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Outstanding Clinical Review

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18 papers 0 to 25 followers
K D Kurz, G Ringstad, A Odland, R Advani, E Farbu, M W Kurz
Patients who suffer acute ischaemic stroke can be treated with thrombolysis if therapy is initiated early. Radiological evaluation of the intracranial tissue before such therapy can be given is mandatory. In this review current radiological diagnostic strategies are discussed for this patient group. Beyond non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), the standard imaging method for many years, more sophisticated CT stroke protocols including CT angiography and CT perfusion have been developed, and additionally an increasing number of patients are examined with magnetic resonance imaging as the first imaging method used...
January 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Tiffany Cossey, Nicole R Gonzales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: JAMA Neurology
Giovanni B Frisoni, Pieter Jelle Visser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Lancet Neurology
Nikolaus Weiskopf, Siawoosh Mohammadi, Antoine Lutti, Martina F Callaghan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current computational neuroanatomy based on MRI focuses on morphological measures of the brain. We present recent methodological developments in quantitative MRI (qMRI) that provide standardized measures of the brain, which go beyond morphology. We show how biophysical modelling of qMRI data can provide quantitative histological measures of brain tissue, leading to the emerging field of in-vivo histology using MRI (hMRI). RECENT FINDINGS: qMRI has greatly improved the sensitivity and specificity of computational neuroanatomy studies...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Jing Cui, Valérie Zufferey, Ferath Kherif
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Only 5% of the Alzheimer's cases are explained by genetic mutations, whereas the remaining 95% are sporadic. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sporadic Alzheimer's disease are not well understood, suggesting a complex multifactorial cause. This review summarizes the recent findings on research aiming to show how biomarkers can be used for revealing the underlying mechanisms of preclinical stage Alzheimer's disease and help in their diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: The undisputed successful publicly accessible repositories provide longitudinal brain images, clinical, genetic and proteomic information of Alzheimer's disease...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Jennifer T Crinion, Alexander P Leff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The evidence base for the treatment of poststroke aphasia continues to grow, so too does interest in the neural mechanisms that underlie these therapy-driven improvements. Although the majority of patients respond to therapy, not all of those who do improve do so in a predictable way. Here, we review 17 of the most recent articles that have attempted to deal with this important question, dividing them into those that target speech perception and production. RECENT FINDINGS: There are many methodological differences between the studies, but some neuroimaging patterns have emerged: whether the in-scanner language task is speech perception or production, left hemisphere fronto-temporal cortex is often activated/correlated with language improvement and; right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently identified although what this represents is still hotly contested...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
K Y E Aryanto, M Oudkerk, P M A van Ooijen
PURPOSE: To compare non-commercial DICOM toolkits for their de-identification ability in removing a patient's personal health information (PHI) from a DICOM header. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten DICOM toolkits were selected for de-identification tests. Tests were performed by using the system's default de-identification profile and, subsequently, the tools' best adjusted settings. We aimed to eliminate fifty elements considered to contain identifying patient information...
December 2015: European Radiology
Peter S Moskowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Radiology
Daniel M Hartung, Dennis N Bourdette, Sharia M Ahmed, Ruth H Whitham
OBJECTIVE: To examine the pricing trajectories in the United States of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) for multiple sclerosis (MS) over the last 20 years and assess the influences on rising prices. METHODS: We estimated the trend in annual drug costs for 9 DMTs using published drug pricing data from 1993 to 2013. We compared changes in DMT costs to general and prescription drug inflation during the same period. We also compared the cost trajectories for first-generation MS DMTs interferon (IFN)-β-1b, IFN-β-1a IM, and glatiramer acetate with contemporaneously approved biologic tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors...
May 26, 2015: Neurology
Daniel Gold, David E Newman-Toker, Joshua M Sharfstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: JAMA Neurology
A Jon Stoessl, Stephane Lehericy, Antonio P Strafella
Recent advances in structural and functional imaging have greatly improved our ability to assess normal functions of the basal ganglia, diagnose parkinsonian syndromes, understand the pathophysiology of parkinsonism and other movement disorders, and detect and monitor disease progression. Radionuclide imaging is the best way to detect and monitor dopamine deficiency, and will probably continue to be the best biomarker for assessment of the effects of disease-modifying therapies. However, advances in magnetic resonance enable the separation of patients with Parkinson's disease from healthy controls, and show great promise for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and other akinetic-rigid syndromes...
