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GI TRACT

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44 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854347/practical-immunohistochemistry-in-neoplastic-pathology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-liver-biliary-tract-and-pancreas
#1
REVIEW
Hanlin L Wang, Christopher J Kim, Jamie Koo, Wendi Zhou, Eunice K Choi, Ramir Arcega, Zongming Eric Chen, Huamin Wang, Lanjing Zhang, Fan Lin
CONTEXT: - Immunomarkers with diagnostic, therapeutic, or prognostic values have been increasingly used to maximize the benefits of clinical management of patients with neoplastic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas. OBJECTIVES: - To review the characteristics of immunomarkers that are commonly used in surgical pathology practice for neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tract, and pancreas, and to summarize the clinical usefulness of immunomarkers that have been discovered in recent years in these fields...
September 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829152/lymphoproliferative-disorders-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#2
Brian F Skinnider
CONTEXT: - The diagnosis of gastrointestinal lymphoproliferative disorders can be challenging because of the small size of biopsies and the wide spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders that may be encountered. OBJECTIVE: - To review the spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders involving the gastrointestinal tract, highlighting potential pitfalls. DATA SOURCES: - Peer-reviewed articles and clinical experience. CONCLUSIONS: - Interpretation of lymphoid infiltrates in gastrointestinal biopsies requires synthesis of morphologic, immunophenotypic, molecular genetic, and clinical information...
August 22, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351781/geis-guidelines-for-gastrointestinal-sarcomas-gist
#3
REVIEW
Andrés Poveda, Xavier García Del Muro, Jose Antonio López-Guerrero, Ricardo Cubedo, Virginia Martínez, Ignacio Romero, César Serrano, Claudia Valverde, Javier Martín-Broto
Gastrointestinal stromal sarcomas (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours originating in the digestive tract. They have a characteristic morphology, are generally positive for CD117 (c-kit) and are primarily caused by activating mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA genes(1). On rare occasions, they occur in extravisceral locations such as the omentum, mesentery, pelvis and retroperitoneum. GISTs have become a model of multidisciplinary work in oncology: the participation of several specialties (oncologists, pathologists, surgeons, molecular biologists, radiologists…) has forested advances in the understanding of this tumour and the consolidation of a targeted therapy, imatinib, as the first effective molecular treatment in solid tumours...
April 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758791/celiac-disease-and-other-causes-of-duodenitis
#4
Daniel R Owen, David A Owen
CONTEXT: - Patients who receive an upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination frequently have biopsies taken from the duodenum. Accurate interpretation of duodenal biopsies is essential for patient care. Celiac disease is a common clinical concern, but pathologists need to be aware of other conditions of the duodenum that mimic celiac disease. OBJECTIVE: - To review the normal histologic features of duodenal mucosa and describe the clinical and histologic findings in celiac disease and its mimics, listing the differentiating features of biopsies with villous atrophy and epithelial lymphocytosis...
July 31, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777099/inflammatory-bowel-diseases-review-of-known-environmental-protective-and-risk-factors-involved
#5
Kimberley W J van der Sloot, Marzyeh Amini, Vera Peters, Gerard Dijkstra, Behrooz Z Alizadeh
Inflammatory bowel diseases consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to genetic susceptibility and disturbances of the microbiome, environmental exposures forming the exposome play an important role. Starting at birth, the cumulative effect of different environmental exposures combined with a predetermined genetic susceptibility is thought to cause inflammatory bowel disease. All these environmental factors are part of a Western lifestyle, suiting the high incidence rates in Europe and the United States...
September 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693792/cholangiocarcinoma
#6
REVIEW
Michela Squadroni, Luca Tondulli, Gemma Gatta, Stefania Mosconi, Giordano Beretta, Roberto Labianca
Biliary tract cancer accounts for <1% of all cancers and affects chiefly an elderly population, with predominance in men. We distinguish cholangiocarcinoma (intrahepatic, hilar and distal) and gallbladder cancer, with different pathogenesis and prognosis. The treatment is based on surgery (whenever possible), radiotherapy in selected cases, and chemotherapy. The standard cytotoxic treatment for advanced/metastatic disease is represented by the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin, whereas fluoropyrimidines are generally administered in second line setting...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679451/the-significance-of-a-nineteenth-century-definition-in-the-era-of-genomics-linitis-plastica
#7
REVIEW
Annamaria Agnes, Jeannelyn S Estrella, Brian Badgwell
BACKGROUND: Linitis plastica due to gastric adenocarcinoma is a condition with a long history, but still lacks a standardized definition and is commonly confused with Borrmann type IV, Lauren diffuse, and signet-cell type gastric cancer. The absence of a clear definition is a problem when investigating its biological characteristics and role as a possible independent factor for prognosis. Nevertheless, the biological behavior for linitis plastica, which is unique, may be valuable in risk stratification and have implications for treatment...
