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CSF disorders

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26 papers 25 to 100 followers
Patrick M House, Stefan R G Stodieck
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by elevated intracranial pressure without a space-occupying cerebral lesion, venous sinus thrombosis or hydrocephalus and with normally composited cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Main symptoms are headache, sight disturbances and potential visual impairment. Weight loss, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, lumbar punctures with CSF drain, CSF shunting, optic nerve sheath fenestration, and venous sinus stenting are common IIH therapies...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Helen Williams
It is proposed that negative central nervous system (CNS) pressure is one of the filling mechanisms of the fluid spaces of the CNS. Negative CNS pressure is caused by the combination of gravitational force and body movement. The venous system imposes pressure fluctuations on the CNS due to changes in posture and body cavity pressure. It is proposed here that filling of veins, arteries and cerebrospinal (CSF) spaces are all assisted by negative CNS pressure. Hyperemia in the CNS in response to pressure changes with movement was described in the first part of this hypothesis...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
N Alperin, A M Bagci, S H Lee, B L Lam
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Automated methods for quantitation of tissue and CSF volumes by MR imaging are available for the cranial but not the spinal compartment. We developed an iterative method for delineation of the spinal CSF spaces for automated measurements of CSF and cord volumes and applied it to study craniospinal CSF redistribution following lumbar withdrawal in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging data were obtained from 2 healthy subjects and 8 patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension who were scanned before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after diagnostic lumbar puncture...
June 9, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Anders Eklund, Gauti Jóhannesson, Elias Johansson, Petter Holmlund, Sara Qvarlander, Khalid Ambarki, Anders Wåhlin, Lars-Owe D Koskinen, Jan Malm
OBJECTIVE: The discovery of a posture-dependent effect on the difference between intraocular pressure (IOP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) at the level of lamina cribrosa could have important implications for understanding glaucoma and idiopathic intracranial hypertension and could help explain visual impairments in astronauts exposed to microgravity. The aim of this study was to determine the postural influence on the difference between simultaneously measured ICP and IOP. METHODS: Eleven healthy adult volunteers (age = 46 ± 10 years) were investigated with simultaneous ICP, assessed through lumbar puncture, and IOP measurements when supine, sitting, and in 9° head-down tilt (HDT)...
August 2016: Annals of Neurology
Naïma Diesner, Florian Freimann, Christin Clajus, Kai Kallenberg, Veit Rohde, Florian Stockhammer
BACKGROUND: Gravitational valves (GVs) prevent overdrainage in ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS). However, there are no data available on the appropriate opening pressure in the shunt system when implementing a GV. We performed a retrospective analysis of hydrocephalic patients who were successfully treated with VPS which included one or more GV. METHOD: In this retrospective study in adult VPS patients with GVs, we analysed all available data, including the most recent computed tomography (CT) scans, to determine the best adjustments for alleviating any symptoms of overdrainage and underdrainage...
July 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Shigeo Yamashiro, Yasuyuki Hitoshi, Seiji Tajiri, Hiroki Uchikawa, Kiyotaka Ito, Akimasa Yoshida, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu
BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastasis-related hydrocephalus causes distress to patients with end-stage cancer through headache and other symptoms by elevating intracranial pressure, thus reducing quality of life. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt has been used as a treatment option in palliative care. We review four cases of patients who underwent lumboperitoneal shunt for leptomeningeal metastasis-related hydrocephalus. CASES: All patients suffered from severe headache and nausea...
May 17, 2016: Palliative Medicine
Kristopher Lyon, Vin Shen Ban, Nicole Bedros, Salah G Aoun, Tarek El Ahmadieh, Jonathan White
BACKGROUND: Ventriculoperitoneal shunts are prone to common complications such as infection or mechanical failure, but more insidious events can easily be missed. Distal shunt migration into the vascular system is a rarely observed phenomenon, and there are no established guidelines for its management. We present a case of a distal catheter migration into the pulmonary vasculature, review existing cases in the literature, and present recommendations for their management. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 71-year-old man presented to the clinic with normal pressure hydrocephalus...
August 2016: World Neurosurgery
T Radovnický, D Adámek, M Derner, M Sameš
BACKGROUND: Disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus (DESH) findings on MRI were described as a prognostic factor for responsiveness to the treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Our premise is that DESH could be associated with compression of the cerebral white matter. Microstructural changes can be identified using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), specifically fractional anisotropy (FA). The aim of this study is to compare FA in iNPH patients with and without DESH and healthy controls...
August 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Johannes Lemcke, Dirk Stengel, Florian Stockhammer, Claas Güthoff, Veit Rohde, Ullrich Meier
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in Germany. METHODS: The database of the nationwide Barmer Health Insurance was queried for specific combinations of corresponding International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes and OPS codes (German modification of the ICPM and official classification of surgical procedures) in order to assess the number of patients treated for iNPH and the number surgical procedures associated with the disease in a 10 years period between 2003 and 2012...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
Leszek Herbowski
The impact of the atmosphere on human physiology has been studied widely within the last years. In practice, intracranial pressure is a pressure difference between intracranial compartments and the surrounding atmosphere. This means that gauge intracranial pressure uses atmospheric pressure as its zero point, and therefore, this method of pressure measurement excludes the effects of barometric pressure's fluctuation. The comparison of these two physical quantities can only take place through their absolute value relationship...
