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Outstanding Clinical Review

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48 papers 25 to 100 followers
Ingrid E Scheffer, Samuel Berkovic, Giuseppe Capovilla, Mary B Connolly, Jacqueline French, Laura Guilhoto, Edouard Hirsch, Satish Jain, Gary W Mathern, Solomon L Moshé, Douglas R Nordli, Emilio Perucca, Torbjörn Tomson, Samuel Wiebe, Yue-Hua Zhang, Sameer M Zuberi
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Classification of the Epilepsies has been updated to reflect our gain in understanding of the epilepsies and their underlying mechanisms following the major scientific advances that have taken place since the last ratified classification in 1989. As a critical tool for the practicing clinician, epilepsy classification must be relevant and dynamic to changes in thinking, yet robust and translatable to all areas of the globe. Its primary purpose is for diagnosis of patients, but it is also critical for epilepsy research, development of antiepileptic therapies, and communication around the world...
April 2017: Epilepsia
Gustavo J Rodrigo, David Price, Antonio Anzueto, Dave Singh, Pablo Altman, Giovanni Bader, Francesco Patalano, Robert Fogel, Konstantinos Kostikas
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that long-acting bronchodilator combinations, such as β2-agonist (LABA)/muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), have favorable efficacy compared with commonly used COPD treatments. The objective of this analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of LABA/LAMA with LAMA or LABA/inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in adults with stable moderate-to-very-severe COPD. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and clinical trial/manufacturer databases) included RCTs comparing ≥12 weeks' LABA/LAMA treatment with LAMA and/or LABA/ICS (approved doses only)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
January 11, 2017: Kidney International
Jansen Seheult, Gerard Fitzpatrick, Gerard Boran
Lactate is one of the most crucial intermediates in carbohydrate and nonessential amino acid metabolism. The complexity of cellular interactions and metabolism means that lactate can be considered a waste product for one cell but a useful substrate for another. The presence of elevated lactate levels in critically ill patients has important implications for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a brief outline of the metabolism of lactate, the pathophysiology of lactic acidosis, the clinical significance of D-lactate, the role of lactate measurement in acutely ill patients, the methods used to measure lactate in blood or plasma and some of the methodological issues related to interferences in these assays, especially in the case of ethylene glycol poisoning...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Jonathan W Waks, Peter Zimetbaum
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and affects over 33 million people worldwide. AF is associated with stroke and systemic thromboembolism, unpleasant symptoms and reduced quality of life, heart failure, and increased mortality, and treatment of AF and its complications are associated with significant cost. Antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) can suppress AF, allowing long-term maintenance of sinus rhythm, and have the potential to relieve symptoms and reverse or prevent adverse effects associated with AF...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mathieu van der Jagt
Maintenance fluids in critically ill brain-injured patients are part of routine critical care. Both the amounts of fluid volumes infused and the type and tonicity of maintenance fluids are relevant in understanding the impact of fluids on the pathophysiology of secondary brain injuries in these patients. In this narrative review, current evidence on routine fluid management of critically ill brain-injured patients and use of haemodynamic monitoring is summarized. Pertinent guidelines and consensus statements on fluid management for brain-injured patients are highlighted...
May 31, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Anne Kastelianne França da Silva, Marianne Penachini da Costa de Rezende Barbosa, Franciele Marques Vanderlei, Diego Giuliano Destro Christofaro, Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei
BACKGROUND: The use of heart rate variability as a tool capable of discriminating individuals with diabetes mellitus is still little explored, as its use has been limited to comparing those with and without the disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the use of heart rate variability as a tool for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation in person with diabetes and to identify whether there are cutoff points generated from the use of this tool in these individuals. METHODS: A search was conducted in the electronic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, and LILACS starting from the oldest records until January 2015, by means of descriptors related to the target condition, evaluated tool, and evaluation method...
May 2016: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Serenella Castelvecchio, Lorenzo Menicanti, Andrea Garatti, Roberto Tramarin, Marianna Volpe, Alessandro Parolari
Patients affected by diabetes usually have extensive coronary artery disease. Coronary revascularization has a prominent role in the treatment of coronary artery disease in the expanding diabetic population. However, diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention experience worse outcomes than nondiabetic patients. Several studies comparing coronary artery bypass grafting vs percutaneous coronary intervention in subgroups of diabetic patients demonstrated a survival advantage and fewer repeat revascularization procedures with an initial surgical strategy...
September 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Ify Mordi, Natalie Mordi, Christian Delles, Nikolaos Tzemos
Although the endothelium has a number of important functions, the term endothelial dysfunction is commonly used to describe impairment in its vasodilatory capacity. It is increasingly recognized that this is related to hypertension, although whether it predates essential hypertension or is a consequence of it is still unknown. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension, its prognostic significance and methods of pharmacological reversal.
August 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ian D Pavord, Paul W Jones, Pierre-Régis Burgel, Klaus F Rabe
Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defined as sustained worsening of a patient's condition beyond normal day-to-day variations that is acute in onset, and that may also require a change in medication and/or hospitalization. Exacerbations have a significant and prolonged impact on health status and outcomes, and negative effects on pulmonary function. A significant proportion of exacerbations are unreported and therefore left untreated, leading to a poorer prognosis than those treated...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Rob Mac Sweeney, Daniel F McAuley
Acute respiratory distress syndrome presents as hypoxia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging in the absence of heart failure sufficient to account for this clinical state. Management is largely supportive, and is focused on protective mechanical ventilation and the avoidance of fluid overload. Patients with severe hypoxaemia can be managed with early short-term use of neuromuscular blockade, prone position ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The use of inhaled nitric oxide is rarely indicated and both β2 agonists and late corticosteroids should be avoided...
