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AKI Diagnosis

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15 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Isabel Acosta-Ochoa Nephrology senior staff. Valladolid. Spain
David Schnell, Michael Darmon
Three Doppler-derived techniques have been proposed to assess renal perfusion at bedside: Doppler-based renal resistive index (RI) which has been extensively but imperfectly studied in assessing renal allograft status and changes in renal perfusion in critically ill patients and for predicting the reversibility of an acute kidney injury (AKI), semi-quantitative evaluation of renal perfusion using colour-Doppler which may be easier to perform and may give similar information than RI and contrast-enhanced sonography that may allow more precise renal and cortical perfusion assessment...
December 2015: Critical Ultrasound Journal
Satoru Kudose, Masato Hoshi, Sanjay Jain, Joseph P Gaut
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Acute tubular injury is considered to be the early pathologic manifestation of AKI, however, the underlying pathology is complex, lacks standards for interpretation, and its relationship with AKI often is unclear or inconsistent. To clarify clinicopathologic correlations in AKI, we evaluated 32 histologic findings in 100 kidney biopsies from patients with AKI as a training set to correlate pathologic findings with clinical AKI grades...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Shigehiko Uchino, Rinaldo Bellomo, Donna Goldsmith
Background: A blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine ratio (BCR) >20 (0.081 in international unit) is used to distinguish pre-renal azotemia (PRA) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN). However, there is little evidence that BCR can distinguish between these two conditions and/or is clinically useful. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using a large hospital database. Patients were divided into three groups: 'low BCR' (if BCR when acute kidney injury (AKI) developed was ≤20), 'high BCR' (if BCR when AKI developed was >20) and 'no AKI' if patients did not satisfy any of the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease criteria for AKI during hospitalization...
April 2012: Clinical Kidney Journal
Sushrut S Waikar, Gearoid M McMahon
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a highly heterogeneous, common, and potentially devastating condition associated with markedly increased hospital length of stay, cost, mortality, and morbidity. Expanding the role for kidney biopsies in AKI may offer fresh insights into disease heterogeneity, molecular mechanisms, and therapeutic targets. A number of challenges face investigators and clinicians considering research biopsies in AKI: ensuring patient safety, ensuring the ethical conduct of research studies, and maximizing the scientific yield of the kidney tissue obtained...
January 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
Dennis G Moledina, Chirag R Parikh
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized patients and is associated with adverse short- and long-term outcomes. AKI is diagnosed by serum creatinine (SCr)-based consensus definitions that capture an abrupt decrease in glomerular filtration rate associated with AKI. However, SCr-based AKI definitions lack sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing structural kidney injury. Moreover, AKI is a heterogeneous condition consisting of distinct phenotypes based on its etiology, prognosis, and molecular pathways, and that may potentially require different therapies...
January 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
Krzysztof Kiryluk, Andrew S Bomback, Yim-Ling Cheng, Katherine Xu, Pablo G Camara, Raul Rabadan, Peter A Sims, Jonathan Barasch
Acute kidney injury (AKI) currently is diagnosed by a temporal trend of a single blood analyte: serum creatinine. This measurement is neither sensitive nor specific to kidney injury or its protean forms. Newer biomarkers, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, Lipocalin 2, Siderocalin), or kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1), accelerate the diagnosis of AKI as well as prospectively distinguish rapidly reversible from prolonged causes of serum creatinine increase...
January 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
Frieder Keller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Clinical Nephrology
John Mellas
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious condition frequently encountered in hospitalized patients. The severity of kidney injury is defined by the KDIGO criteria which attempt to establish the degree of renal impairment. These criteria do not measure actual creatinine clearance (K) but rather represents static measures of a dynamic process in AKI and are fraught with potential for false positives and negatives results. This paper, presented in an educational format, uses a new, unique, simple, and accurate method for estimating actual K in AKI utilizing urine creatinine excretion over an established time interval...
