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Landmark Research

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104 papers 25 to 100 followers
Jordi Sanahuja, Núria Alonso, Javier Diez, Emilio Ortega, Esther Rubinat, Alícia Traveset, Núria Alcubierre, Àngels Betriu, Esmeralda Castelblanco, Marta Hernández, Francisco Purroy, Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono, Carmen Jurjo, Elvira Fernández, Manuel Puig-Domingo, Per-Henrik Groop, Dídac Mauricio
OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the presence and severity of brain small vessel disease (SVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR) compared with those without DR. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated 312 patients with type 2 diabetes without previous cardiovascular disease (men 51%; mean age 57 years; age range 40-75 years); 153 patients (49%) had DR. MRI was performed to evaluate the presence and severity (age-related white matter changes scale) of white matter lesions (WMLs) and lacunes, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to measure the Gosling pulsatility index (PI) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)...
September 2016: Diabetes Care
Xuehao Gong, Leidan Huang, Xin Liu, Chunyue Li, Xuhua Mao, Weizong Liu, Xian Huang, Haiting Chu, Yumei Wang, Wanqing Wu, Jun Lu
Heart rate variability (HRV) can reflect the changes in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) that are affected by apnea or hypopnea events among patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). To evaluate the possibility of using HRV to screen for OSAHS, we investigated the relationship between HRV and polysomnography (PSG) diagnostic indices using electrocardiography (ECG) and PSG data from 25 patients with OSAHS and 27 healthy participants. We evaluated the relationship between various PSG diagnostic indices (including the apnea hypopnea index [AHI], micro-arousal index [MI], oxygen desaturation index [ODI]) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters using Spearman's correlation analysis...
2016: PloS One
Yoshino Kinjo, Akio Ishida, Kozen Kinjo, Yusuke Ohya
OBJECTIVES: Arterial stiffness is associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is used to predict arterial stiffness. We hypothesized that the increase in ABI with age occurs as a result of increasing arterial stiffness and wave reflection, and is thus associated with target organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ABI, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and CMBs. METHODS: We recruited 990 cardiovascular disease-free and stroke-free participants [median age 53 (24-86) years, 531 were woman] who underwent brain MRI, ABI, and baPWV at a health checkup...
August 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Eduardo M Viteri, Joaquín Pólit, Ernesto A Ledesma, José A Cano, Karin J Plaza, Mauricio Zambrano, Aldo F Costa
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a challenge in remote areas where MRI is not available. Hypertensive retinopathy (HTRP) has shown to correlate with SVD in different ethnic groups, but there is no information from indigenous Latin American people. We assessed the usefulness of retinal photographs to detect cases with SVD among Amerindians living in rural Ecuador. METHODS: Atahualpa residents aged ≥60years with arterial hypertension or prehypertension were identified during a door-to-door survey...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Mira Katan, Yeseon P Moon, Myunghee C Paik, Beat Mueller, Andreas Huber, Ralph L Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic infections and neuroendocrine dysfunction may be risk factors for ischemic stroke (IS). We hypothesized that selected blood biomarkers of infection (procalcitonin [PCT]), hypothalamic-pituitary-axis function (copeptin), and hemodynamic dysfunction (midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide [MRproANP]) are associated with incident IS risk in the multiethnic, urban Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) cohort. METHODS: A nested case-control study was performed among initially stroke-free participants...
July 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Tobias Boeckh-Behrens, Justus F Kleine, Claus Zimmer, Frauke Neff, Fabian Scheipl, Jaroslav Pelisek, Lucas Schirmer, Kim Nguyen, Deniz Karatas, Holger Poppert
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke of undetermined cause is a major health issue because of its high frequency and clinical relevance. Histopathologic analysis of human thrombi, retrieved from stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion during mechanical thrombectomy, may provide information about underlying pathologies. This study examines the relationship between stroke causes and histological clot composition to identify specific patterns that might help to distinguish causes of cryptogenic stroke...
