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GI TRACT

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30 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666768/cytomegalovirus-cmv-in-gastrointestinal-mucosal-biopsies-should-a-pathologist-perform-cmv-immunohistochemistry-if-the-clinician-requests-it
#1
Gordana Juric-Sekhar, Melissa P Upton, Paul E Swanson, Maria A Westerhoff
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes clinically significant gastrointestinal (GI) injury. CMV inclusions can be identified on routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, but immunohistochemistry (IHC) is also available for identifying CMV in tissue. The advent of accountable care organization (ACO) models of care bring into question whether it is cost-effective for immunohistochemistry to be performed upfront at the request of clinicians and whether the quality of viral detection is compromised when the diagnosis of CMV is predicated on histologic review...
September 22, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134110/overdiagnosis-of-hsil-on-cervical-biopsy-errors-in-p16-immunohistochemistry-implementation
#2
Jennifer L Clark, Dan Lu, Tamara Kalir, Yuxin Liu
In 2012, the lower anogenital squamous terminology (LAST) project introduced new nomenclature for human papillomavirus-related squamous lesions of the lower genital tract: low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL and HSIL). Biomarker p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also recommended to assist classification: block-like positive staining supports the diagnosis of HSIL. We aim to assess the impact of LAST recommendations on our practice as well as to identify challenges and errors in p16 IHC implementation...
September 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23833252/an-overview-on-molecular-biology-of-kit-pdgfra-wild-type-wt-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours-gist
#3
REVIEW
Margherita Nannini, Guido Biasco, Annalisa Astolfi, Maria A Pantaleo
BACKGROUND: About 85% of paediatric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and about 10-15% of adult GISTs do not harbour any mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes and are defined as KIT/PDGFRA wild type (WT). Over the years it has been demonstrated that KIT/PDGFRA WT GISTs are profoundly different from mutant GIST in clinical and molecular profiles, so that they are now considered a separate pathological entity. Moreover, due to their extreme molecular and clinical heterogeneity, KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST should be considered as a family of diseases and not as a single disease entity...
October 2013: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478963/diagnostic-and-treatment-strategy-for-small-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#4
Toshirou Nishida, Osamu Goto, Chandrajit Premanand Raut, Naohisa Yahagi
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are considered to be potentially malignant mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinically relevant GISTs are rare; however, subclinical GISTs (mini-GISTs) (1-2 cm) and pathologic GISTs (micro-GISTs) (<1 cm) are frequently reported. Most mini-GISTs and almost all micro-GISTs of the stomach may exhibit benign clinical behavior, and only mini-GISTs with high-risk features may progress. For this review, a provisional algorithm was used to propose diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients with small GISTs...
October 15, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471274/lymphocytic-oesophagitis-eosinophilic-oesophagitis-and-compound-lymphocytic-eosinophilic-oesophagitis-i-histological-and-immunohistochemical-findings
#5
C A Rubio, T Ichiya, P T Schmidt
AIMS: To report four histological-immunohistochemical oesophagitis phenotypes. METHODS: Oesophageal biopsies from 311 patients were stained with H&E and with CD3, a T cell marker. Additional immunohistochemical stains (n=413) were performed in 77 cases. RESULTS: Four histological-immunohistochemical oesophagitis phenotypes were recorded: lymphocytic oesophagitis (LyE, ≥40 CD3+ lymphocytes/HPF in CD3 immunostain), eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE, ≥15 eosinophils/HPF in H&E stain), lymphocytic infiltration (≤39 CD3+/HPF) and compound lymphocytic oesophagitis-eosinophilic oesophagitis (Co LyE-EoE)...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427238/-wild-type-gist-clinicopathological-features-and-clinical-practice
#6
REVIEW
Ryuichi Wada, Hiroki Arai, Shoko Kure, Wei-Xia Peng, Zenya Naito
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. Mutation of KIT and PDGFRA genes is implicated in the tumorigenesis. Approximately 10% of GISTs do not harbor mutation of these genes, and they are designated as "wild type" GIST. They are classified into succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient and non-SDH-deficient groups. SDH-deficient group includes Carney triad and Carney Stratakis syndrome. The patients are young women. Tumors occur in the antrum of the stomach, and tumor cells are epithelioid...
August 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325016/molecular-pathological-classification-of-colorectal-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Mike F Müller, Ashraf E K Ibrahim, Mark J Arends
Colorectal cancer (CRC) shows variable underlying molecular changes with two major mechanisms of genetic instability: chromosomal instability and microsatellite instability. This review aims to delineate the different pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis and provide an overview of the most recent advances in molecular pathological classification systems for colorectal cancer. Two molecular pathological classification systems for CRC have recently been proposed. Integrated molecular analysis by The Cancer Genome Atlas project is based on a wide-ranging genomic and transcriptomic characterisation study of CRC using array-based and sequencing technologies...