June 22, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
J Chrastina, Z Novák, V Feitová
UNLABELLED: Posttraumatic hydrocephalus caused by cerebrospinal fluid circulation disturbances frequently complicates the clinical course and treatment after craniocerebral injury. Hydrocephalus complicating spinal cord injury is only exceptionally reported. The paper presents two cases of complete cervical spinal cord injury with subsequent development of hydrocephalus. The analysis of both cases and literature data confirmed the dominant role of non-spinal factors in the development of hydrocephalus after spinal cord injury...
2016: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
Sebastian Antes, Christoph A Tschan, Michael Heckelmann, David Breuskin, Joachim Oertel
BACKGROUND: Devices enabling long-term intracranial pressure monitoring have been demanded for some time. The first solutions using telemetry were proposed in 1967. Since then, many other wireless systems have followed but some technical restrictions have led to unacceptable measurement uncertainties. In 2009, a completely revised telemetric pressure device called Neurovent P-tel was introduced to the market. This report reviews technical aspects, handling, possibilities of data analysis, and the efficiency of the probe in clinical routine...
July 2016: World Neurosurgery
Erin J Kelly, Shinya Yamada
This article provides an overview of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques used to assess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement in the central nervous system (CNS), including Phase-Contrast (PC), Time-Spatial Labeling Inversion Pulse, and simultaneous multi slice echo planar phase contrast imaging. These techniques have been used to assess CSF movement in the CNS under normal and pathophysiological situations. PC can quantitatively measure stroke volume in selected regions, particularly the aqueduct of Sylvius, as synchronized to the heartbeat...
April 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Hiroji Miyake
Various types of shunt valves have been developed during the past 50 years, most of which can be classified into the following categories: (1) fixed differential pressure valves; (2) fixed differential pressure (DP) valves with an antisiphon mechanism; (3) programmable DP valves; (4) programmable DP valves with an antisiphon mechanism; and (5) programmable antisiphon valves. When considering the myriad of possible postoperative condition changes, such as the onset of accidental non-related diseases or trauma in adults, and changes in normal physiological development or anticipation of future shunt removal in children, it has become standard to use the programmable valve as a first choice for cerebrospinal fluid shunting...
May 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Wael Mohamed Mohamed Moussa, Mohamed Abbas Aly Mohamed
OBJECTIVES: Infection is a common complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery. The incidence of shunt infection is still high despite routine administration of perioperative antibiotics. A lower incidence of shunt infection was observed when antibiotic-impregnated shunts (AIS) were used to treat hydrocephalus and a rapid cure was reported in cases of ventriculitis when antibiotics were injected into external ventricular drain (EVD). That is why we theorized that postoperative prophylactic injection of antibiotics in and around the shunt hardware would reduce the incidence of shunt infection...
April 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
R Shane Tubbs, Christina M Kirkpatrick, Elias Rizk, Joshua J Chern, Rod J Oskouian, W Jerry Oakes
BACKGROUND: In the past, diagnosis of the Chiari I malformation has primarily been made on midsagittal MRI. We hypothesized that based on the frequent presentation of opisthotonos in patients with hindbrain hernia (primarily Chiari II malformation but sometimes Chiari I malformation) that the hyperextension might be a compensatory technique used by such patients to bring the cerebellar tonsils up out of the cervical spine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study reviewed imaging of patients with Chiari I malformation who underwent flexion/extension MRI for evaluation of their hindbrain herniation...
March 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Christopher R Durst, David A Ornan, Michael A Reardon, Prachi Mehndiratta, Sugoto Mukherjee, Robert M Starke, Max Wintermark, Avery Evans, Mary E Jensen, R Webster Crowley, John Gaughen, Kenneth C Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While recent literature has described the prevalence of transverse sinus stenosis in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension, tinnitus, and refractory headaches, it is unclear what the prevalence is in the general population. This study evaluates the prevalence of venous sinus stenosis and hypoplasia in the general patient population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 355 of 600 consecutive patients who underwent CT angiography of the head met the inclusion criteria...
November 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Tricia Adjei, Daniel Abásolo, David Santamarta
Hydrocephalus is a condition characterized by altered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and chronic rises in intracranial pressure (ICP). However, the reason why hydrocephalic physiologies fail to inhibit dangerously high ICP levels is not known. Infusion studies are used to raise ICP and evaluate CSF circulation disorders. In this pilot study, ICP signals recorded during infusion tests from 33 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus and 36 patients having developed a secondary form of normal pressure hydrocephalus were characterized using Permutation Entropy (PE), a symbolic non-linear method to quantify complexity...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
J Krebs, H G Koch, K Hartmann, A Frotzler
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the characteristics of posttraumatic symptomatic syringomyelia after spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil, Switzerland. METHODS: The patient database was screened for patients diagnosed with posttraumatic syringomyelia. Syrinx characteristics were determined on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of age, injury level, injury severity and syrinx location on early syrinx formation, syrinx length and syrinx extending cranial to the lesion...
June 2016: Spinal Cord
Marijan Klarica, Tomislav Jukić, Branko Miše, Nenad Kudelić, Milan Radoš, Darko Orešković
In our new experimental model of cervical stenosis without inflammation we have tested hypothesis that cranio-spinal communication impairment could lead to hydrocephalus development. Spinal and cranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space separation was obtained with positioning of plastic semi-ring in epidural space at C2 level in cats. Brain ventricles planimetry, and CSF pressure recording in lateral ventricle (LV) and lumbar subarachnoid space (LSS) were performed in acute and subchronic experiments. In all experiments opening CSF pressures were normal...
November 9, 2015: Brain Pathology
2015-12-21 00:17:05
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