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CFS treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15546954/aspergillus-fumigatus-suppresses-the-human-cellular-immune-response-via-gliotoxin-mediated-apoptosis-of-monocytes
#1
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Marta Stanzani, Enrico Orciuolo, Russell Lewis, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Sergio L R Martins, Lisa S St John, Krishna V Komanduri
Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) is a ubiquitous mold and is the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis, an important source of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Using cytokine flow cytometry, we assessed the magnitude of functional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses following stimulation with Aspergillus antigens. Relative to those seen with cytomegalovirus (CMV) or superantigen stimulation, responses to Aspergillus antigens were near background levels. Subsequently, we confirmed that gliotoxin, the most abundant mycotoxin produced by AF, was able to suppress functional T-cell responses following CMV or staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) stimulation...
March 15, 2005: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417439/the-intestinal-barrier-as-an-emerging-target-in-the-toxicological-assessment-of-mycotoxins
#2
REVIEW
Peyman Akbari, Saskia Braber, Soheil Varasteh, Arash Alizadeh, Johan Garssen, Johanna Fink-Gremmels
Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of fungal species, are the most frequently occurring natural food contaminants in human and animal diets. Risk assessment of mycotoxins focused as yet on their mutagenic, genotoxic and potential carcinogenic effects. Recently, there is an increasing awareness of the adverse effects of various mycotoxins on vulnerable structures in the intestines. In particular, an impairment of the barrier function of the epithelial lining cells and the sealing tight junction proteins has been noted, as this could result in an increased translocation of luminal antigens and pathogens and an excessive activation of the immune system...
March 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604026/myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-an-infectious-disease
#3
R A Underhill
The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen...
December 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489771/chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-infection-associated-with-hemophagocytic-syndrome-and-extra-nodal-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-in-an-18-year-old-girl-a-case-report
#4
Yawei Xing, Junwen Yang, Guanghui Lian, Shuijiao Chen, Linlin Chen, Fujun Li
RATIONALE: Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) associated with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) and extra-nodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) is a rare life-threatening disorder. This disease is easily misdiagnosed because of its varied presentations. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 18-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with a history of edema in the lower limbs and intermittent fever lasting for more than 1 month. At admission, she had severe liver injury of unknown etiology...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24459081/neurological-aspects-of-human-parvovirus-b19-infection-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Faraj Barah, Sigrid Whiteside, Sonia Batista, Julie Morris
Parvovirus B19 has been linked with various clinical syndromes including neurological manifestations. However, its role in the latter remains not completely understood. Although the last 10 years witnessed a surge of case reports on B19-associated neurological aspects, the literature data remains scattered and heterogeneous, and epidemiological information on the incidence of B19-associated neurological aspects cannot be accurately extrapolated. The aim of this review is to identify the characteristics of cases of B19-associated neurological manifestations...
May 2014: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118876/assessing-and-managing-sleep-disturbance-in-patients-with-chronic-pain
#6
REVIEW
Martin D Cheatle, Simmie Foster, Aaron Pinkett, Matthew Lesneski, David Qu, Lara Dhingra
Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain...
December 2016: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055311/immunotoxicity-of-mercury-pathological-and-toxicological-effects
#7
REVIEW
Faheem Maqbool, Kamal Niaz, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Fazlullah Khan, Mohammad Abdollahi
Mercury (Hg) is toxic and hazardous metal that causes natural disasters in the earth's crust. Exposure to Hg occurs via various routes; like oral (fish), inhalation, dental amalgams, and skin from cosmetics. In this review, we have discussed the sources of Hg and its potential for causing toxicity in humans. In addition, we also review its bio-chemical cycling in the environment; its systemic, immunotoxic, genotoxic/carcinogenic, and teratogenic health effects; and the dietary influences; as well as the important considerations in risk assessment and management of Hg poisoning have been discussed in detail...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799297/neuroendocrine-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Eduardo De Pablo-Fernández, David P Breen, Pierre M Bouloux, Roger A Barker, Thomas Foltynie, Thomas T Warner
Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies...