August 9, 2014: Lancet
Walter N Kernan, Bruce Ovbiagele, Henry R Black, Dawn M Bravata, Marc I Chimowitz, Michael D Ezekowitz, Margaret C Fang, Marc Fisher, Karen L Furie, Donald V Heck, S Claiborne Clay Johnston, Scott E Kasner, Steven J Kittner, Pamela H Mitchell, Michael W Rich, DeJuran Richardson, Lee H Schwamm, John A Wilson
The aim of this updated guideline is to provide comprehensive and timely evidence-based recommendations on the prevention of future stroke among survivors of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The guideline is addressed to all clinicians who manage secondary prevention for these patients. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for control of risk factors, intervention for vascular obstruction, antithrombotic therapy for cardioembolism, and antiplatelet therapy for noncardioembolic stroke. Recommendations are also provided for the prevention of recurrent stroke in a variety of specific circumstances, including aortic arch atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, patent foramen ovale, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypercoagulable states, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, sickle cell disease, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and pregnancy...
July 2014: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Kevin J Psoter, Bahman S Roudsari, Manjiri K Dighe, Michael L Richardson, Douglas S Katz, Puneet Bhargava
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the most common data analysis methods encountered in radiology-based studies. Initially, description of variable types and their corresponding summary measures are provided; subsequent discussion focuses on comparison of these summary measures between groups, with a particular emphasis on regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of statistical applications is critical for radiologists to accurately evaluate the current literature and to conduct scientifically rigorous studies...
April 2014: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Harprit S Bedi, Edgar K Yucel
OBJECTIVE: This article describes how mobile technologies can improve the way we teach radiology and offers ideas to bridge the clinical gap with technology. CONCLUSION: Radiology programs across the country are purchasing iPads and other mobile devices for their residents. Many programs, however, do not have a concrete vision for how a mobile device can enhance the learning environment.
October 2013: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Janey Prodoehl, Hong Li, Peggy J Planetta, Christopher G Goetz, Kathleen M Shannon, Ruth Tangonan, Cynthia L Comella, Tanya Simuni, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Sue Leurgans, Daniel M Corcos, David E Vaillancourt
Diffusion tensor imaging could be useful in characterizing movement disorders because it noninvasively examines multiple brain regions simultaneously. We report a multitarget imaging approach focused on the basal ganglia and cerebellum in Parkinson's disease, parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and essential tremor and in healthy controls. Seventy-two subjects were studied with a diffusion tensor imaging protocol at 3 Tesla. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to directly compare groups...
November 2013: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Michael L Richardson
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize applications (apps) for hand-held computing devices that can be essential aids to radiologists. CONCLUSION: Numerous apps are relevant to radiologists. Although the author prefers Apple iPad and iPhone apps, similar Android apps fill many of the same software niches.
December 2012: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
James M Linklater
OBJECTIVE: This article selectively reviews several areas in which imaging can play a major role in the diagnosis and treatment of sports injuries of the foot. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic imaging provides useful evaluation of capsuloligamentous sports injuries and Morton neuroma in the foot and facilitates appropriate treatment. An understanding of the relevant anatomy, normal imaging appearance, and the spectrum of imaging findings in the setting of injury is important for the practicing radiologist...
September 2012: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Thomas G Brott, Robert W Hobson, George Howard, Gary S Roubin, Wayne M Clark, William Brooks, Ariane Mackey, Michael D Hill, Pierre P Leimgruber, Alice J Sheffet, Virginia J Howard, Wesley S Moore, Jenifer H Voeks, L Nelson Hopkins, Donald E Cutlip, David J Cohen, Jeffrey J Popma, Robert D Ferguson, Stanley N Cohen, Joseph L Blackshear, Frank L Silver, J P Mohr, Brajesh K Lal, James F Meschia
BACKGROUND: Carotid-artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy are both options for treating carotid-artery stenosis, an important cause of stroke. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis to undergo carotid-artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. The primary composite end point was stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from any cause during the periprocedural period or any ipsilateral stroke within 4 years after randomization...
July 1, 2010: New England Journal of Medicine
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