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Head Injuries/Capnography

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12 papers 0 to 25 followers
By Ethan Zook Paramedic
Tetsuya Yumoto, Hiromichi Naito, Takashi Yorifuji, Hiroki Maeyama, Yoshinori Kosaki, Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Kohei Tsukahara, Takaaki Osako, Atsunori Nakao
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether Cushing's sign could predict severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring immediate neurosurgical intervention (BI-NSI) in children after blunt trauma. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using Japan Trauma Data Bank. SETTING: Emergency and critical care centres in secondary and tertiary hospitals in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Children between the ages of 2 and 15 years with Glasgow Coma Scale motor scores of 5 or less at presentation after blunt trauma from 2004 to 2015 were included...
March 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Nicolas Bailly, Jean-Dominique Laporte, Sanae Afquir, Catherine Masson, Thierry Donnadieu, Jean-Baptiste Delay, Pierre-Jean Arnoux
INTRODUCTION: Sport helmet effectiveness in preventing traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been repeatedly questioned. This study assesses the effect of helmet use on risk of TBI and other types of head injury (OTHI) in alpine sports. METHODS: From 2012 to 2014, data on the injured population were collected by physicians in on-mountain clinics in 30 French ski resorts, and interviews were conducted on the slope to sample a noninjured control population. Two sets of cases (1425 participants with TBI and 1386 with OTHI) were compared with 2 sets of controls (2145 participants without injury and 40,288 with an injury to a body part other than the head)...
June 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Daniel W Spaite, Chengcheng Hu, Bentley J Bobrow, Vatsal Chikani, Bruce Barnhart, Joshua B Gaither, Kurt R Denninghoff, P David Adelson, Samuel M Keim, Chad Viscusi, Terry Mullins, Duane Sherrill
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Survival is significantly reduced by either hypotension or hypoxia during the out-of-hospital management of major traumatic brain injury. However, only a handful of small studies have investigated the influence of the combination of both hypotension and hypoxia occurring together. In patients with major traumatic brain injury, we evaluate the associations between mortality and out-of-hospital hypotension and hypoxia separately and in combination. METHODS: All moderate or severe traumatic brain injury cases in the preimplementation cohort of the Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care study (a statewide, before/after, controlled study of the effect of implementing the out-of-hospital traumatic brain injury treatment guidelines) from January 1, 2007, to March 31, 2014, were evaluated (exclusions: <10 years, out-of-hospital oxygen saturation ≤10%, and out-of-hospital systolic blood pressure <40 or >200 mm Hg)...
January 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Mauro Oddo, Ilaria Alice Crippa, Sangeeta Mehta, David Menon, Jean-Francois Payen, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Giuseppe Citerio
Daily interruption of sedative therapy and limitation of deep sedation have been shown in several randomized trials to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay, and to improve the outcome of critically ill patients. However, patients with severe acute brain injury (ABI; including subjects with coma after traumatic brain injury, ischaemic/haemorrhagic stroke, cardiac arrest, status epilepticus) were excluded from these studies. Therefore, whether the new paradigm of minimal sedation can be translated to the neuro-ICU (NICU) is unclear...
May 5, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
George A Brooks, Neil A Martin
Because it is the product of glycolysis and main substrate for mitochondrial respiration, lactate is the central metabolic intermediate in cerebral energy substrate delivery. Our recent studies on healthy controls and patients following traumatic brain injury (TBI) using [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and [3-(13)C]lactate, along with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial-venous (jugular bulb) difference measurements for oxygen, metabolite levels, isotopic enrichments and (13)CO2 show a massive and previously unrecognized mobilization of lactate from corporeal (muscle, skin, and other) glycogen reserves in TBI patients who were studied 5...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Deepak Sharma, Monica S Vavilala
This article presents an overview of the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) as relevant to the practicing anesthesiologist. Key concepts surrounding the pathophysiology and anesthetic principles are used to describe potential ways to reduce secondary insults and improve outcomes after TBI.
June 2012: Anesthesiology Clinics
E von Elm, P Schoettker, I Henzi, J Osterwalder, B Walder
BACKGROUND: We reviewed the current evidence on the benefit and harm of pre-hospital tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search up to December 2007 without language restriction to identify interventional and observational studies comparing pre-hospital intubation with other airway management (e.g. bag-valve-mask or oxygen administration) in patients with TBI. Information on study design, population, interventions, and outcomes was abstracted by two investigators and cross-checked by two others...
September 2009: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Daniel P Davis
While airway and ventilatory compromise are significant concerns following traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is little data supporting an aggressive approach to airway management by prehospital personnel, and a growing number of reports suggesting an association between early intubation and increased mortality. Recent clinical and experimental data suggest that hyperventilation is an important contributor to these adverse outcomes in TBI patients. Various mechanisms appear to be responsible for the worsened outcomes, including hemodynamic, cerebrovascular, immunologic and cellular effects...
March 2008: Resuscitation
Samir M Fakhry, James M Scanlon, Linda Robinson, Reza Askari, Rolland L Watenpaugh, Paola Fata, William E Hauda, Arthur Trask
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have questioned the safety and efficacy of prehospital rapid sequence intubation (RSI) for patients with head trauma. The purpose of this study is to determine the rate of successful prehospital RSI, associated complications, and delays in transport of critically injured trauma patients treated by a select, well-trained group of paramedics with frequent exposure to this procedure and a rigorous quality control system. METHODS: A helicopter paramedic group's database of patient flight records (1999 to 2003) was merged with registry data of a suburban Level I trauma center...
May 2006: Journal of Trauma
Daniel P Davis, James V Dunford, Mel Ochs, Kenneth Park, David B Hoyt
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether field end-tidal carbon dioxide CO2 (ETCO2) monitoring decreases inadvertent severe hyperventilation after paramedic rapid sequence intubation. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively as part of the San Diego Paramedic Rapid Sequence Intubation Trial, which enrolled adults with severe head injuries (Glasgow Coma Score, 3-8) that could not be intubated without neuromuscular blockade. After preoxygenation, the patients underwent rapid sequence intubation using midazolam and succinylcholine...
April 2004: Journal of Trauma
Neal Cook
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating and challenging condition. The events that lead to SCI, such as road traffic accidents, falls, sports and violence [Top. Spinal Cord Inj. Rehabil. 5 (1999) 83], are also the common aetiologies of traumatic brain injury (TBI). It's not surprising then, that 20-50% of those with cervical SCI have TBI [J. Trauma 46 (1999) 450]. The literature pertaining to the management of either injury in isolation is vast, but lacking where the two conditions are experienced together and require distinct adaptations to interventions...
June 2003: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Paul E Marik, Joseph Varon, Todd Trask
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability and death in most Western nations and consumes an estimated $100 billion annually in the United States alone. In the last 2 decades, the management of TBI has evolved dramatically, as a result of a more thorough understanding of the physiologic events leading to secondary neuronal injury as well as advances in the care of critically ill patients. However, it is likely that many patients with TBI are not treated according to current treatment principles...
August 2002: Chest
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