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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131209/potential-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-due-to-alzheimer-disease
#1
REVIEW
Ana García-Blanco, Miguel Baquero, Máximo Vento, Esperanza Gil, Luis Bataller, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás
The high and increasing incidence of Alzheimer Disease (AD) worldwide is a major global concern. Classical diagnosis is carried out in the dementia phase, often in the moderate stages when treatment efficacy is limited. Nowadays, early diagnosis, even in pre-dementia stages, is possible in selected cases within an appropriate clinical setting, employing cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) sample analysis and neuroimaging procedures. In spite of the accurate diagnosis achieved by novel CSF biomarkers or positron emission tomography beta-amyloid tracers, these tests are invasive and expensive...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26082507/lyme-disease-diagnosed-by-alternative-methods-a-phenotype-similar-to-that-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#2
David M Patrick, Ruth R Miller, Jennifer L Gardy, Shoshana M Parker, Muhammad G Morshed, Theodore S Steiner, Joel Singer, Kam Shojania, Patrick Tang
BACKGROUND: A subset of patients reporting a diagnosis of Lyme disease can be described as having alternatively diagnosed chronic Lyme syndrome (ADCLS), in which diagnosis is based on laboratory results from a nonreference Lyme specialty laboratory using in-house criteria. Patients with ADCLS report symptoms similar to those reported by patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). METHODS: We performed a case-control study comparing patients with ADCLS and CFS to each other and to both healthy controls and controls with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
October 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12392668/-periodic-fever
#3
REVIEW
I Mongil Ruiz, V Canduela Martínez
Periodic fever can be defined as recurrent episodes of fever lasting from a few days to several weeks separated by symptom-free intervals of variable duration, recurring throughout several months. Although these clinical pictures are unusual in clinical practice, in some instances the differential diagnosis with recurrent infections, malignancies and connective tissue diseases is difficult. The aim of this review is to group together these different clinical pictures, which are dispersed in the literature, to obtain an overall and detailed perspective...
October 2002: Anales Españoles de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25793039/periodic-fever-a-review-on-clinical-management-and-guideline-for-iranian-patients-part-i
#4
Zahra Ahmadinejad, Sedigeh Mansori, Vahid Ziaee, Neda Alijani, Yahya Aghighi, Nima Parvaneh, Mohammad-Hassan Mordinejad
Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. The first manifestation of these disorders are present in childhood and adolescence, but infrequently it may be presented in young and middle ages. Genetic base has been known for all types of periodic fever syndromes except periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). Common periodic fever disorders are Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and PFAPA...
February 2014: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20207527/features-of-responding-t-cells-in-cancer-and-chronic-infection
#5
REVIEW
Peter S Kim, Rafi Ahmed
Ever since T cell exhaustion was initially characterized and thoroughly analyzed in the murine LCMV model, such a functional impairment has been validated in other chronic viral infections such as HIV, HCV, and HBV. In tumor immunology, it has always been postulated that tumor-reactive T cells could also become functionally exhausted owing to the high tumor-antigen load and accompanying inhibitory mechanisms. However, the empirical evidences for this hypothesis have not been as extensive as in chronic infection perhaps because much of the focus on T cell dysfunction in tumor immunology has been, and appropriately so, on breaking or bypassing immune tolerance and anergy to tumor/self antigens...
April 2010: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969366/systems-biology-of-personalized-nutrition
#6
REVIEW
Ben van Ommen, Tim van den Broek, Iris de Hoogh, Marjan van Erk, Eugene van Someren, Tanja Rouhani-Rankouhi, Joshua C Anthony, Koen Hogenelst, Wilrike Pasman, André Boorsma, Suzan Wopereis
Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the basis of a person's health status and goals. The biology underpinning these recommendations is complex, and thus any recommendations must account for multiple biological processes and subprocesses occurring in various tissues and must be formed with an appreciation for how these processes interact with dietary nutrients and environmental factors...