November 2017: Clinical Nephrology
Daniel Hertzberg, Linda Rydén, John W Pickering, Ulrik Sartipy, Martin J Holzmann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition in multiple clinical settings. Patients with AKI are at an increased risk of death, over both the short and long term, and of accelerated renal impairment. As the condition has become more recognized and definitions more unified, there has been a rapid increase in studies examining AKI across many different clinical settings. This review focuses on the classification, diagnostic methods and clinical management that are available, or promising, for patients with AKI...
June 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
Guillaume Manoeuvrier, Kalyane Bach-Ngohou, Eric Batard, Damien Masson, David Trewick
BACKGROUND: The blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio (BCR) has been used since the early 1940s to help clinicians differentiate between prerenal acute kidney injury (PR AKI) and intrinsic AKI (I AKI). This ratio is simple to use and often put forward as a reliable diagnostic tool even though little scientific evidence supports this. The aim of this study was to determine whether BCR is a reliable tool for distinguishing PR AKI from I AKI. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study over a 13 months period, in the Emergency Department (ED) of Nantes University Hospital...
May 25, 2017: BMC Nephrology
Amélie Bernier-Jean, William Beaubien-Souligny, Rémi Goupil, François Madore, François Paquette, Stéphan Troyanov, Josée Bouchard
BACKGROUND: Missing preadmission serum creatinine (SCr) values are a common obstacle to assess acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and outcomes. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines suggest using a SCr computed from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 75 ml/min/1.73 m2. We aimed to identify the best surrogate method for baseline SCr to assess AKI diagnosis and outcomes. METHODS: We compared the use of 1) first SCr at hospital admission 2) minimal SCr over 2 weeks after intensive care unit admission 3) MDRD computed SCr and 4) Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) computed SCr to assess AKI diagnosis and outcomes...
April 28, 2017: BMC Nephrology
Michael Darmon, Marlies Ostermann, Jorge Cerda, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Lui Forni, Eric Hoste, Matthieu Legrand, Nicolas Lerolle, Eric Rondeau, Antoine Schneider, Bertrand Souweine, Miet Schetz
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and associated with grim short- and long-term outcome. Although in the vast majority of cases AKI is multifactorial, with sepsis, shock and nephrotoxicity accounting for most episodes, specific causes of AKI are not uncommon. Despite remaining uncertainties regarding their prevalence in the ICU, prompt recognition of specific aetiologies of AKI is likely to ensure timely management, limit worsening of renal dysfunction, and ultimately limit renal and systemic consequences of AKI...
June 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
Konstantinos Makris, Loukia Spanou
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. In the last ten years a large number of publications have highlighted the limitations of traditional approaches and the inadequacies of conventional biomarkers to diagnose and monitor renal insufficiency in the acute setting. A great effort was directed not only to the discovery and validation of new biomarkers aimed to detect AKI more accurately but also to standardise the definition of AKI. Despite the advances in both areas, biomarkers have not yet entered into routine clinical practice and the definition of this syndrome has many areas of uncertainty...
December 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
John A Kellum
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical diagnosis guided by standard criteria based on changes in serum creatinine, urine output, or both. Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine or decrease in urine output. Patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease and worse outcomes. Short- and long-term outcomes are worse when patients have some stage of AKI by both criteria. New biomarkers for AKI may substantially aid in the risk assessment and evaluation of patients at risk for AKI...
October 2015: Critical Care Clinics
Carlos Federico Varela, Gustavo Greloni, Carlos Schreck, Griselda Bratti, Angel Medina, Ricardo Marenchino, Rodolfo Pizarro, Cesar Belziti, Guillermo Rosa-Diez
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after cardiac surgery (CS). Recently, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) was shown to predict AKI development earlier than serum creatinine, but it is not widely used in clinical practice. Fractional excretion of urea (FeU) has been referred to as a useful tool to discriminate between prerenal and established AKI. The aim of our study is to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of FeU, in the early diagnosis of AKI in patients undergoing CS...
November 2015: Renal Failure
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