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Martin Brüne
The term 'Borderline Personality Disorder' (BPD) refers to a psychiatric syndrome that is characterized by emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, irritability, feelings of emptiness, self-injury and fear of abandonment, as well as unstable interpersonal relationships. BPD is not only common in psychiatric populations but also more prevalent in the general community than previously thought, and thus represents an important public health issue. In contrast to most psychiatric disorders, some symptoms associated with BPD may improve over time, even without therapy, though impaired social functioning and interpersonal disturbances in close relationships often persist...
February 28, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
S Lohia, R J Schlosser, Z M Soler
Given the relationship between allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma, it can be hypothesized that reducing inflammation in the upper airway with intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) medications may improve asthma outcomes. The goal of this study was to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of the efficacy of INCS medications on asthma outcomes in patients with AR and asthma. Asthma-specific outcomes from randomized, controlled studies evaluating INCS medications in patients with AR were evaluated, including studies that compared INCS sprays to placebo, INCS sprays plus orally inhaled corticosteroids to orally inhaled corticosteroids alone, and nasally inhaled corticosteroids to placebo...
2013: Allergy
Nicolas Baeyens, Chirosree Bandyopadhyay, Brian G Coon, Sanguk Yun, Martin A Schwartz
Endothelial cells transduce the frictional force from blood flow (fluid shear stress) into biochemical signals that regulate gene expression and cell behavior via specialized mechanisms and pathways. These pathways shape the vascular system during development and during postnatal and adult life to optimize flow to tissues. The same pathways also contribute to atherosclerosis and vascular malformations. This Review covers recent advances in basic mechanisms of flow signaling and the involvement of these mechanisms in vascular physiology, remodeling, and these diseases...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Seth J Schwartz, Scott O Lilienfeld, Alan Meca, Katheryn C Sauvigné
In the present article, we appraise the increasingly prominent role of neuroscience within psychology and offer cautions and recommendations regarding the future of psychology as a field. We contend that the conflict between eliminative reductionism (the belief that the neural level of analysis will eventually render the psychological level of analysis superfluous) and emergent properties (the assumption that higher-order mental functions are not directly reducible to neural processes) is critical if we are to identify the optimal role for neuroscience within psychology...
January 2016: American Psychologist
Daniel Rosenfeld, Youtong Zheng, Eyal Hashimshoni, Mira L Pöhlker, Anne Jefferson, Christopher Pöhlker, Xing Yu, Yannian Zhu, Guihua Liu, Zhiguo Yue, Baruch Fischman, Zhanqing Li, David Giguzin, Tom Goren, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M J Barbosa, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O Andreae
Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and cloud base updraft velocities (Wb). Hitherto, the inability to do so has been a major cause of high uncertainty regarding anthropogenic aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative forcing. This can be addressed by the emerging capability of estimating CCN and Wb of boundary layer convective clouds from an operational polar orbiting weather satellite...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lyudmila Korostovtseva, Yulia Sazonova, Nadezhda Zvartau, Andrey Semenov, Viktoriya Nepran, Mikhail Bochkarev, German Nikolaev, Lyubov Mitrofanova, Yurii Sviryaev, Mikhail Gordeev, Aleksandra Konradi
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is common in heart failure (HF), and prolonged circulation time and diminished pulmonary volume are considered the main possible causes of sleep apnea in these patients. However, the impact and interrelation between sleep apnea and HF development are unclear. We report the case of a patient with complete elimination of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep-associated mixed apnea in HF after heart transplantation. CASE REPORT: After unsuccessful 12-month conventional treatment with abrupt exacerbation of biventricular HF IV class (according to New York Heart Association Functional Classification), a 26-year-old man was admitted to the hospital...
2015: American Journal of Case Reports
Ned Wellman, David M Mayer, Madeline Ong, D Scott DeRue
Organization members who engage in "moral objection" by taking a principled stand against ethically questionable activities help to prevent such activities from persisting. Unfortunately, research suggests that they also may be perceived as less warm (i.e., pleasant, nice) than members who comply with ethically questionable procedures. In this article, we draw on role theory to explore how legitimate power influences observers' responses to moral objection. We argue that individuals expect those high in legitimate power to engage in moral objection, but expect those low in legitimate power to comply with ethically questionable practices...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Philip Harber, Carrie A Redlich, Paul K Henneberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Antonio Currais, Joshua Goldberg, Catherine Farrokhi, Max Chang, Marguerite Prior, Richard Dargusch, Daniel Daugherty, Aaron Armando, Oswald Quehenberger, Pamela Maher, David Schubert
Because age is the greatest risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), phenotypic screens based upon old age-associated brain toxicities were used to develop the potent neurotrophic drug J147. Since certain aspects of aging may be primary cause of AD, we hypothesized that J147 would be effective against AD-associated pathology in rapidly aging SAMP8 mice and could be used to identify some of the molecular contributions of aging to AD. An inclusive and integrative multiomics approach was used to investigate protein and gene expression, metabolite levels, and cognition in old and young SAMP8 mice...
November 2015: Aging
Helen H Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hongying An, Ling He
Metformin is a first-line oral anti-diabetic agent that has been used clinically to treat patients with type 2 diabetes for over 60 years. Due to its efficacy in therapy and affordable price, metformin is taken by more than 150 million people each year. Metformin improves hyperglycemia mainly through the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis along with the improvement of insulin signaling. However, its mechanism of action remains partially understood and controversial, especially in regard to the role of AMPK in metformin's action and the mechanism of AMPK activation...