August 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128297/practical-points-in-gastric-pathology
#8
Sangjeong Ahn, Do Youn Park
CONTEXT: -The diagnosis of gastric epithelial lesions is difficult in clinical practice, even with the recent developments and advances in endoscopic modalities, owing to the diverse morphologic features of the lesions, lack of standardized diagnostic criteria, and the high intraobserver and interobserver variabilities in the nonneoplastic (regenerative)-neoplastic spectrum. OBJECTIVE: -To provide an overview of the current concepts and unresolved issues surrounding the diagnosis of diseases in the nonneoplastic-neoplastic spectrum, and to discuss some noteworthy properties and histologic features of gastric epithelial lesions...
May 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23372370/inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-proposal-to-facilitate-the-achievement-of-an-unequivocal-diagnosis
#9
LETTER
Gabriella Canavese, Gabrio Bassotti, Marco Astegiano, Isabella Castellano, Paola Cassoni, Anna Sapino, Vincenzo Villanacci
Following the international guidelines criteria an adequate "diagnostic conclusion" of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be achieved only if clinical, endoscopic and laboratory findings, together with sample technical adequacy and unequivocal histomorphological signs of the disease are available. Thus, a conclusive diagnosis requires a complex combination of clinical, endoscopic and histological data. A considerable number of endoscopic biopsies obtained from IBD patients do not meet the above-mentioned requirements...
January 21, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128299/clinical-aspects-of-idiopathic-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-review-for-pathologists
#10
Hwajeong Lee, Maria Westerhoff, Bo Shen, Xiuli Liu
CONTEXT: -Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease manifests with different clinical phenotypes showing varying behavior and risk for neoplasia. The clinical questions that are posed to pathologists differ depending on phase of the disease and the clinical circumstances. Understanding the clinical aspects of the dynamic disease process will enhance the role of pathology in optimizing the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. OBJECTIVE: -To review clinical and surgical aspects of inflammatory bowel disease that are relevant to practicing pathologists...
May 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23870728/european-consensus-on-the-histopathology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
F Magro, C Langner, A Driessen, A Ensari, K Geboes, G J Mantzaris, V Villanacci, G Becheanu, P Borralho Nunes, G Cathomas, W Fries, A Jouret-Mourin, C Mescoli, G de Petris, C A Rubio, N A Shepherd, M Vieth, R Eliakim
The histologic examination of endoscopic biopsies or resection specimens remains a key step in the work-up of affected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and can be used for diagnosis and differential diagnosis, particularly in the differentiation of UC from CD and other non-IBD related colitides. The introduction of new treatment strategies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) interfering with the patients' immune system may result in mucosal healing, making the pathologists aware of the impact of treatment upon diagnostic features...
November 2013: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884871/clinico-pathological-characteristics-and-prognostic-factors-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-among-a-chinese-population
#12
Jiehua Li, Haitian Zhang, Zhibai Chen, Ka Su
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common primary mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. GISTs include a group of heterogeneous tumors with different morphology, biologic behavior, and genetic characteristics, so their epidemiology, clinico-pathological features and prognosis is distinct in different countries. The objective of this study is to analyze clinico-pathological characteristics and prognostic factors of GISTs among Chinese population. We investigated 112 GIST patients were diagnosed between July 2008 and January 2013 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26814047/current-status-of-the-histopathological-assessment-diagnosis-and-reporting-of-colorectal-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-web-survey-from-the-japanese-society-for-cancer-of-colon-and-rectum
#13
Koji Ikeda, Motohiro Kojima, Norio Saito, Naoki Sakuyama, Kenichi Koushi, Toshiaki Watanabe, Kenichi Sugihara, Tetsuo Akimoto, Masaaki Ito, Atsushi Ochiai
Although new classifications for neuroendocrine tumors were established by the World Health Organization, the current procedures and terms used in pathology laboratories are not known. A Web-based questionnaire was distributed to 491 institutions affiliated with the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum, and 150 participated. The questionnaires included questions regarding routine pathological reporting, staining, and assessment of neuroendocrine tumors. Next, the time taken to assess Ki-67 index and mitotic count according to recommendation was evaluated to determine its feasibility...
