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63 papers 25 to 100 followers
Lara Bashoura, George A Eapen, Saadia A Faiz
Pulmonary manifestations of lymphoma and leukemia may involve multiple structures within the thoracic cavity. Malignant lymphoma typically originates in lymph nodes, but concomitant or primary presentations with parenchymal, pleural, or tracheobronchial disease may occur. Once infection is excluded, leukemic infiltrates may be related to malignancy, hemorrhage, or secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Confirmation with cytology or flow cytometry is recommended to diagnose malignant pleural effusions in hematologic malignancies...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Trevor J Bledsoe, Sameer K Nath, Roy H Decker
Radiation-induced lung injury is a well-known complication of thoracic radiation for patients with breast, lung, thymic, and esophageal malignancies, and mediastinal lymphomas. Improvements in radiation technique, as well as the understanding of the pathophysiology of radiation injury, have led to lower rates of pneumonitis and improved symptom control. Here, the authors provide an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of patients with radiation pneumonitis as a complication of treatment of chest malignancies...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Paul Leger, Andrew H Limper, Fabien Maldonado
Despite significant recent progress in precision medicine and immunotherapy, conventional chemotherapy remains the cornerstone of the treatment of most cancers. Chemotherapy-induced lung toxicity represents a serious diagnostic challenge for health care providers and requires careful consideration because it is a diagnosis of exclusion with significant impact on therapeutic decisions. This review aims to provide clinicians with a valuable guide in assessing their patients with possible chemotherapy-induced lung toxicity...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Lisa K Vande Vusse, David K Madtes
This article reviews the noninfectious pulmonary syndromes that cause morbidity and mortality early after hematopoietic cell transplantation with an emphasis on risk factors, clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes. The first section covers idiopathic pneumonia syndrome and its subtypes: peri-engraftment respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, delayed pulmonary toxicity syndrome, and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. The second section covers pulmonary toxicities of chemotherapies and immunosuppressive agents used in this setting...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Anne Bergeron
Late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications (LONIPCs), most of which occur between 3 months and 2 years following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), have a significant effect on patient outcomes and are highly associated with mortalities and morbidities. LONIPCs can involve all anatomic lung regions: bronchi, parenchyma, vessels, and pleura; this diversity can lead to various clinical entities. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is the most frequent LONIPC. Most LONIPCs are associated with graft-versus-host disease...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Justin L Wong, Scott E Evans
Bacterial pneumonias exact unacceptable morbidity on patients with cancer. Although the risk is often most pronounced among patients with treatment-induced cytopenias, the numerous contributors to life-threatening pneumonias in cancer populations range from derangements of lung architecture and swallow function to complex immune defects associated with cytotoxic therapies and graft-versus-host disease. These structural and immunologic abnormalities often make the diagnosis of pneumonia challenging in patients with cancer and impact the composition and duration of therapy...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Steven A Pergam
Invasive fungal infections, which occur primarily as a consequence of prolonged neutropenia and immunosuppression, are a life-threatening complication seen among patients with hematologic malignancies. The routine use of triazole antifungal prophylaxis, enhanced diagnostics, and newer antifungal agents have led to improvements in the care of fungal pneumonias, but invasive fungal infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This article covers risk factors for major fungal infections, diagnostic approaches, and treatment options for specific fungal pathogens, including Aspergillus and Mucorales species, and discusses current approved strategies for prevention of common and uncommon fungal pneumonias...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Margaret L Green
Viral pneumonia is a common complication for patients with hematologic malignancies and after hematopoietic cell transplantation causing significant morbidity, and often mortality. Infections are predominantly caused by herpes viruses, either by reactivation of latent infection, or less commonly primary infection, or community respiratory viruses. High-resolution CT scan is useful for diagnosis but is nonspecific; generally, bronchoalveolar lavage is required. Prevention strategies are not pathogen-specific but include vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, preemptive treatment, and effective infection-prevention strategies during community outbreaks...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Guang-Shing Cheng
Pretransplant pulmonary function tests provide baseline data by which to reference subsequent respiratory impairment, as well as important prognostic information, for the hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipient. Abnormalities in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide are associated with early respiratory failure and increased all-cause mortality after allogeneic HCT. These parameters have been incorporated into risk assessment calculators that may aid in clinical decision making...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Bianca Harris, Alexander I Geyer
Pulmonary complications (PC) of hematologic malignancies and their treatments are common causes of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis is challenging due to host risk factors, clinical instability, and provider preference. Delayed diagnosis impairs targeted treatment and may contribute to poor outcomes. An integrated understanding of clinical risk and radiographic patterns informs a timely approach to diagnosis and treatment. There is little prospective evidence guiding optimal modality and timing of minimally invasive lung sampling; however, a low threshold for diagnostic bronchoscopy during the first 24 to 72 hours after presentation should be a guiding principle in high-risk patients...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Ayman O Soubani
Advances in cancer treatment and patient survival are associated with increasing number of these patients requiring intensive care. Over the last 2 decades, there has been a steady improvement in the outcomes of critically ill patients with cancer. This review provides data on the use of the intensive care unit (ICU) and short and long-term outcomes of critically ill patients with cancer, the ICU system practices that influence patients outcomes, and the role of the different clinical variables in predicting the prognosis of these patients...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Anne-Sophie Moreau, Olivier Peyrony, Virginie Lemiale, Lara Zafrani, Elie Azoulay
Acute respiratory failure occurs in up to 50% of patients treated for hematologic malignancies and is associated with a high case fatality rate. Because of residual organ dysfunction and time spent receiving respiratory care, underlying disease control is affected. Early admission to an intensive care unit for acute respiratory failure has proven benefit because it is the best place for rapid implementation of noninvasive diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical approach and diagnostic strategies for acute respiratory failure in patients with hematologic malignancies...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Lena M Napolitano
Anemia is common in the intensive care unit (ICU), resulting in frequent administration of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Significant advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of anemia in the ICU, which is anemia of inflammation. This anemia is related to high hepcidin concentrations resulting in iron-restricted erythropoiesis, and decreased erythropoietin concentrations. A new hormone (erythroferrone) has been identified, which mediates hepcidin suppression to allow increased iron absorption and mobilization from iron stores...