November 12, 2016: Lancet
Christiana T Vogkou, Nikolaos I Vlachogiannis, Leonidas Palaiodimos, Antonis A Kousoulis
Infective endocarditis (IE) incidence remains high with considerable fatality rates; guidelines for prophylaxis against IE are currently under review in some settings which highlights the importance of maintaining up-to-date epidemiological estimates about the most common microbial causes. The objective of this systematic review, following PRISMA guidelines, was to identify the most common microbial causes of IE in recent years. Medline was searched from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2013 for all articles containing the term "infective endocarditis"...
August 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
François De Guio, Eric Jouvent, Geert Jan Biessels, Sandra E Black, Carol Brayne, Christopher Chen, Charlotte Cordonnier, Frank-Eric De Leeuw, Martin Dichgans, Fergus Doubal, Marco Duering, Carole Dufouil, Emrah Duzel, Franz Fazekas, Vladimir Hachinski, M Arfan Ikram, Jennifer Linn, Paul M Matthews, Bernard Mazoyer, Vincent Mok, Bo Norrving, John T O'Brien, Leonardo Pantoni, Stefan Ropele, Perminder Sachdev, Reinhold Schmidt, Sudha Seshadri, Eric E Smith, Luciano A Sposato, Blossom Stephan, Richard H Swartz, Christophe Tzourio, Mark van Buchem, Aad van der Lugt, Robert van Oostenbrugge, Meike W Vernooij, Anand Viswanathan, David Werring, Frank Wollenweber, Joanna M Wardlaw, Hugues Chabriat
Brain imaging is essential for the diagnosis and characterization of cerebral small vessel disease. Several magnetic resonance imaging markers have therefore emerged, providing new information on the diagnosis, progression, and mechanisms of small vessel disease. Yet, the reproducibility of these small vessel disease markers has received little attention despite being widely used in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. This review focuses on the main small vessel disease-related markers on magnetic resonance imaging including: white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, dilated perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain volume...
August 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Sima L Sharara, Ralph Tayyar, Zeina A Kanafani, Souha S Kanj
INTRODUCTION: The HACEK group, referring to Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae, is a rare cause of infective endocarditis (IE). It causes the majority of Gram-negative endocarditis cases and has an excellent prognosis and simple management if properly identified. However, delay in diagnosis and associated complications can render the infection fatal. AREAS COVERED: Over the past few decades, there have been tremendous advancements in understanding the manifestations and progression of HACEK endocarditis (HE)...
June 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jiachang Hu, Shaopeng Liu, Ping Jia, Xialian Xu, Nana Song, Ting Zhang, Rongyi Chen, Xiaoqiang Ding
BACKGROUND: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a promising approach to preventing acute kidney injury (AKI), but its efficacy is controversial. METHODS: A systematic review of 30 randomized controlled trials was conducted to investigate the effects of RIPC on the incidence and outcomes of AKI. Random effects model meta-analyses and meta-regressions were used to generate summary estimates and explore sources of heterogeneity. The primary outcome was incidence of AKI and hospital mortality...
April 20, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Evelyn P Whitlock, Brittany U Burda, Selvi B Williams, Janelle M Guirguis-Blake, Corinne V Evans
BACKGROUND: The balance between potential aspirin-related risks and benefits is critical in primary prevention. PURPOSE: To evaluate the risk for serious bleeding with regular aspirin use in cardiovascular disease (CVD) primary prevention. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2010 through 6 January 2015), and relevant references from other reviews. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized, controlled trials; cohort studies; and meta-analyses comparing aspirin with placebo or no treatment to prevent CVD or cancer in adults...
June 21, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Janelle M Guirguis-Blake, Corinne V Evans, Caitlyn A Senger, Elizabeth A O'Connor, Evelyn P Whitlock
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. PURPOSE: To update a systematic review about the benefits of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in adults aged 40 years or older and to evaluate effect modification in subpopulations. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 2008 to January 2015), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews...
June 21, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Hugh J Willison, Bart C Jacobs, Pieter A van Doorn
Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100,000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20-30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care...
August 13, 2016: Lancet
Mohammad G Saklayen, Neeraj V Deshpande
It is surprising that only about 50 years ago hypertension was considered an essential malady and not a treatable condition. Introduction of thiazide diuretics in late 50s made some headway in successful treatment of hypertension and ambitious multicenter VA co-operative study (phase 1 and 2) started in 1964 for diastolic hypertension ranging between 90 and 129 mmHg and completed by 1971 established for the first time that treating diastolic hypertension reduced CV events such as stroke and heart failure and improved mortality...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Mirjana M Platiša, Tijana Bojić, Siniša U Pavlović, Nikola N Radovanović, Aleksandar Kalauzi
Classical Poincaré plot is a standard way to measure nonlinear regulation of cardiovascular control. In our work we propose a generalized form of Poincaré plot where we track correlation between the duration of j preceding and k next RR intervals. The investigation was done in healthy subjects and patients with atrial fibrillation, by varying j,k ≤ 100. In cases where j = k, in healthy subjects the typical pattern was observed by "paths" that were substituting scatterplots and that were initiated and ended by loops of Poincaré plot points...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
2016-02-26 17:56:07
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