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Top 100 Medicine Papers of 2015

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26141299/headache-management-pharmacological-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Alex J Sinclair, Aaron Sturrock, Brendan Davies, Manjit Matharu
Headache is one of the most common conditions presenting to the neurology clinic, yet a significant proportion of these patients are unsatisfied by their clinic experience. Headache can be extremely disabling; effective treatment is not only essential for patients but is rewarding for the physician. In this first of two parts review of headache, we provide an overview of headache management, emerging therapeutic strategies and an accessible interpretation of clinical guidelines to assist the busy neurologist...
December 2015: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26294976/clinical-use-of-diuretics-in-heart-failure-cirrhosis-and-nephrotic-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Ahmed Hassaan Qavi, Rida Kamal, Robert W Schrier
Diuretics play significant role in pharmacology and treatment options in medicine. This paper aims to review and evaluate the clinical use of diuretics in conditions that lead to fluid overload in the body such as cardiac failure, cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome. To know the principles of treatment it is essential to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause the need of diuresis in the human body. Various classes of diuretics exist, each having a unique mode of action. A systemic approach for management is recommended based on the current guidelines, starting from thiazides and proceeding to loop diuretics...
2015: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26558188/hepatorenal-syndrome-update-on-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Olga Baraldi, Chiara Valentini, Gabriele Donati, Giorgia Comai, Vania Cuna, Irene Capelli, Maria Laura Angelini, Maria Ilaria Moretti, Andrea Angeletti, Fabio Piscaglia, Gaetano La Manna
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in patients with end-stage liver disease and advanced cirrhosis regardless of the underlying cause. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a functional form of kidney failure, is one of the many possible causes of AKI. HRS is potentially reversible but involves highly complex pathogenetic mechanisms and equally complex clinical and therapeutic management. Once HRS has developed, it has a very poor prognosis. This review focuses on the diagnostic approach to HRS and discusses the therapeutic protocols currently adopted in clinical practice...
November 6, 2015: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26141332/peripheral-neuropathy-a-practical-approach-to-diagnosis-and-symptom-management
#4
REVIEW
James C Watson, P James B Dyck
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most prevalent neurologic conditions encountered by physicians of all specialties. Physicians are faced with 3 distinct challenges in caring for patients with peripheral neuropathy: (1) how to efficiently and effectively screen (in less than 2 minutes) an asymptomatic patient for peripheral neuropathy when they have a disorder in which peripheral neuropathy is highly prevalent (eg, diabetes mellitus), (2) how to clinically stratify patients presenting with symptoms of neuropathy to determine who would benefit from specialty consultation and what testing is appropriate for those who do not need consultation, and (3) how to treat the symptoms of painful peripheral neuropathy...
July 2015: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26045965/mechanical-ventilation-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Ryoichi Ochiai
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been intensively and continuously studied in various settings, but its mortality is still as high as 30-40 %. For the last 20 years, lung protective strategy has become a standard care for ARDS, but we still do not know the best way to ventilate patients with ARDS. Tidal volume itself does not seem to have an important role to develop ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), but the driving pressure, which is inspiratory plateau pressure-PEEP, is the most important to predict and affect the outcome of ARDS, though there is no safe limit for the driving pressure...
2015: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26407386/the-acute-management-of-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#6
REVIEW
Serena F Carville, Robert Henderson, Huon Gray
Acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) results from complete obstruction to coronary artery blood flow accompanied by the appearance of ST-segment-elevation on the electrocardiogram. Emergency treatment is required to restore coronary perfusion, thereby limiting the extent of damage to the myocardium and the likelihood of early death or future heart failure. This concise guideline summarises key recommendations from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guideline on acute management of STEMI (CG167), of relevance to all healthcare professionals involved...