February 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25374101/long-acting-intranasal-insulin-detemir-improves-cognition-for-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Amy Claxton, Laura D Baker, Angela Hanson, Emily H Trittschuh, Brenna Cholerton, Amy Morgan, Maureen Callaghan, Matthew Arbuckle, Colin Behl, Suzanne Craft
Previous trials have shown promising effects of intranasally administered insulin for adults with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These trials used regular insulin, which has a shorter half-life compared to long-lasting insulin analogues such as insulin detemir. The current trial examined whether intranasal insulin detemir improves cognition or daily functioning for adults with MCI or AD. Sixty adults diagnosed with MCI or mild to moderate AD received placebo (n = 20), 20 IU of insulin detemir (n = 21), or 40 IU of insulin detemir (n = 19) for 21 days, administered with a nasal drug delivery device...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25445695/brain-delivery-of-insulin-boosted-by-intranasal-coadministration-with-cell-penetrating-peptides
#10
Noriyasu Kamei, Mariko Takeda-Morishita
Intranasal administration is considered as an alternative route to enable effective drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) by bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Several reports have proved that macromolecules can be transferred directly from the nasal cavity to the brain. However, strategies to enhance the delivery of macromolecules from the nasal cavity to CNS are needed because of their low delivery efficiencies via this route in general. We hypothesized that the delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the brain parenchyma can be facilitated by increasing the uptake of drugs by the nasal epithelium including supporting and neuronal cells to maximize the potentiality of the intranasal pathway...
January 10, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26486419/changes-in-protein-expression-and-lysine-acetylation-induced-by-decreased-glutathione-levels-in-astrocytes
#11
Mariana Pehar, Lauren E Ball, Deep R Sharma, Benjamin A Harlan, Susana Comte-Walters, Benjamin A Neely, Marcelo R Vargas
Astrocytes and neurons form a highly specialized functional unit, and the loss or gain of astrocytic functions can influence the initiation and progression of different neurodegenerative diseases. Neurons depend on the antioxidant protection provided by neighboring astrocytes. Glutathione (γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl-glycine) is a major component of the antioxidant system that defends cells against the toxic effects of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. A decline in glutathione levels has been observed in aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and it aggravates the pathology in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-mouse model...
February 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920654/chronic-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-crohn-s-disease-a-6-month-follow-up-pilot-study
#12
B Bonaz, V Sinniger, D Hoffmann, D Clarençon, N Mathieu, C Dantzer, L Vercueil, C Picq, C Trocmé, P Faure, J-L Cracowski, S Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is a link between the brain and the gut. The VN is a mixed nerve with anti-inflammatory properties through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by its afferents and by activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway through its efferents. We have previously shown that VN stimulation (VNS) improves colitis in rats and that the vagal tone is blunted in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We thus performed a pilot study of chronic VNS in patients with active CD. Seven patients under VNS were followed up for 6 months with a primary endpoint to induce clinical remission and a secondary endpoint to induce biological (CRP and/or fecal calprotectin) and endoscopic remission and to restore vagal tone (heart rate variability)...
June 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25614179/surgically-implanted-and-non-invasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-a-review-of-efficacy-safety-and-tolerability
#13
REVIEW
E Ben-Menachem, D Revesz, B J Simon, S Silberstein
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is effective in refractory epilepsy and depression and is being investigated in heart failure, headache, gastric motility disorders and asthma. The first VNS device required surgical implantation of electrodes and a stimulator. Adverse events (AEs) are generally associated with implantation or continuous on-off stimulation. Infection is the most serious implantation-associated AE. Bradycardia and asystole have also been described during implantation, as has vocal cord paresis, which can last up to 6 months and depends on surgical skill and experience...