July 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Rob Mac Sweeney, Daniel F McAuley
Acute respiratory distress syndrome presents as hypoxia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging in the absence of heart failure sufficient to account for this clinical state. Management is largely supportive, and is focused on protective mechanical ventilation and the avoidance of fluid overload. Patients with severe hypoxaemia can be managed with early short-term use of neuromuscular blockade, prone position ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The use of inhaled nitric oxide is rarely indicated and both β2 agonists and late corticosteroids should be avoided...
April 28, 2016: Lancet
Zdravko Z Taralov, Kiril V Terziyski, Stefan S Kostianev
The autonomic nervous system controls the smooth muscles of the internal organs, the cardiovascular system and the secretory function of the glands and plays a major role in the processes of adaptation. Heart rate variability is a non-invasive and easily applicable method for the assessment of its activity. The following review describes the origin, parameters and characteristics of this method and its potential for evaluation of the changes of the autonomic nervous system activity in different physiological and pathological conditions such as exogenous hypoxia, physical exercise and sleep...
July 2015: Folia Medica
Jessica Parsh, Milan Seth, Carlo Briguori, Paul Grossman, Richard Solomon, Hitinder S Gurm
BACKGROUND: It is unknown which definition of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in the setting of percutaneous coronary interventions is best associated with inpatient mortality and whether this association is stable across patients with various preprocedural serum creatinine (SCr) values. METHODS: We applied logistic regression models to multiple CI-AKI definitions used by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines and previously published studies to examine the impact of preprocedural SCr on a candidate definition's correlation with the adverse outcome of inpatient mortality...
May 2016: American Heart Journal
Cristóbal León, Sergio Ruiz-Santana, Pedro Saavedra, Carmen Castro, Ana Loza, Ismail Zakariya, Alejandro Úbeda, Manuel Parra, Desirée Macías, José Ignacio Tomás, Antonio Rezusta, Alejandro Rodríguez, Frederic Gómez, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos
BACKGROUND: To assess the performance of Candida albicans germ tube antibody (CAGTA), (1 → 3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG), mannan antigen (mannan-Ag), anti-mannan antibodies (mannan-Ab), and Candida DNA for diagnosing invasive candidiasis (IC) in ICU patients with severe abdominal conditions (SAC). METHODS: A prospective study of 233 non-neutropenic patients with SAC on ICU admission and expected stay ≥ 7 days. CAGTA (cutoff positivity ≥ 1/160), BDG (≥80, 100 and 200 pg/mL), mannan-Ag (≥60 pg/mL), mannan-Ab (≥10 UA/mL) were measured twice a week, and Candida DNA only in patients treated with systemic antifungals...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Xuan Liu, Yong Shen, Hairong Wang, Qinmin Ge, Aihua Fei, Shuming Pan
BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an easily accessible biological marker that has been reported to represent disease severity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between NLR and mortality in patients with sepsis. METHODS: A total of 333 consecutive adult patients with sepsis were screened for eligibility in this prospective, observational study cohort. Severity scores and leukocyte counts were prospectively recorded upon entry to the intensive care unit (ICU)...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
S Kinoshita, M Kawai
The functions of Klotho (KL) are multifaceted and include the regulation of aging and mineral metabolism. It was originally identified as the gene responsible for premature aging-like symptoms in mice and was subsequently shown to function as a coreceptor in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 signaling pathway. The discovery of KL as a partner for FGF23 led to significant advances in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, and simultaneously clarified the pathogenic roles of the FGF23 signaling pathway in human diseases...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
J A Neyra, M C Hu
Alpha-Klotho (αKlotho) protein is encoded by the gene, Klotho, and functions as a coreceptor for endocrine fibroblast growth factor-23. The extracellular domain of αKlotho is cleaved by secretases and released into the circulation where it is called soluble αKlotho. Soluble αKlotho in the circulation starts to decline in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 2 and urinary αKlotho in even earlier CKD stage 1. Therefore soluble αKlotho is an early and sensitive marker of decline in kidney function. Preclinical data from numerous animal experiments support αKlotho deficiency as a pathogenic factor for CKD progression and extrarenal CKD complications including cardiac and vascular disease, hyperparathyroidism, and disturbed mineral metabolism...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
Y Furuncuoğlu, S Tulgar, A N Dogan, S Cakar, Y K Tulgar, B Cakiroglu
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is an important preventable cause of death and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases as well as skeletal system diseases and malignancies. In many studies, complete blood count (CBC) and ratios derived from its results - such as the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and systemic immune inflammatory index have been associated with some diseases and their surveys. In these studies, the body mass index (BMI) and state of obesity of patients and the possible effects of these factors on CBC have not been defined...