August 2015: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26237037/vasopressors-for-the-treatment-of-septic-shock-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Tomer Avni, Adi Lador, Shaul Lev, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul, Alon Grossman
OBJECTIVE: International guidelines recommend dopamine or norepinephrine as first-line vasopressor agents in septic shock. Phenylephrine, epinephrine, vasopressin and terlipressin are considered second-line agents. Our objective was to assess the evidence for the efficiency and safety of all vasopressors in septic shock. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched electronic database of MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS and conference proceedings up to June 2014...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26152849/experts-recommendations-for-the-management-of-adult-patients-with-cardiogenic-shock
#8
Bruno Levy, Olivier Bastien, Bendjelid Karim, Karim Benjelid, Alain Cariou, Tahar Chouihed, Alain Combes, Alexandre Mebazaa, Bruno Megarbane, Patrick Plaisance, Alexandre Ouattara, Christian Spaulding, Christian Splaulding, Jean-Louis Teboul, Fabrice Vanhuyse, Thierry Boulain, Kaldoun Kuteifan
Unlike for septic shock, there are no specific international recommendations regarding the management of cardiogenic shock (CS) in critically ill patients. We present herein recommendations for the management of cardiogenic shock in adults, developed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system by an expert group of the French-Language Society of Intensive Care (Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF)), with the participation the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), the French Cardiology Society (SFC), the French Emergency Medicine Society (SFMU), and the French Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (SFCTCV)...
December 2015: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26372826/treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-2015
#9
REVIEW
Anthony O'Connor, Javier P Gisbert, Colm O'Morain, Spiros Ladas
Many interesting articles have been published from many parts of the world over the last year assessing different issues around Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. This article will address the published literature over the last year pertaining to the topic of treatment of H. pylori infection. The main themes that emerge are assessing the efficacy of standard triple therapy, as well as exploring new first-line treatments, mainly optimized nonbismuth- and bismuth-containing quadruple therapies with some promising data also emerging on dual therapy...
September 2015: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25551527/images-in-clinical-medicine-wellens-syndrome
#10
Lakshmi Kannan, Vincent M Figueredo
A 31-year-old male smoker with diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department with intermittent, exertional chest pain of 4 days' duration. Electrocardiography performed on arrival (Panel A) revealed anterolateral T-wave inversions with biphasic lateral T waves, which raised concern about..
January 1, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26316210/early-goal-directed-resuscitation-of-patients-with-septic-shock-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Ravi G Gupta, Sarah M Hartigan, Markos G Kashiouris, Curtis N Sessler, Gonzalo M L Bearman
Severe sepsis and septic shock are among the leading causes of mortality in the intensive care unit. Over a decade ago, early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) emerged as a novel approach for reducing sepsis mortality and was incorporated into guidelines published by the international Surviving Sepsis Campaign. In addition to requiring early detection of sepsis and prompt initiation of antibiotics, the EGDT protocol requires invasive patient monitoring to guide resuscitation with intravenous fluids, vasopressors, red cell transfusions, and inotropes...
August 28, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26597304/acid-base-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
L Lee Hamm, Nazih Nakhoul, Kathleen S Hering-Smith
Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids...
December 7, 2015: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26320110/2015-esc-guidelines-for-the-management-of-acute-coronary-syndromes-in-patients-presenting-without-persistent-st-segment-elevation-task-force-for-the-management-of-acute-coronary-syndromes-in-patients-presenting-without-persistent-st-segment-elevation-of-the
#13
Marco Roffi, Carlo Patrono, Jean-Philippe Collet, Christian Mueller, Marco Valgimigli, Felicita Andreotti, Jeroen J Bax, Michael A Borger, Carlos Brotons, Derek P Chew, Baris Gencer, Gerd Hasenfuss, Keld Kjeldsen, Patrizio Lancellotti, Ulf Landmesser, Julinda Mehilli, Debabrata Mukherjee, Robert F Storey, Stephan Windecker, Helmut Baumgartner, Oliver Gaemperli, Stephan Achenbach, Stefan Agewall, Lina Badimon, Colin Baigent, Héctor Bueno, Raffaele Bugiardini, Scipione Carerj, Filip Casselman, Thomas Cuisset, Çetin Erol, Donna Fitzsimons, Martin Halle, Christian Hamm, David Hildick-Smith, Kurt Huber, Efstathios Iliodromitis, Stefan James, Basil S Lewis, Gregory Y H Lip, Massimo F Piepoli, Dimitrios Richter, Thomas Rosemann, Udo Sechtem, Ph Gabriel Steg, Christian Vrints, Jose Luis Zamorano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2016: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26419625/atrial-fibrillation-in-heart-failure-what-should-we-do
#14
REVIEW
Dipak Kotecha, Jonathan P Piccini
Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are two conditions that are likely to dominate the next 50 years of cardiovascular (CV) care. Both are increasingly prevalent and associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare cost. They are closely inter-related with similar risk factors and shared pathophysiology. Patients with concomitant HF and AF suffer from even worse symptoms and poorer prognosis, yet evidence-based evaluation and management of this group of patients is lacking. In this review, we evaluate the common mechanisms for the development of AF in HF patients and vice versa, focusing on the evidence for potential treatment strategies...
