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Wilhelm Endres

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86 papers 0 to 25 followers
By Wilhelm Endres endreswilhelm@gmail.com
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104075/challenges-in-infective-endocarditis
#1
REVIEW
Thomas J Cahill, Larry M Baddour, Gilbert Habib, Bruno Hoen, Erwan Salaun, Gosta B Pettersson, Hans Joachim Schäfers, Bernard D Prendergast
Infective endocarditis is defined by a focus of infection within the heart and is a feared disease across the field of cardiology. It is frequently acquired in the health care setting, and more than one-half of cases now occur in patients without known heart disease. Despite optimal care, mortality approaches 30% at 1 year. The challenges posed by infective endocarditis are significant. It is heterogeneous in etiology, clinical manifestations, and course. Staphylococcus aureus, which has become the predominant causative organism in the developed world, leads to an aggressive form of the disease, often in vulnerable or elderly patient populations...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073314/safety-of-the-peripheral-administration-of-vasopressor-agents
#2
Tyler Lewis, Cristian Merchan, Diana Altshuler, John Papadopoulos
Vasopressors are an integral component of the management of septic shock and are traditionally given via a central venous catheter (CVC) due to the risk of tissue injury and necrosis if extravasated. However, the need for a CVC for the management of septic shock has been questioned, and the risk of extravasation and incidence of severe injury when vasopressors are given via a peripheral venous line (PVL) remains poorly defined. We performed a retrospective chart review of 202 patients who received vasopressors through a PVL...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053053/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Ruben Hernaez, Elsa Solà, Richard Moreau, Pere Ginès
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome characterised by acute decompensation of chronic liver disease associated with organ failures and high short-term mortality. Alcohol and chronic viral hepatitis are the most common underlying liver diseases. Up to 40%-50% of the cases of ACLF have no identifiable trigger; in the remaining patients, sepsis, active alcoholism and relapse of chronic viral hepatitis are the most common reported precipitating factors. An excessive systemic inflammatory response seems to play a crucial role in the development of ACLF...
March 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790273/clinical-practice-guideline-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Young-Jae Cho, Jae Young Moon, Ein-Soon Shin, Je Hyeong Kim, Hoon Jung, So Young Park, Ho Cheol Kim, Yun Su Sim, Chin Kook Rhee, Jaemin Lim, Seok Jeong Lee, Won-Yeon Lee, Hyun Jeong Lee, Sang Hyun Kwak, Eun Kyeong Kang, Kyung Soo Chung, Won-Il Choi
There is no well-stated practical guideline for mechanically ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We generate strong (1) and weak (2) grade of recommendations based on high (A), moderate (B) and low (C) grade in the quality of evidence. In patients with ARDS, we recommend low tidal volume ventilation (1A) and prone position if it is not contraindicated (1B) to reduce their mortality. However, we did not support high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (1B) and inhaled nitric oxide (1A) as a standard treatment...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660695/update-on-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
REVIEW
Juan José Marín-Peñalver, Iciar Martín-Timón, Cristina Sevillano-Collantes, Francisco Javier Del Cañizo-Gómez
To achieve good metabolic control in diabetes and keep long term, a combination of changes in lifestyle and pharmacological treatment is necessary. Achieving near-normal glycated hemoglobin significantly, decreases risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. At present there are different treatments, both oral and injectable, available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment algorithms designed to reduce the development or progression of the complications of diabetes emphasizes the need for good glycaemic control...
September 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858374/prediction-of-fluid-responsiveness-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Xavier Monnet, Paul E Marik, Jean-Louis Teboul
In patients with acute circulatory failure, the decision to give fluids or not should not be taken lightly. The risk of overzealous fluid administration has been clearly established. Moreover, volume expansion does not always increase cardiac output as one expects. Thus, after the very initial phase and/or if fluid losses are not obvious, predicting fluid responsiveness should be the first step of fluid strategy. For this purpose, the central venous pressure as well as other "static" markers of preload has been used for decades, but they are not reliable...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24355635/pulmonary-hypertension-in-chronic-lung-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Werner Seeger, Yochai Adir, Joan Albert Barberà, Hunter Champion, John Gerard Coghlan, Vincent Cottin, Teresa De Marco, Nazzareno Galiè, Stefano Ghio, Simon Gibbs, Fernando J Martinez, Marc J Semigran, Gerald Simonneau, Athol U Wells, Jean-Luc Vachiéry
Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD), including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis, are associated with a high incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is linked with exercise limitation and a worse prognosis. Patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) are particularly prone to the development of PH. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization are the principal modalities for the diagnosis of COPD and DPLD. For discrimination between group 1 PH patients with concomitant respiratory abnormalities and group 3 PH patients (PH caused by lung disease), patients should be transferred to a center with expertise in both PH and lung diseases for comprehensive evaluation...
December 24, 2013: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23149802/diagnostic-workup-for-diffuse-parenchymal-lung-disease-schematic-flowchart-literature-review-and-pitfalls
#8
REVIEW
Barbara Deconinck, Johny Verschakelen, Johan Coolen, Eric Verbeken, Geert Verleden, Wim Wuyts
PURPOSE: The term diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) refers to a group of disorders affecting the lung parenchyma that can be categorized into those of known and those of unknown etiology. Early diagnosis is important since some forms of DPLD are characterized by a rapid progression to respiratory failure. Notwithstanding the fact that recently guidelines have been published, some issues concerning the practical evaluation of a patient with suspected DPLD remain unclear. METHODS: In this article we propose a practical approach to the diagnosis and differentiation of DPLD...