April 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Aimie Nunn, Philip M Bath, Laura J Gray
Background. Historically, most acute stroke clinical trials were neutral statistically, with trials typically dichotomising ordinal scales, such as the modified Rankin Scale. Studies published before 2007 have shown that preserving the ordinal nature of these scales increased statistical power. A systematic review of trials published since 2007 was conducted to reevaluate statistical methods used and to assess whether practice has changed. Methods. A search of electronic databases identified RCTs published between January 2007 and July 2014 in acute ischaemic stroke using an ordinal dependency scale as the primary outcome...
2016: Stroke Research and Treatment
Pierre-Yves Courand, Michaël Serraille, Nicolas Girerd, Genevieve Demarquay, Hugues Milon, Pierre Lantelme, Brahim Harbaoui
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular prognostic value of various types of headache, particularly migraine, in the general population remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess their prognostic value for all-cause, cardiovascular and stroke mortalities in hypertensive patients. METHODS: A total of 1,914 hypertensive individuals were first categorized according to the absence or presence of headache and thereafter according to the 3 subtypes of headache: migraine, daily headache, and other headache...
September 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Mark Dayer, Lucieni O Conterno, Alejandro G Gonzalez Garay, Cristina Elena Martí-Amarista, Daniel Simancas-Racines
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a microbial infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. Antibiotics are the cornerstone of treatment, but their use is not standardised, due to the differences in presentation, populations affected and the wide variety of micro-organisms that can be responsible. OBJECTIVES: To assess the existing evidence about the clinical benefits and harms of different antibiotics regimens used to treat people with infective endocarditis...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yan Wu, Tao Chen
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small cerebrovascular lesions. More and more CMBs have been found in patients with ischemic stroke, dementia, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, as well as some normal elderly populations. The objective of this study is to summarize the main risk factor, impairment, and therapy of CMBs. METHODS: We searched and scanned all the literature with the keyword "cerebral microbleeds" or "CMBs" in the database of PubMed and Elsevier...
June 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Hyung-Min Kwon, Jong-Ho Park, Jin Ho Park, Han-Yeong Jeong, Jae-Sung Lim, Han-Gil Jeong, Dong Wook Shin, Jae Moon Yun, Hyejin Lee
BACKGROUND: Obesity has a significant contribution to the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, little is known about the association between central obesity and the presence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), a precursor of ICH. We sought to assess whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are associated with the presence of CMB. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,737 neurologically healthy people (mean age 55...
2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Norberto L Cabral, Pedro T Cougo-Pinto, Pedro S C Magalhaes, Alexandre L Longo, Carla H C Moro, Claudio H Amaral, Gerson Costa, Felipe I Reis, Anderson R R Gonçalves, Vivian Nagel, Octavio M Pontes-Neto
BACKGROUND: Temporal trends on the incidence of stroke and its subtypes could help assess on-going public health policies and point to further targets for action among middle- and low-income countries, where the stroke burden is very high. This study aimed at evaluating longitudinal trends of stroke incidence in Joinville, Brazil. METHODS: We ascertained the incidence of all first-ever strokes occurred in 1995, 2005-2006 and 2012-2013, which were extracted from Joinville Stroke Registry, a prospective epidemiological data bank, launched in 1995...
2016: Neuroepidemiology
2016-04-13 13:17:04
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