August 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25841551/mast-cell-activation-syndromes-presenting-as-anaphylaxis
#7
REVIEW
Cem Akin
Anaphylaxis results from severe systemic mast cell activation. In addition to IgE-mediated and physical triggers, it may occur with a clonal mast cell disease and in an idiopathic fashion without clear provoking factors. Disorders of mast cell activation are classified into primary (clonal), secondary, and idiopathic. Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by objective documentation of elevated mast cell mediators during attacks and a favorable response to antimediator therapy...
May 2015: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790893/brain-and-peripheral-atypical-inflammatory-mediators-potentiate-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#8
REVIEW
Duraisamy Kempuraj, Ramasamy Thangavel, Govindhasamy P Selvakumar, Smita Zaheer, Mohammad E Ahmed, Sudhanshu P Raikwar, Haris Zahoor, Daniyal Saeed, Prashant A Natteru, Shankar Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Neuroinflammatory response is primarily a protective mechanism in the brain. However, excessive and chronic inflammatory responses can lead to deleterious effects involving immune cells, brain cells and signaling molecules. Neuroinflammation induces and accelerates pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuroinflammatory pathways are indicated as novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. Mast cells are immune cells of hematopoietic origin that regulate inflammation and upon activation release many proinflammatory mediators in systemic and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15546954/aspergillus-fumigatus-suppresses-the-human-cellular-immune-response-via-gliotoxin-mediated-apoptosis-of-monocytes
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Marta Stanzani, Enrico Orciuolo, Russell Lewis, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Sergio L R Martins, Lisa S St John, Krishna V Komanduri
Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) is a ubiquitous mold and is the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis, an important source of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Using cytokine flow cytometry, we assessed the magnitude of functional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses following stimulation with Aspergillus antigens. Relative to those seen with cytomegalovirus (CMV) or superantigen stimulation, responses to Aspergillus antigens were near background levels. Subsequently, we confirmed that gliotoxin, the most abundant mycotoxin produced by AF, was able to suppress functional T-cell responses following CMV or staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) stimulation...
March 15, 2005: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417439/the-intestinal-barrier-as-an-emerging-target-in-the-toxicological-assessment-of-mycotoxins
#10
REVIEW
Peyman Akbari, Saskia Braber, Soheil Varasteh, Arash Alizadeh, Johan Garssen, Johanna Fink-Gremmels
Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of fungal species, are the most frequently occurring natural food contaminants in human and animal diets. Risk assessment of mycotoxins focused as yet on their mutagenic, genotoxic and potential carcinogenic effects. Recently, there is an increasing awareness of the adverse effects of various mycotoxins on vulnerable structures in the intestines. In particular, an impairment of the barrier function of the epithelial lining cells and the sealing tight junction proteins has been noted, as this could result in an increased translocation of luminal antigens and pathogens and an excessive activation of the immune system...
March 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604026/myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-an-infectious-disease
#11
R A Underhill
The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen...
December 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489771/chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-infection-associated-with-hemophagocytic-syndrome-and-extra-nodal-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-in-an-18-year-old-girl-a-case-report
#12
Yawei Xing, Junwen Yang, Guanghui Lian, Shuijiao Chen, Linlin Chen, Fujun Li
RATIONALE: Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) associated with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) and extra-nodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) is a rare life-threatening disorder. This disease is easily misdiagnosed because of its varied presentations. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 18-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with a history of edema in the lower limbs and intermittent fever lasting for more than 1 month. At admission, she had severe liver injury of unknown etiology...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24459081/neurological-aspects-of-human-parvovirus-b19-infection-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Faraj Barah, Sigrid Whiteside, Sonia Batista, Julie Morris
Parvovirus B19 has been linked with various clinical syndromes including neurological manifestations. However, its role in the latter remains not completely understood. Although the last 10 years witnessed a surge of case reports on B19-associated neurological aspects, the literature data remains scattered and heterogeneous, and epidemiological information on the incidence of B19-associated neurological aspects cannot be accurately extrapolated. The aim of this review is to identify the characteristics of cases of B19-associated neurological manifestations...
May 2014: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118876/assessing-and-managing-sleep-disturbance-in-patients-with-chronic-pain
#14
REVIEW
Martin D Cheatle, Simmie Foster, Aaron Pinkett, Matthew Lesneski, David Qu, Lara Dhingra
Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain...