July 5, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601423/crohn-disease-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-management
#8
REVIEW
Joseph D Feuerstein, Adam S Cheifetz
Crohn disease is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease condition characterized by skip lesions and transmural inflammation that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. For this review article, we performed a review of articles in PubMed through February 1, 2017, by using the following Medical Subject Heading terms: crohns disease, crohn's disease, crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Presenting symptoms are often variable and may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and in certain cases fevers or chills...
July 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722154/etiology-and-prevention-of-gastric-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Xiao Jiao Cheng, Jia Cheng Lin, Shui Ping Tu
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous malignant disease associated with environmental and genetic predisposing factors. While gastric cancer incidence and mortality fell greatly globally over the past decades, it remains the fourth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, prevention of gastric cancer is still a major strategy for improvement of gastric cancer prognosis. SUMMARY: Helicobacter pylori infection has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer...
September 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904863/recent-updates-in-the-endoscopic-diagnosis-of-barrett-s-oesophagus
#10
REVIEW
Neel Sharma, Khek Yu Ho
BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is a premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Despite the low risk of progression per annum, OAC is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 5-year survival of 10%. Furthermore, the incidence of OAC continues to rise globally. Therefore, it is imperative to detect the premalignant phase of BO and follow up such patients accordingly. SUMMARY: The mainstay diagnosis of BO is endoscopy and biopsy sampling...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611977/clinicopathology-of-early-gastric-carcinoma-an-update-for-pathologists-and-gastroenterologists
#11
REVIEW
Qin Huang, Xiaoping Zou
BACKGROUND: The WHO defines early gastric carcinoma (EGC) as invasive carcinoma up to the submucosal layer, regardless of nodal metastasis. The recent study results indicate that EGC varies in location, histology, nodal metastasis, and prognosis. SUMMARY: The heterogeneity in EGC may be related to various types of epithelial stem cells. The most important stem cells include Lgr5(+) cells at the base of a gastric unit in the antrum-pylorus-cardia, Mist1(+) cells at the isthmus/Troy(+) cells at the base in the corpus-fundus, and Sox2(+) cells at the base in almost all regions...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556024/cancer-of-the-esophagus-and-esophagogastric-junction-major-changes-in-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-eighth-edition-cancer-staging-manual
#12
Thomas W Rice, Donna M Gress, Deepa T Patil, Wayne L Hofstetter, David P Kelsen, Eugene H Blackstone
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE New to the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual for epithelial cancers of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction are separate, temporally related cancer classifications: 1) before treatment decision (clinical); 2) after esophagectomy alone (pathologic); and 3) after preresection therapy followed by esophagectomy (postneoadjuvant pathologic). The addition of clinical and postneoadjuvant pathologic stage groupings was driven by a lack of correspondence of survival, and thus prognosis, between both clinical and postneoadjuvant pathologic cancer categories (facts about the cancer) and pathologic categories...
July 8, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492495/immunotherapy-for-colorectal-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Patrick M Boland, Wen Wee Ma
The recent success of anti-PD1 drugs in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with mismatch repair deficiency generated overwhelming enthusiasm for immunotherapy in the disease. However, patients with mismatch repair deficient colorectal cancer represent only a small subset of the metastatic population. Current research focuses on advancing immunotherapy to earlier stages of the disease including adjuvant and first-line metastatic settings, and on inducing sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy through a combinatorial approach...
May 11, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327158/the-clinicopathological-parameters-and-prognostic-significance-of-her2-expression-in-gastric-cancer-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-literature
#14
REVIEW
Yu-Ying Lei, Jin-Yu Huang, Qiong-Rui Zhao, Nan Jiang, Hui-Mian Xu, Zhen-Ning Wang, Hai-Qing Li, Shi-Bo Zhang, Zhe Sun
BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is regarded as an important and promising target in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancers. However, the correlation of clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic significance of HER2 overexpression in gastric cancer patients remains unclear. Our aim was to clarify this issue. METHODS: Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant articles published up to May 2016. Outcomes of interest contained sex, age, tumor size, tumor site, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis, Lauren's classification, differentiation grade, lymphovascular invasion, neural invasion, and multivariate analysis data for overall survival...
