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Outstanding Clinical Review

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55 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927998/the-neurology-literature-2016
#1
REVIEW
Danya Khoujah, Wan-Tsu W Chang, Michael K Abraham
Emergency neurology is a complex and rapidly changing field. Its evolution can be attributed in part to increased imaging options, debates about optimal treatment, and simply the growth of emergency medicine as a specialty. Every year, a number of articles published in emergency medicine or other specialty journals should become familiar to the emergency physician. This review summarizes neurology articles published in 2016, which the authors consider crucial to the practice of emergency medicine. The articles are categorized according to disease process, with the understanding that there can be significant overlap among articles...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803444/atypical-parkinsonian-syndromes-a-general-neurologist-s-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Angela B Deutschländer, Owen A Ross, Dennis W Dickson, Zbigniew K Wszolek
The differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian syndromes is challenging. These severe and often rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorders are clinically heterogeneous and show significant phenotypic overlap. Here we review clinical, imaging, neuropathologic and genetic features of multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The terms CBD and FTLD refer to pathologically confirmed cases of corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738130/treatment-of-cholesterol-in-2017
#3
Harlan M Krumholz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742644/update-on-sglt2-inhibitors-new-data-released-at-the-american-diabetes-association
#4
Sara Lee
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are one of the newer classes of antiglycemic agents approved for the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to their unique mechanism of action, SGLT2 inhibitors have shown to be beneficial beyond glucose control. The improvement in cardiovascular (CV) outcomes was first observed in the landmark EMPA-REG OUTCOMES study. Following these results, numerous CV outcome trials were designed to identify whether the beneficial CV and renal effects observed with empagliflozin are unique or a drug class effect...
September 2017: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731862/muscle-neuromuscular-junction-and-peripheral-nerve-diseases
#5
Jean-Marc Léger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637272/illogical-critiques-of-the-pressure-natriuresis-theory-of-chronic-hypertension
#6
Thomas E Lohmeier, William Andrew Pruett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637271/logical-issues-with-the-pressure-natriuresis-theory-of-chronic-hypertension
#7
Theodore W Kurtz, Stephen E DiCarlo, R Curtis Morris
The term "abnormal pressure natriuresis" refers to a subnormal effect of a given level of blood pressure (BP) on sodium excretion. It is widely believed that abnormal pressure natriuresis causes an initial increase in BP to be sustained. We refer to this view as the "pressure natriuresis theory of chronic hypertension." The proponents of the theory contend that all forms of chronic hypertension are sustained by abnormal pressure natriuresis, irrespective of how hypertension is initiated. This theory would appear to follow from "the three laws of long-term arterial pressure regulation" stated by Guyton and Coleman more than 3 decades ago...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276062/ilae-classification-of-the-epilepsies-position-paper-of-the-ilae-commission-for-classification-and-terminology
#8
Ingrid E Scheffer, Samuel Berkovic, Giuseppe Capovilla, Mary B Connolly, Jacqueline French, Laura Guilhoto, Edouard Hirsch, Satish Jain, Gary W Mathern, Solomon L Moshé, Douglas R Nordli, Emilio Perucca, Torbjörn Tomson, Samuel Wiebe, Yue-Hua Zhang, Sameer M Zuberi
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Classification of the Epilepsies has been updated to reflect our gain in understanding of the epilepsies and their underlying mechanisms following the major scientific advances that have taken place since the last ratified classification in 1989. As a critical tool for the practicing clinician, epilepsy classification must be relevant and dynamic to changes in thinking, yet robust and translatable to all areas of the globe. Its primary purpose is for diagnosis of patients, but it is also critical for epilepsy research, development of antiepileptic therapies, and communication around the world...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360514/laba-lama-combinations-versus-lama-monotherapy-or-laba-ics-in-copd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Gustavo J Rodrigo, David Price, Antonio Anzueto, Dave Singh, Pablo Altman, Giovanni Bader, Francesco Patalano, Robert Fogel, Konstantinos Kostikas
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that long-acting bronchodilator combinations, such as β2-agonist (LABA)/muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), have favorable efficacy compared with commonly used COPD treatments. The objective of this analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of LABA/LAMA with LAMA or LABA/inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in adults with stable moderate-to-very-severe COPD. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and clinical trial/manufacturer databases) included RCTs comparing ≥12 weeks' LABA/LAMA treatment with LAMA and/or LABA/ICS (approved doses only)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#10
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
May 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522622/lactic-acidosis-an-update
#11
REVIEW
Jansen Seheult, Gerard Fitzpatrick, Gerard Boran
Lactate is one of the most crucial intermediates in carbohydrate and nonessential amino acid metabolism. The complexity of cellular interactions and metabolism means that lactate can be considered a waste product for one cell but a useful substrate for another. The presence of elevated lactate levels in critically ill patients has important implications for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a brief outline of the metabolism of lactate, the pathophysiology of lactic acidosis, the clinical significance of D-lactate, the role of lactate measurement in acutely ill patients, the methods used to measure lactate in blood or plasma and some of the methodological issues related to interferences in these assays, especially in the case of ethylene glycol poisoning...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260643/antiarrhythmic-drug-therapy-for-rhythm-control-in-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Jonathan W Waks, Peter Zimetbaum
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and affects over 33 million people worldwide. AF is associated with stroke and systemic thromboembolism, unpleasant symptoms and reduced quality of life, heart failure, and increased mortality, and treatment of AF and its complications are associated with significant cost. Antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) can suppress AF, allowing long-term maintenance of sinus rhythm, and have the potential to relieve symptoms and reverse or prevent adverse effects associated with AF...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240859/fluid-management-of-the-neurological-patient-a-concise-review
#13
REVIEW
Mathieu van der Jagt
Maintenance fluids in critically ill brain-injured patients are part of routine critical care. Both the amounts of fluid volumes infused and the type and tonicity of maintenance fluids are relevant in understanding the impact of fluids on the pathophysiology of secondary brain injuries in these patients. In this narrative review, current evidence on routine fluid management of critically ill brain-injured patients and use of haemodynamic monitoring is summarized. Pertinent guidelines and consensus statements on fluid management for brain-injured patients are highlighted...