September 2015: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412146/chronic-migraine-headache-prevention-with-noninvasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-the-event-study
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Stephen D Silberstein, Anne H Calhoun, Richard B Lipton, Brian M Grosberg, Roger K Cady, Stefanie Dorlas, Kristy A Simmons, Chris Mullin, Eric J Liebler, Peter J Goadsby, Joel R Saper
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and tolerability of noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) for the prevention of chronic migraine (CM) attacks. METHODS: In this first prospective, multicenter, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot study of nVNS in CM prophylaxis, adults with CM (≥15 headache d/mo) entered the baseline phase (1 month) and were subsequently randomized to nVNS or sham treatment (2 months) before receiving open-label nVNS treatment (6 months)...
August 2, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382171/vagus-nerve-stimulation-inhibits-cytokine-production-and-attenuates-disease-severity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
Frieda A Koopman, Sangeeta S Chavan, Sanda Miljko, Simeon Grazio, Sekib Sokolovic, P Richard Schuurman, Ashesh D Mehta, Yaakov A Levine, Michael Faltys, Ralph Zitnik, Kevin J Tracey, Paul P Tak
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous, prevalent, chronic autoimmune disease characterized by painful swollen joints and significant disabilities. Symptomatic relief can be achieved in up to 50% of patients using biological agents that inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or other mechanisms of action, but there are no universally effective therapies. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in animal models...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26976217/pumpkin-seed-extract-cell-growth-inhibition-of-hyperplastic-and-cancer-cells-independent-of-steroid-hormone-receptors
#16
Svjetlana Medjakovic, Stefanie Hobiger, Karin Ardjomand-Woelkart, Franz Bucar, Alois Jungbauer
Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays...
April 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16815802/modulation-of-appetite-by-gonadal-steroid-hormones
#17
REVIEW
Lori Asarian, Nori Geary
Several sex differences in eating, their control by gonadal steroid hormones and their peripheral and central mediating mechanisms are reviewed. Adult female rats and mice as well as women eat less during the peri-ovulatory phase of the ovarian cycle (estrus in rats and mice) than other phases, an effect under the control of cyclic changes in estradiol secretion. Women also appear to eat more sweets during the luteal phase of the cycle than other phases, possibly due to simultaneous increases in estradiol and progesterone...
July 29, 2006: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22554955/gender-sex-steroid-hormones-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Rebekah S Vest, Christian J Pike
Age-related loss of sex steroid hormones is a established risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in women and men. While the relationships between the sex steroid hormones and AD are not fully understood, findings from both human and experimental paradigms indicate that depletion of estrogens in women and androgens in men increases vulnerability of the aging brain to AD pathogenesis. We review evidence of a wide range of beneficial neural actions of sex steroid hormones that may contribute to their hypothesized protective roles against AD...
February 2013: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24966190/sex-bias-in-the-outcome-of-human-tropical-infectious-diseases-influence-of-steroid-hormones
#19
REVIEW
Hannah Bernin, Hanna Lotter
Numerous investigations have revealed a bias toward males in the susceptibility to and severity of a variety of infectious diseases, especially parasitic diseases. Although different external factors may influence the exposure to infection sources among males and females, one recurrent phenomenon indicative of a hormonal influence is the simultaneous increase in disease occurrence and hormonal activity during the aging process. Substantial evidence to support the influence of hormones on disease requires rigorously controlled human population studies, as well as the same sex dimorphism being observed under controlled laboratory conditions...
July 15, 2014: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26865065/associations-of-sex-steroid-hormones-with-mortality-in-women-with-breast-cancer
#20
Catherine Duggan, Frank Stanczyk, Kristin Campbell, Marian L Neuhouser, Richard N Baumgartner, Kathy B Baumgartner, Leslie Bernstein, Rachel Ballard, Anne McTiernan
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between circulating levels of sex steroid hormones and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. However, data on associations with breast cancer survival are limited. We measured levels of estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), in serum collected on average 30 months after diagnosis from 358 postmenopausal women diagnosed with stage I-IIIA breast cancer between 1995 and 1998 who participated in a multiethnic, prospective cohort study...
February 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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