February 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112135/histological-differences-between-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-and-chemotherapy-for-rectal-cancer-a-clinicopathological-study
#14
Naoki Sakuyama, Motohiro Kojima, Shingo Kawano, Tetsuo Akimoto, Norio Saito, Masaaki Ito, Atsushi Ochiai
Pathological studies on the different histological effects between neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and preoperative chemoradiation therapy (preoperative CRT) have not been performed. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the histological differences in tissue received from NAC and preoperative CRT for rectal cancer to evaluate whether a pathological assessment method used after CRT can be applied for NAC. One hundred and thirty-eight patients were enrolled in this study; 88 patients underwent their operations after preoperative CRT or NAC, and 50 patients underwent surgery only...
May 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021395/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-challenges-in-an-underestimated-disease
#15
REVIEW
A Viúdez, A De Jesus-Acosta, F L Carvalho, R Vera, S Martín-Algarra, N Ramírez
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs) are considered a relatively unusual oncologic entity. Due to its relative good prognosis, surgery remains the goal standard therapy not only in localized disease but also in the setting of locally or metastatic disease. Most of the patients are diagnosed in metastatic scenario, where multidisciplinary approach based on surgery, chemotherapies, liver-directed and/or molecular targeted therapies are commonly used. Owing to a deeper molecular knowledge of this disease, these targeted therapies are nowadays widely implemented, being the likely discovery of predictive biomarkers that would allow its use in other settings...
May 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25763724/polypoid-lesions-of-the-gallbladder-disease-spectrum-with-pathologic-correlation
#16
Vincent M Mellnick, Christine O Menias, Kumar Sandrasegaran, Amy K Hara, Ania Z Kielar, Elizabeth M Brunt, Maria B Majella Doyle, Nirvikar Dahiya, Khaled M Elsayes
Gallbladder polyps are seen on as many as 7% of gallbladder ultrasonographic images. The differential diagnosis for a polypoid gallbladder mass is wide and includes pseudotumors, as well as benign and malignant tumors. Tumefactive sludge may be mistaken for a gallbladder polyp. Pseudotumors include cholesterol polyps, adenomyomatosis, and inflammatory polyps, and they occur in that order of frequency. The most common benign and malignant tumors are adenomas and primary adenocarcinoma, respectively. Polyp size, shape, and other ancillary imaging findings, such as a wide base, wall thickening, and coexistent gallstones, are pertinent items to report when gallbladder polyps are discovered...
March 2015: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26861606/molecular-classification-of-gastric-cancer
#17
REVIEW
N-Y Chia, P Tan
Gastric cancer (GC), a heterogeneous disease characterized by epidemiologic and histopathologic differences across countries, is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Treatment of GC patients is currently suboptimal due to patients being commonly treated in a uniform fashion irrespective of disease subtype. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, GCs are now being investigated in great detail at the molecular level. High-throughput technologies now allow a comprehensive study of genomic and epigenomic alterations associated with GC...
May 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26867984/progress-in-treatments-for-colorectal-cancer-peritoneal-metastases-during-the-years-2010-2015-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Dario Baratti, Shigeki Kusamura, Filippo Pietrantonio, Marcello Guaglio, Monica Niger, Marcello Deraco
Peritoneal metastases (PM) from colorectal cancer (CRC) were traditionally associated with bad prognosis. Only recently, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has resulted in survival improvements. A systematic literature search between January 2010 and June 2015 was performed. Studies were selected and appraised according to predetermined criteria. Nineteen cohort studies, and thirteen comparative studies of CRS/HIPEC were included. The weighted median overall survival was 31...
April 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26866355/basaloid-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-anus-revisited
#19
Rondell P Graham, Christina A Arnold, Bita V Naini, Dora M Lam-Himlin
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus, previously called cloacogenic carcinoma, is a subtype of SCC. There are very few data on the morphologic variation within basaloid SCC of the anus, which may contribute to misdiagnosis. We retrospectively evaluated cases originally diagnosed as basaloid SCC for histologic characterization. We retrieved and reviewed cases of basaloid SCC from 1994 to 2013. Ten (27%) cases were reclassified after review, including basal cell carcinoma (n=6), melanoma (n=2), and neuroendocrine carcinoma (n=2)...
March 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26813745/barrett-s-esophagus-a-comprehensive-and-contemporary-review-for-pathologists
#20
REVIEW
Bita V Naini, Rhonda F Souza, Robert D Odze
This review provides a summary of our current understanding of, and the controversies surrounding, the diagnosis, pathogenesis, histopathology, and molecular biology of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and associated neoplasia. BE is defined as columnar metaplasia of the esophagus. There is worldwide controversy regarding the diagnostic criteria of BE, mainly with regard to the requirement to histologically identify goblet cells in biopsies. Patients with BE are at increased risk for adenocarcinoma, which develops in a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence...
May 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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