March 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Sara N Bleich, Cheryl Sherrod, Anne Chiang, Cynthia Boyd, Jennifer Wolff, Eva DuGoff, Eva Chang, Claudia Salzberg, Keely Anderson, Bruce Leff, Gerard Anderson
INTRODUCTION: Finding ways to provide better and less expensive health care for people with multiple chronic conditions or disability is a pressing concern. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate different approaches for caring for this high-need and high-cost population. METHODS: We searched Medline for articles published from May 31, 2008, through June 10, 2014, for relevant studies. Articles were considered eligible for this review if they met the following criteria: included people with multiple chronic conditions (behavioral or mental health) or disabilities (2 or more); addressed 1 or more of clinical outcomes, health care use and spending, or patient satisfaction; and compared results from an intervention group with a comparison group or baseline measurements...
2015: Preventing Chronic Disease
Avishek Adhikari, Talia N Lerner, Joel Finkelstein, Sally Pak, Joshua H Jennings, Thomas J Davidson, Emily Ferenczi, Lisa A Gunaydin, Julie J Mirzabekov, Li Ye, Sung-Yon Kim, Anna Lei, Karl Deisseroth
Anxiety-related conditions are among the most difficult neuropsychiatric diseases to treat pharmacologically, but respond to cognitive therapies. There has therefore been interest in identifying relevant top-down pathways from cognitive control regions in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Identification of such pathways could contribute to our understanding of the cognitive regulation of affect, and provide pathways for intervention. Previous studies have suggested that dorsal and ventral mPFC subregions exert opposing effects on fear, as do subregions of other structures...
November 12, 2015: Nature
Isaac Estevan, Julia Freedman Silvernail, Daniel Jandacka, Coral Falco
The initial stance position (ISP) has been observed as a factor affecting the execution technique during taekwondo kicks. In the present study, authors aimed to analyse a roundhouse kick to the chest by measuring movement coordination and the variability of coordination and comparing this across the different ISP (0°, 45° and 90°). Eight experienced taekwondo athletes performed consecutive kicking trials in random order from every of the three relative positions. The execution was divided into three phases (stance, first swing and second swing phase)...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Siresha Bathina, Undurti N Das
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal survival and growth, serves as a neurotransmitter modulator, and participates in neuronal plasticity, which is essential for learning and memory. It is widely expressed in the CNS, gut and other tissues. BDNF binds to its high affinity receptor TrkB (tyrosine kinase B) and activates signal transduction cascades (IRS1/2, PI3K, Akt), crucial for CREB and CBP production, that encode proteins involved in β cell survival. BDNF and insulin-like growth factor-1 have similar downstream signaling mechanisms incorporating both p-CAMK and MAPK that increase the expression of pro-survival genes...
December 10, 2015: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
H Andrew Schwartz, Maarten Sap, Margaret L Kern, Johannes C Eichstaedt, Adam Kapelner, Megha Agrawal, Eduardo Blanco, Lukasz Dziurzynski, Gregory Park, David Stillwell, Michal Kosinski, Martin E P Seligman, Lyle H Ungar
We present the task of predicting individual well-being, as measured by a life satisfaction scale, through the language people use on social media. Well-being, which encompasses much more than emotion and mood, is linked with good mental and physical health. The ability to quickly and accurately assess it can supplement multi-million dollar national surveys as well as promote whole body health. Through crowd-sourced ratings of tweets and Facebook status updates, we create message-level predictive models for multiple components of well-being...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
Carina Wattmo, Lennart Minthon, Åsa K Wallin
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in cognitive and functional outcomes in the respective stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in novel therapies particularly for the milder phases of AD. Our aim was to describe and compare various aspects of disease progression in patients with mild versus moderate AD in routine clinical practice of cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) therapy. METHODS: This 3-year, prospective, observational, multicentre study included 1021 participants...
February 17, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
A Katharina Simon, Georg A Hollander, Andrew McMichael
This article reviews the development of the immune response through neonatal, infant and adult life, including pregnancy, ending with the decline in old age. A picture emerges of a child born with an immature, innate and adaptive immune system, which matures and acquires memory as he or she grows. It then goes into decline in old age. These changes are considered alongside the risks of different types of infection, autoimmune disease and malignancy.
December 22, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Robert J Sternberg
I describe what I have learned from a rather long career in psychology. My goal is to aid those younger than I to learn from my experience and avoid my mistakes. I discuss topics such as the damage that self-fulfilling prophecies can do, the importance of resilience, the need to overcome fear of failure, the importance of being flexible in one's goals and changing them as needed, the relevance of professional ethics, and the need to be wise and not just smart. In the end, we and our work are forgotten very quickly and one should realize that, after retirement, it likely will be one's family, not one's professional network, that provides one's main source of support and comfort...
2014: Annual Review of Psychology
David S Jones, Jeremy A Greene
In 2005, researchers from the Duke Center for Demographic Studies reported a "surprising trend": data from the National Long-Term Care Surveys showed that the prevalence of severe cognitive impairment in the Medicare population had decreased significantly between 1982 and 1999. At a time when baby..
February 11, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
2016-02-20 18:21:19
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