March 21, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666768/cytomegalovirus-cmv-in-gastrointestinal-mucosal-biopsies-should-a-pathologist-perform-cmv-immunohistochemistry-if-the-clinician-requests-it
#15
Gordana Juric-Sekhar, Melissa P Upton, Paul E Swanson, Maria Westerhoff
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes clinically significant gastrointestinal (GI) injury. CMV inclusions can be identified on routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, but immunohistochemistry (IHC) is also available for identifying CMV in tissue. The advent of accountable care organization models of care bring into question whether it is cost-effective for immunohistochemistry to be performed upfront at the request of clinicians and whether the quality of viral detection is compromised when the diagnosis of CMV is predicated on histologic review...
February 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134110/overdiagnosis-of-hsil-on-cervical-biopsy-errors-in-p16-immunohistochemistry-implementation
#16
Jennifer L Clark, Dan Lu, Tamara Kalir, Yuxin Liu
In 2012, the lower anogenital squamous terminology (LAST) project introduced new nomenclature for human papillomavirus-related squamous lesions of the lower genital tract: low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL and HSIL). Biomarker p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also recommended to assist classification: block-like positive staining supports the diagnosis of HSIL. We aim to assess the impact of LAST recommendations on our practice as well as to identify challenges and errors in p16 IHC implementation...
September 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23833252/an-overview-on-molecular-biology-of-kit-pdgfra-wild-type-wt-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours-gist
#17
REVIEW
Margherita Nannini, Guido Biasco, Annalisa Astolfi, Maria A Pantaleo
BACKGROUND: About 85% of paediatric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and about 10-15% of adult GISTs do not harbour any mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes and are defined as KIT/PDGFRA wild type (WT). Over the years it has been demonstrated that KIT/PDGFRA WT GISTs are profoundly different from mutant GIST in clinical and molecular profiles, so that they are now considered a separate pathological entity. Moreover, due to their extreme molecular and clinical heterogeneity, KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST should be considered as a family of diseases and not as a single disease entity...
October 2013: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478963/diagnostic-and-treatment-strategy-for-small-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#18
REVIEW
Toshirou Nishida, Osamu Goto, Chandrajit Premanand Raut, Naohisa Yahagi
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are considered to be potentially malignant mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinically relevant GISTs are rare; however, subclinical GISTs (mini-GISTs) (1-2 cm) and pathologic GISTs (micro-GISTs) (<1 cm) are frequently reported. Most mini-GISTs and almost all micro-GISTs of the stomach may exhibit benign clinical behavior, and only mini-GISTs with high-risk features may progress. For this review, a provisional algorithm was used to propose diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients with small GISTs...
October 15, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471274/lymphocytic-oesophagitis-eosinophilic-oesophagitis-and-compound-lymphocytic-eosinophilic-oesophagitis-i-histological-and-immunohistochemical-findings
#19
C A Rubio, T Ichiya, P T Schmidt
AIMS: To report four histological-immunohistochemical oesophagitis phenotypes. METHODS: Oesophageal biopsies from 311 patients were stained with H&E and with CD3, a T cell marker. Additional immunohistochemical stains (n=413) were performed in 77 cases. RESULTS: Four histological-immunohistochemical oesophagitis phenotypes were recorded: lymphocytic oesophagitis (LyE, ≥40 CD3+ lymphocytes/HPF in CD3 immunostain), eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE, ≥15 eosinophils/HPF in H&E stain), lymphocytic infiltration (≤39 CD3+/HPF) and compound lymphocytic oesophagitis-eosinophilic oesophagitis (Co LyE-EoE)...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427238/-wild-type-gist-clinicopathological-features-and-clinical-practice
#20
REVIEW
Ryuichi Wada, Hiroki Arai, Shoko Kure, Wei-Xia Peng, Zenya Naito
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. Mutation of KIT and PDGFRA genes is implicated in the tumorigenesis. Approximately 10% of GISTs do not harbor mutation of these genes, and they are designated as "wild type" GIST. They are classified into succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient and non-SDH-deficient groups. SDH-deficient group includes Carney triad and Carney Stratakis syndrome. The patients are young women. Tumors occur in the antrum of the stomach, and tumor cells are epithelioid...
August 2016: Pathology International
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