December 7, 2015: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26068897/fluid-therapy-in-2015-and-beyond-the-mini-fluid-challenge-and-mini-fluid-bolus-approach
#15
EDITORIAL
P E Marik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26341945/infective-endocarditis
#16
REVIEW
Thomas J Cahill, Bernard D Prendergast
Infective endocarditis occurs worldwide, and is defined by infection of a native or prosthetic heart valve, the endocardial surface, or an indwelling cardiac device. The causes and epidemiology of the disease have evolved in recent decades with a doubling of the average patient age and an increased prevalence in patients with indwelling cardiac devices. The microbiology of the disease has also changed, and staphylococci, most often associated with health-care contact and invasive procedures, have overtaken streptococci as the most common cause of the disease...
February 27, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26174784/orthostatic-hypotension-mechanisms-causes-management
#17
REVIEW
Phillip A Low, Victoria A Tomalia
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) occurs when mechanisms for the regulation of orthostatic BP control fails. Such regulation depends on the baroreflexes, normal blood volume, and defenses against excessive venous pooling. OH is common in the elderly and is associated with an increase in mortality rate. There are many causes of OH. Aging coupled with diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease results in a prevalence of 10-30% in the elderly. These conditions cause baroreflex failure with resulting combination of OH, supine hypertension, and loss of diurnal variation of BP...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26316767/pulmonary-hypertension-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Isabel S Bazan, Wassim H Fares
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a hemodynamic and pathophysiologic state that can be found in multiple conditions with associated symptoms of dyspnea, decreased exercise tolerance, and progression to right heart failure. The World Health Organization has classified PH into five groups. The first group is pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which can be idiopathic, heritable, due to drugs and toxins, or associated with conditions such as connective tissue diseases, congenital heart disease, portal hypertension, and others...
2015: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26551272/a-randomized-trial-of-intensive-versus-standard-blood-pressure-control
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jackson T Wright, Jeff D Williamson, Paul K Whelton, Joni K Snyder, Kaycee M Sink, Michael V Rocco, David M Reboussin, Mahboob Rahman, Suzanne Oparil, Cora E Lewis, Paul L Kimmel, Karen C Johnson, David C Goff, Lawrence J Fine, Jeffrey A Cutler, William C Cushman, Alfred K Cheung, Walter T Ambrosius
BACKGROUND: The most appropriate targets for systolic blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among persons without diabetes remain uncertain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 9361 persons with a systolic blood pressure of 130 mm Hg or higher and an increased cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, to a systolic blood-pressure target of less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) or a target of less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). The primary composite outcome was myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or death from cardiovascular causes...
November 26, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26277247/community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
REVIEW
Elena Prina, Otavio T Ranzani, Antoni Torres
Community-acquired pneumonia causes great mortality and morbidity and high costs worldwide. Empirical selection of antibiotic treatment is the cornerstone of management of patients with pneumonia. To reduce the misuse of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, and side-effects, an empirical, effective, and individualised antibiotic treatment is needed. Follow-up after the start of antibiotic treatment is also important, and management should include early shifts to oral antibiotics, stewardship according to the microbiological results, and short-duration antibiotic treatment that accounts for the clinical stability criteria...
September 12, 2015: Lancet
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