May 31, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226209/application-of-heart-rate-variability-in-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-individuals-with-diabetes-mellitus-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Anne Kastelianne França da Silva, Marianne Penachini da Costa de Rezende Barbosa, Franciele Marques Vanderlei, Diego Giuliano Destro Christofaro, Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei
BACKGROUND: The use of heart rate variability as a tool capable of discriminating individuals with diabetes mellitus is still little explored, as its use has been limited to comparing those with and without the disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the use of heart rate variability as a tool for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation in person with diabetes and to identify whether there are cutoff points generated from the use of this tool in these individuals. METHODS: A search was conducted in the electronic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, and LILACS starting from the oldest records until January 2015, by means of descriptors related to the target condition, evaluated tool, and evaluation method...
May 2016: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217297/myocardial-revascularization-for-patients-with-diabetes-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-or-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#15
REVIEW
Serenella Castelvecchio, Lorenzo Menicanti, Andrea Garatti, Roberto Tramarin, Marianna Volpe, Alessandro Parolari
Patients affected by diabetes usually have extensive coronary artery disease. Coronary revascularization has a prominent role in the treatment of coronary artery disease in the expanding diabetic population. However, diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention experience worse outcomes than nondiabetic patients. Several studies comparing coronary artery bypass grafting vs percutaneous coronary intervention in subgroups of diabetic patients demonstrated a survival advantage and fewer repeat revascularization procedures with an initial surgical strategy...
September 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27203578/endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-essential-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Ify Mordi, Natalie Mordi, Christian Delles, Nikolaos Tzemos
Although the endothelium has a number of important functions, the term endothelial dysfunction is commonly used to describe impairment in its vasodilatory capacity. It is increasingly recognized that this is related to hypertension, although whether it predates essential hypertension or is a consequence of it is still unknown. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension, its prognostic significance and methods of pharmacological reversal.
August 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937187/exacerbations-of-copd
#17
REVIEW
Ian D Pavord, Paul W Jones, Pierre-Régis Burgel, Klaus F Rabe
Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defined as sustained worsening of a patient's condition beyond normal day-to-day variations that is acute in onset, and that may also require a change in medication and/or hospitalization. Exacerbations have a significant and prolonged impact on health status and outcomes, and negative effects on pulmonary function. A significant proportion of exacerbations are unreported and therefore left untreated, leading to a poorer prognosis than those treated...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133972/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Rob Mac Sweeney, Daniel F McAuley
Acute respiratory distress syndrome presents as hypoxia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging in the absence of heart failure sufficient to account for this clinical state. Management is largely supportive, and is focused on protective mechanical ventilation and the avoidance of fluid overload. Patients with severe hypoxaemia can be managed with early short-term use of neuromuscular blockade, prone position ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The use of inhaled nitric oxide is rarely indicated and both β2 agonists and late corticosteroids should be avoided...
November 12, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170145/the-causative-agents-in-infective-endocarditis-a-systematic-review-comprising-33-214-cases
#19
REVIEW
Christiana T Vogkou, Nikolaos I Vlachogiannis, Leonidas Palaiodimos, Antonis A Kousoulis
Infective endocarditis (IE) incidence remains high with considerable fatality rates; guidelines for prophylaxis against IE are currently under review in some settings which highlights the importance of maintaining up-to-date epidemiological estimates about the most common microbial causes. The objective of this systematic review, following PRISMA guidelines, was to identify the most common microbial causes of IE in recent years. Medline was searched from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2013 for all articles containing the term "infective endocarditis"...
August 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170700/reproducibility-and-variability-of-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-markers-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#20
REVIEW
François De Guio, Eric Jouvent, Geert Jan Biessels, Sandra E Black, Carol Brayne, Christopher Chen, Charlotte Cordonnier, Frank-Eric De Leeuw, Martin Dichgans, Fergus Doubal, Marco Duering, Carole Dufouil, Emrah Duzel, Franz Fazekas, Vladimir Hachinski, M Arfan Ikram, Jennifer Linn, Paul M Matthews, Bernard Mazoyer, Vincent Mok, Bo Norrving, John T O'Brien, Leonardo Pantoni, Stefan Ropele, Perminder Sachdev, Reinhold Schmidt, Sudha Seshadri, Eric E Smith, Luciano A Sposato, Blossom Stephan, Richard H Swartz, Christophe Tzourio, Mark van Buchem, Aad van der Lugt, Robert van Oostenbrugge, Meike W Vernooij, Anand Viswanathan, David Werring, Frank Wollenweber, Joanna M Wardlaw, Hugues Chabriat
Brain imaging is essential for the diagnosis and characterization of cerebral small vessel disease. Several magnetic resonance imaging markers have therefore emerged, providing new information on the diagnosis, progression, and mechanisms of small vessel disease. Yet, the reproducibility of these small vessel disease markers has received little attention despite being widely used in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. This review focuses on the main small vessel disease-related markers on magnetic resonance imaging including: white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, dilated perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain volume...
August 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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