April 2017: Critical Care Clinics
E Vibede, C L Hvas, E Tønnesen, A-M Hvas
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients often receive fresh frozen plasma (FFP) if they have abnormal conventional coagulation tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of FFP transfusion judged by a wide range of coagulation tests. METHODS: We included 30 critically ill patients receiving FFP and 30 critically ill patients who did not receive FFP. For patients receiving FFP, blood samples were obtained before and 1 h after FFP transfusion. Conventional coagulation tests, thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®) , EXTEM, INTEM and FIBTEM) and thrombin generation were performed...
May 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Christos V Rizos, Haralampos J Milionis, Moses S Elisaf
Patients with gastrointestinal bleeding often require large volume blood transfusion. Among the various side effects of blood transfusion, the increase of potassium levels is a serious one which is often overlooked. We report a case of severe hyperkalemia in a patient with gastric bleeding after large volume transfusion of packed red blood cells. The patient had hyperkalemia at baseline associated with his receiving medication as well as acute renal failure following hypovolemia. The baseline hyperkalemia was further aggravated after massive transfusions of packed red blood cells in a short period of time...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
J W Simmons, M F Powell
Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy occurs immediately after massive trauma when shock, hypoperfusion, and vascular damage are present. Mechanisms for this acute coagulopathy include activation of protein C, endothelial glycocalyx disruption, depletion of fibrinogen, and platelet dysfunction. Hypothermia and acidaemia amplify the endogenous coagulopathy and often accompany trauma. These multifactorial processes lead to decreased clot strength, autoheparinization, and hyperfibrinolysis. Furthermore, the effects of aggressive crystalloid administration, haemodilution from inappropriate blood product transfusion, and prolonged surgical times may worsen clinical outcomes...
December 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
K Ghadimi, J H Levy, I J Welsby
Perioperative bleeding remains a major complication during and after surgery, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The principal causes of non-vascular sources of haemostatic perioperative bleeding are a preexisting undetected bleeding disorder, the nature of the operation itself, or acquired coagulation abnormalities secondary to haemorrhage, haemodilution, or haemostatic factor consumption. In the bleeding patient, standard therapeutic approaches include allogeneic blood product administration, concomitant pharmacologic agents, and increasing application of purified and recombinant haemostatic factors...
December 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Jason Weinberger, Mark Cipolle
The incidence of patients with trauma on novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for the treatment of thromboembolic disorders is increasing. In severe bleeding or hemorrhage into critical spaces, urgent reversal of this underlying pharmacologic coagulopathy becomes paramount. Optimal reversal strategy for commonly used NOACs is still evolving. Basic tenets of evaluation of patients with trauma and resuscitation remain the same. Clinical outcomes data in bleeding human patients with trauma are lacking, but are needed to establish efficacy and safety in these treatments...
January 2017: Critical Care Clinics
Markus Peck-Radosavljevic
Thrombocytopenia is a common haematological disorder in patients with chronic liver disease. It is multifactorial and severity of liver disease is the most influential factor. As a result of the increased risk of bleeding, thrombocytopenia may impact upon medical procedures, such as surgery or liver biopsy. The pathophysiology of thrombocytopenia in chronic liver disease has long been associated with the hypothesis of hypersplenism, where portal hypertension causes pooling and sequestration of all corpuscular elements of the blood, predominantly thrombocytes, in the enlarged and congested spleen...
June 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Noémie Despas, Anne-Sophie Larock, Hugues Jacqmin, Jonathan Douxfils, Bernard Chatelain, Marc Chatelain, François Mullier
Traditional anticoagulant agents such as unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), fondaparinux, danaparoid and bivalirudine are used in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. However, these agents have limitations: their constraining parenteral route of administration and the need for regular coagulation monitoring for HNF. The LMWHs, with their more predictable anticoagulant response, don't require a systematic monitoring. The usefulness of LMWHs monitoring in several clinical situations such as pregnancy, obesity and renal insufficiency is a matter of debate...
December 1, 2016: Annales de Biologie Clinique
2016-11-18 21:05:12
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