmann
UNLABELLED: Disturbances of coagulation and hemostasis are common in patients with liver cirrhosis. The typical laboratory pattern mimics disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of routine coagulation parameters in critically ill cirrhosis patients with regard to new onset of major bleeding and outcome. A total of 1,493 critically ill patients were studied prospectively. Routine coagulation parameters were assessed, and the DIC score was calculated based on platelets, fibrinogen, d-dimer, and prothrombin index...
August 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Oliver Grottke, James Aisenberg, Richard Bernstein, Patrick Goldstein, Menno V Huisman, Dara G Jamieson, Jerrold H Levy, Charles V Pollack, Alex C Spyropoulos, Thorsten Steiner, Gregory J Del Zoppo, John Eikelboom
Dabigatran is effective in decreasing the risk of ischaemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, like all anticoagulants, it is associated with a risk of bleeding. In cases of trauma or emergency surgery, emergency reversal of dabigatran-induced anticoagulation may be required. A specific reversal agent for dabigatran, idarucizumab, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Alternative reversal agents are available, such as prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) and activated PCCs (aPCCs)...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Nareg Roubinian, Jeffrey L Carson
Anemia in patients with malignancy is common as a consequence of their disease and treatment. Substantial progress has been made in the management of anemia with red blood cell transfusion in acute conditions, such as bleeding and infection, through the performance of large clinical trials. These trials suggest that transfusion at lower hemoglobin thresholds (restrictive transfusion ∼7-8 g/dL) is safe and in some cases superior to higher transfusion thresholds (liberal transfusion ∼9-10 g/dL). However, additional studies are needed in patients with malignancy to understand best practice in relation to quality of life as well as clinical outcomes...
June 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Alan Tinmouth
Frozen plasma is a commonly used blood product. The primary indications for frozen plasma are the treatment and prevention of bleeding in patients with prolonged coagulation tests. However, there is a lack of well-conducted clinical trials to determine the appropriate indications for frozen plasma. The rationale and evidence for frozen plasma transfusions are reviewed, including the evidence or lack of evidence supporting common indications. Targeting indications in which frozen plasma transfusions are clearly not beneficial as supported by the current evidence provides an opportunity to improve the current use of frozen plasma and reduce adverse transfusion events...
June 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Yen-Michael S Hsu, Melissa M Cushing
Peripheral blood stem cell collection is an effective approach to obtain a hematopoietic graft for stem cell transplantation. Developing hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization methods and collection algorithms have improved efficiency, clinical outcomes, and cost effectiveness. Differences in mobilization mechanisms may change the HSPC content harvested and result in different engraftment kinetics and complications. Patient-specific factors can affect mobilization. Incorporating these factors in collection algorithms and improving assays for evaluating mobilization further extend the ability to obtain sufficient HSPCs for hematopoietic repopulation...
June 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
William J Savage
Transfusion reactions are common occurrences, and clinicians who order or transfuse blood components need to be able to recognize adverse sequelae of transfusion. The differential diagnosis of any untoward clinical event should always consider adverse sequelae of transfusion, even when transfusion occurred weeks earlier. There is no pathognomonic sign or symptom that differentiates a transfusion reaction from other potential medical problems, so vigilance is required during and after transfusion when a patient presents with a change in clinical status...
June 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Eric A Gehrie, Nancy M Dunbar
Blood component modifications can be performed by the hospital blood bank for select clinical indications. In general, modification of blood components increases costs and may delay availability of the blood component because of the additional time required for some modification steps. However, the benefit of blood product modification may outweigh these concerns. Common modifications include leukoreduction, irradiation, volume reduction, splitting, and washing. Modification availability and selection practice may vary from hospital to hospital...
June 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Stefanie K Forest, Eldad A Hod
Platelet refractoriness occurs when there is an inadequate response to platelet transfusions, which typically has nonimmune causes, but is also associated with alloantibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and/or human platelet antigens. Immune-mediated platelet refractoriness is suggested when a 10-minute to 1-hour corrected count increment of less than 5 × 10(9)/L is observed after 2 sequential transfusions using ABO-identical, freshest available platelets. When these antibodies are identified, one of 3 strategies should be used for identifying compatible platelet units: HLA matching, crossmatching, and antibody specificity prediction...
June 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Tahir Mehmood, Michelle Taylor, Jeffrey L Winters
Thrombotic microangiopathies are a heterogeneous group of inherited and acquired disorders sharing a common clinical presentation of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ damage. These disorders have been treated with plasma exchange (TPE) based on randomized controlled trials, which found this therapy to be effective in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). For the remaining disorders, low- to very low-quality evidence exists for the use of TPE. When TPE is applied, the treatment regimen used for TTP is usually applied...
June 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
2016-04-28 03:44:44
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