February 2013: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884254/troponin-testing-for-clinicians
#9
REVIEW
John E Brush, Sanjay Kaul, Harlan M Krumholz
The analytical performance of troponin assays has improved markedly in the last 2 decades. The variety of assays, their evolution over time, and their critical importance in influencing care, mandates the need for skills in their use. There are 3 critical elements necessary for optimal use of troponin testing in clinical care, as follows: 1) the analytical performance of the assay; 2) the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the test result; and 3) the clinical reasoning for ordering and the proper clinical context for interpreting the test result...
November 29, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664247/management-of-febrile-neutropaenia-esmo-clinical-practice-guidelines
#10
J Klastersky, J de Naurois, K Rolston, B Rapoport, G Maschmeyer, M Aapro, J Herrstedt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26377143/tuberculosis
#11
REVIEW
Keertan Dheda, Clifton E Barry, Gary Maartens
Although the worldwide incidence of tuberculosis has been slowly decreasing, the global disease burden remains substantial (∼9 million cases and ∼1·5 million deaths in 2013), and tuberculosis incidence and drug resistance are rising in some parts of the world such as Africa. The modest gains achieved thus far are threatened by high prevalence of HIV, persisting global poverty, and emergence of highly drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is also a major problem in health-care workers in both low-burden and high-burden settings...
March 19, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217054/sepsis-pathophysiology-and-clinical-management
#12
REVIEW
Jeffrey E Gotts, Michael A Matthay
Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock represent increasingly severe systemic inflammatory responses to infection. Sepsis is common in the aging population, and it disproportionately affects patients with cancer and underlying immunosuppression. In its most severe form, sepsis causes multiple organ dysfunction that can produce a state of chronic critical illness characterized by severe immune dysfunction and catabolism. Much has been learnt about the pathogenesis of sepsis at the molecular, cell, and intact organ level...
23, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716262/new-aspects-in-the-management-of-pneumonia
#13
REVIEW
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25425026/manual-urine-microscopy-versus-automated-urine-analyzer-microscopy-in-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury
#14
Natasha Sharda, Omid Bakhtar, Bijin Thajudeen, Ed Meister, Harold Szerlip
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a significant difference exists between the reported ranges of granular and muddy brown casts in urine specimens using manual microscopy compared with an automated urine analyzer in a cohort of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: Freshly voided urine specimens from 25 consecutive patients who were under evaluation by the Department of Nephrology for AKI were simultaneously examined using the iQ200 automated microscopy system and manual microscopy performed by a trained observer...
2014: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670788/acute-kidney-injury-2016-diagnosis-and-diagnostic-workup
#15
REVIEW
Marlies Ostermann, Michael Joannidis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients.
September 27, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543137/echocardiography-in-shock-management
#16
REVIEW
Anthony S McLean
Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis and management of the shocked patient. Important characteristics in the setting of shock are that it is non-invasive and can be rapidly applied.In the acute situation a basic study often yields immediate results allowing for the initiation of therapy, while a follow-up advanced study brings the advantage of further refining the diagnosis and providing an in-depth hemodynamic assessment. Competency in basic critical care echocardiography is now regarded as a mandatory part of critical care training with clear guidelines available...
August 20, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637676/stroke
#17
REVIEW
Graeme J Hankey
In the past decade, the definition of stroke has been revised and major advances have been made for its treatment and prevention. For acute ischaemic stroke, the addition of endovascular thrombectomy of proximal large artery occlusion to intravenous alteplase increases functional independence for a further fifth of patients. The benefits of aspirin in preventing early recurrent ischaemic stroke are greater than previously recognised. Other strategies to prevent recurrent stroke now include direct oral anticoagulants as an alternative to warfarin for atrial fibrillation, and carotid stenting as an alternative to endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis...
February 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590096/assessing-acid-base-status-physiologic-versus-physicochemical-approach
#18
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592289/echocardiography-as-a-guide-for-fluid-management
#19
REVIEW
John H Boyd, Demetrios Sirounis, Julien Maizel, Michel Slama
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients at risk for organ failure, the administration of intravenous fluids has equal chances of resulting in benefit or harm. While the intent of intravenous fluid is to increase cardiac output and oxygen delivery, unwelcome results in those patients who do not increase their cardiac output are tissue edema, hypoxemia, and excess mortality. Here we briefly review bedside methods to assess fluid responsiveness, focusing upon the strengths and pitfalls of echocardiography in spontaneously breathing mechanically ventilated patients as a means to guide fluid management...
September 4, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528647/state-of-the-art-evaluation-of-emergency-department-patients-presenting-with-potential-acute-coronary-syndromes
#20
REVIEW
Judd E Hollander, Martin Than, Christian Mueller
It is well established that clinicians cannot use clinical judgment alone to determine whether an individual patient who presents to the emergency department has an acute coronary syndrome. The history and physical examination do not distinguish sufficiently between the many conditions that can cause acute chest pain syndromes. Cardiac risk factors do not have sufficient discriminatory ability in symptomatic patients presenting to the emergency department. Most patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction do not present with electrocardiographic evidence of active ischemia...
August 16, 2016: Circulation
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