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K O Leslie
The complex world of interstitial lung disease presents nearly insurmountable challenges to the general surgical pathologist faced with a lung biopsy in this setting. The pathology is often inflammatory and always requires clinical and radiological context for a relevant and clinically useful histopathological diagnosis. A pattern-based histopathological approach to interstitial lung disease provides a "map" for the general pathologist to navigate this area successfully, especially so when used with aid of the clinical and radiological patterns of presentation...
May 2009: Journal of Clinical Pathology
W G McCluggage
Ovarian carcinomas of epithelial type comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, each with a different underlying pathogenesis and natural behaviour. Accurate classification of ovarian carcinomas is important since each type may be associated with a different behaviour, natural history and outcome. Precise classification is also critical to determine whether alternative therapeutic strategies are appropriate for different tumour types. Previous studies have shown significant interobserver variation in the typing of ovarian carcinomas...
February 2008: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Carlos A Rubio
The protracted inflammation of the gastric mucosa induces profound changes in the microenvironment of the gastric cells. These changes modify the molecular signals that orchestrate morphogenesis and cell differentiation in the stem cells of the crypts. The expression of this adjustment to the new microenvironment is evidenced by the appearance of differentiated metaplastic cells (intestinal, bronchial-ciliated, pancreatic or (pseudo) pyloric, all deriving from the same embryological origin). The inability of stem cells to readapt to the new microenvironment may lead to genomic aberrations such as the retention of cellular products (glassy cells) or to neoplastic transformation...
February 2007: Journal of Clinical Pathology
W G McCluggage
A major proportion of the workload in many histopathology laboratories is accounted for by endometrial biopsies, either curettage specimens or outpatient biopsy specimens. The increasing use of pipelle and other methods of biopsy not necessitating general anaesthesia has resulted in greater numbers of specimens with scant tissue, resulting in problems in assessing adequacy and in interpreting artefactual changes, some of which appear more common with outpatient biopsies. In this review, the criteria for adequacy and common artefacts in endometrial biopsies, as well as the interpretation of endometrial biopsies in general, are discussed, concentrating on areas that cause problems for pathologists...
August 2006: Journal of Clinical Pathology
H C Wainwright
An opportunity to determine the cause of death, factors that may have a role in it, and the extent and cause of malformations is provided by perinatal autopsy. The family may be assisted in finding closure after the death of their infant by the information obtained. Insight into classifying infants appearing normal into one of three groups, small, appropriate and large for gestational age, has been provided, as each group tends to have specific causes of death. In infants with congenital anomalies, patterns of malformation may lead us to the diagnosis...
July 2006: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Gladwyn Leiman
Pancreatic fine needle aspiration cytopathology has earned a reputation as a rapid, safe, accurate and cost-beneficial modality of investigation of pancreatic mass lesion. Optimal results can be expected only if these procedures are undertaken regularly in gastroenterology departments processing large numbers of patients; occasional aspirators cannot exploit the technique to full potential. Professional teams following a dedicated approach to patient selection and management develop requisite expertise over time...
January 2007: Journal of Clinical Pathology
K O Alsaad, D Ghazarian
Superficial inflammatory dermatoses are very common and comprise a wide, complex variety of clinical conditions. Accurate histological diagnosis, although it can sometimes be difficult to establish, is essential for clinical management. Knowledge of the microanatomy of the skin is important to recognise the variable histological patterns of inflammatory skin diseases. This article reviews the non-vesiculobullous/pustular inflammatory superficial dermatoses based on the compartmental microanatomy of the skin...
December 2005: Journal of Clinical Pathology
K S Culpepper, S R Granter, P H McKee
Histological assessment of melanocytic naevi constitutes a substantial proportion of a dermatopathologist's daily workload. Although they may be excised for cosmetic reasons, most lesions encountered are clinically atypical and are biopsied or excised to exclude melanoma. Although dysplastic naevi are most often encountered, cytological atypia may be a feature of several other melanocytic lesions, including genital type naevi, acral naevi, recurrent naevi, and neonatal or childhood naevi. With greater emphasis being given to cosmetic results, and because of an ever increasing workload, several "quicker and less traumatising" techniques have been introduced in the treatment and diagnosis of atypical naevi including punch, shave, and scoop shave biopsies...
November 2004: Journal of Clinical Pathology
T Higuchi, J R Jass
Hyperplastic polyps of the colorectum are heterogeneous lesions, a subset of which is now regarded as the precursor of colorectal cancer with DNA microsatellite instability. Some authors have distinguished this subset from classic hyperplastic polyps and have introduced the term "sessile serrated adenoma". These lesions frequently show BRAF mutation and DNA methylation. This personal perspective reviews recent insights into serrated polyps and highlights the importance of inhibition of apoptosis as a unifying mechanism...
July 2004: Journal of Clinical Pathology
C E Anderson, K M McLaren
Thyroid pathology is a specialist area but is often encountered by the general pathologist in a variety of forms including cytology, frozen sections, and resection specimens. In the thyroid gland, as for other endocrine organs, many aspects of diagnosis are unique to this area of histopathology; thus, the aims of this paper are to set out best practice guidelines which, although not entirely comprehensive, will be of practical use.
June 2003: Journal of Clinical Pathology
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