December 2016: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055311/immunotoxicity-of-mercury-pathological-and-toxicological-effects
#15
REVIEW
Faheem Maqbool, Kamal Niaz, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Fazlullah Khan, Mohammad Abdollahi
Mercury (Hg) is toxic and hazardous metal that causes natural disasters in the earth's crust. Exposure to Hg occurs via various routes; like oral (fish), inhalation, dental amalgams, and skin from cosmetics. In this review, we have discussed the sources of Hg and its potential for causing toxicity in humans. In addition, we also review its bio-chemical cycling in the environment; its systemic, immunotoxic, genotoxic/carcinogenic, and teratogenic health effects; and the dietary influences; as well as the important considerations in risk assessment and management of Hg poisoning have been discussed in detail...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799297/neuroendocrine-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Eduardo De Pablo-Fernández, David P Breen, Pierre M Bouloux, Roger A Barker, Thomas Foltynie, Thomas T Warner
Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies...
February 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25374101/long-acting-intranasal-insulin-detemir-improves-cognition-for-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Amy Claxton, Laura D Baker, Angela Hanson, Emily H Trittschuh, Brenna Cholerton, Amy Morgan, Maureen Callaghan, Matthew Arbuckle, Colin Behl, Suzanne Craft
Previous trials have shown promising effects of intranasally administered insulin for adults with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These trials used regular insulin, which has a shorter half-life compared to long-lasting insulin analogues such as insulin detemir. The current trial examined whether intranasal insulin detemir improves cognition or daily functioning for adults with MCI or AD. Sixty adults diagnosed with MCI or mild to moderate AD received placebo (n = 20), 20 IU of insulin detemir (n = 21), or 40 IU of insulin detemir (n = 19) for 21 days, administered with a nasal drug delivery device...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25445695/brain-delivery-of-insulin-boosted-by-intranasal-coadministration-with-cell-penetrating-peptides
#18
Noriyasu Kamei, Mariko Takeda-Morishita
Intranasal administration is considered as an alternative route to enable effective drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) by bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Several reports have proved that macromolecules can be transferred directly from the nasal cavity to the brain. However, strategies to enhance the delivery of macromolecules from the nasal cavity to CNS are needed because of their low delivery efficiencies via this route in general. We hypothesized that the delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the brain parenchyma can be facilitated by increasing the uptake of drugs by the nasal epithelium including supporting and neuronal cells to maximize the potentiality of the intranasal pathway...
January 10, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26486419/changes-in-protein-expression-and-lysine-acetylation-induced-by-decreased-glutathione-levels-in-astrocytes
#19
Mariana Pehar, Lauren E Ball, Deep R Sharma, Benjamin A Harlan, Susana Comte-Walters, Benjamin A Neely, Marcelo R Vargas
Astrocytes and neurons form a highly specialized functional unit, and the loss or gain of astrocytic functions can influence the initiation and progression of different neurodegenerative diseases. Neurons depend on the antioxidant protection provided by neighboring astrocytes. Glutathione (γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl-glycine) is a major component of the antioxidant system that defends cells against the toxic effects of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. A decline in glutathione levels has been observed in aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and it aggravates the pathology in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-mouse model...
February 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920654/chronic-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-crohn-s-disease-a-6-month-follow-up-pilot-study
#20
B Bonaz, V Sinniger, D Hoffmann, D Clarençon, N Mathieu, C Dantzer, L Vercueil, C Picq, C Trocmé, P Faure, J-L Cracowski, S Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is a link between the brain and the gut. The VN is a mixed nerve with anti-inflammatory properties through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by its afferents and by activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway through its efferents. We have previously shown that VN stimulation (VNS) improves colitis in rats and that the vagal tone is blunted in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We thus performed a pilot study of chronic VNS in patients with active CD. Seven patients under VNS were followed up for 6 months with a primary endpoint to induce clinical remission and a secondary endpoint to induce biological (CRP and/or fecal calprotectin) and endoscopic remission and to restore vagal tone (heart rate variability)...
June 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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