Read by QxMD icon Read

CFS treatment

shared collection
22 papers 0 to 25 followers
Michael D Lovelace, Bianca Varney, Gayathri Sundaram, Matthew J Lennon, Chai K Lim, Kelly Jacobs, Gilles J Guillemin, Bruce J Brew
The kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan metabolism has emerged in recent years as a key regulator of the production of both neuroprotective (e.g. kynurenic and picolinic acid, and the essential cofactor NAD+) and neurotoxic metabolites (e.g. quinolinic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine). The balance between the production of the two types of metabolites is controlled by key rate-limiting enzymes such as indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1), and in turn, molecular signals such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which activate the KP metabolism of tryptophan by this enzyme, as opposed to alternative pathways for serotonin and melatonin production...
March 16, 2016: Neuropharmacology
S Georgin-Lavialle, J-M Launay, F Côté, E Soucié, A Soria, G Damaj, D S Moura, D Canioni, K Hanssens, M-O Chandesris, S Barète, P Dubreuil, O Lortholary, O Hermine, H Sokol
The main metabolism pathway of tryptophan is protein formation, but it can also be metabolized into serotonin and kynurenine. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of tryptophan into kynurenine. Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous disease characterized by mast cell accumulation in various tissues with 57% of patients having gastrointestinal involvement. We studied tryptophan metabolism in mastocytosis patients displaying or not gastrointestinal features and healthy subjects (n = 26 in each group)...
March 2016: Allergy
Patricia A Zunszain, Christoph Anacker, Annamaria Cattaneo, Shanas Choudhury, Ksenia Musaelyan, Aye Mu Myint, Sandrine Thuret, Jack Price, Carmine M Pariante
Increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. Here, we show for the first time how IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine shown to be increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. IL-1β was detrimental to neurogenesis, as shown by a decrease in the number of doublecortin-positive neuroblasts (-28%), and mature, microtubule-associated protein-2-positive neurons (-36%). Analysis of the enzymes that regulate the kynurenine pathway showed that IL-1β induced an upregulation of transcripts for indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), and kynureninase (42-, 12- and 30-fold increase, respectively, under differentiating conditions), the enzymes involved in the neurotoxic arm of the kynurenine pathway...
March 2012: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Andrew H Miller, Ebrahim Haroon, Jennifer C Felger
A wealth of data has been amassed that details a complex, yet accessible, series of pathways by which the immune system, notably inflammation, can influence the brain and behavior. These data have opened the window to a diverse array of novel targets whose potential efficacy is tied to specific neurotransmitters and neurocircuits as well as specific behaviors. What is clear is that the impact of inflammation on the brain cuts across psychiatric disorders and engages dopaminergic and glutamatergic pathways that regulate motivation and motor activity as well as the sensitivity to threat...
October 5, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Anastasia I Petra, Smaro Panagiotidou, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Julia M Stewart, Pio Conti, Theoharis C Theoharides
PURPOSE: Gut microbiota regulate intestinal function and health. However, mounting evidence indicates that they can also influence the immune and nervous systems and vice versa. This article reviews the bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiota and the brain, termed the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis, and discusses how it contributes to the pathogenesis of certain disorders that may involve brain inflammation. METHODS: Articles were identified with a search of Medline (starting in 1980) by using the key words anxiety, attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD), autism, cytokines, depression, gut, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, inflammation, immune system, microbiota, nervous system, neurologic, neurotransmitters, neuroimmune conditions, psychiatric, and stress...
May 1, 2015: Clinical Therapeutics
G B Rogers, D J Keating, R L Young, M-L Wong, J Licinio, S Wesselingh
The human body hosts an enormous abundance and diversity of microbes, which perform a range of essential and beneficial functions. Our appreciation of the importance of these microbial communities to many aspects of human physiology has grown dramatically in recent years. We know, for example, that animals raised in a germ-free environment exhibit substantially altered immune and metabolic function, while the disruption of commensal microbiota in humans is associated with the development of a growing number of diseases...
June 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Rahul Mittal, Luca H Debs, Amit P Patel, Desiree Nguyen, Kunal Patel, Gregory O'Connor, M'hamed Grati, Jeenu Mittal, Denise Yan, Adrien A Eshraghi, Sapna K Deo, Sylvia Daunert, Xue Zhong Liu
Neurotransmitters including catecholamines and serotonin play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis in the human body. Studies on these neurotransmitters mainly revolved around their role in the "fight or flight" response, transmitting signals across a chemical synapse and modulating blood flow throughout the body. However, recent research has demonstrated that neurotransmitters can play a significant role in the gastrointestinal (GI) physiology. Norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), dopamine (DA), and serotonin have recently been a topic of interest because of their roles in the gut physiology and their potential roles in gastrointestinal and central nervous system pathophysiology...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
G Clarke, S Grenham, P Scully, P Fitzgerald, R D Moloney, F Shanahan, T G Dinan, J F Cryan
Bacterial colonisation of the intestine has a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS) signalling. Regulation of the microbiome-gut-brain axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis, including that of the CNS. However, there is a paucity of data pertaining to the influence of microbiome on the serotonergic system. Germ-free (GF) animals represent an effective preclinical tool to investigate such phenomena...
June 2013: Molecular Psychiatry
John Bienenstock, Wolfgang Kunze, Paul Forsythe
Changes in gut microbiota can modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in altered brain functioning, and suggesting the existence of a microbiota gut-brain axis. Diet can also change the profile of gut microbiota and, thereby, behavior. Effects of bacteria on the nervous system cannot be disassociated from effects on the immune system since the two are in constant bidirectional communication. While the composition of the gut microbiota varies greatly among individuals, alterations to the balance and content of common gut microbes may affect the production of molecules such as neurotransmitters, e...
August 2015: Nutrition Reviews
Giada De Palma, Stephen M Collins, Premysl Bercik, Elena F Verdu
The gut-brain axis is the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain, which occurs through multiple pathways that include hormonal, neural and immune mediators. The signals along this axis can originate in the gut, the brain or both, with the objective of maintaining normal gut function and appropriate behaviour. In recent years, the study of gut microbiota has become one of the most important areas in biomedical research. Attention has focused on the role of gut microbiota in determining normal gut physiology and immunity and, more recently, on its role as modulator of host behaviour ('microbiota-gut-brain axis')...
July 15, 2014: Journal of Physiology
Gregory S Kelly
Bovine colostrums are the "early" milk produced by cows during the first several days post-parturition. This "early" milk has a nutrient profile and immunological composition that differs substantially from "mature" milk. Included in the nutrient profile are higher amounts of immunoglobulins, growth factors, cytokines, and nucleosides than are found in milk. Bovine colostrums are also rich in oligosaccharides, antimicrobials, and immune-regulating factors. Available evidence suggests a beneficial effect of supplementation of bovine colostrums in improving body composition, aspects of athletic performance, diarrhea in persons with immune-deficiency syndromes, NSAID-induced gastrointestinal disturbances, and aspects of the acute phase response that occurs secondary to surgery...
November 2003: Alternative Medicine Review: a Journal of Clinical Therapeutic
Siddhi Bagwe, Leo J P Tharappel, Ginpreet Kaur, Harpal S Buttar
Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans...
September 2015: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
S M O'Mahony, G Clarke, Y E Borre, T G Dinan, J F Cryan
The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Serotonin functions as a key neurotransmitter at both terminals of this network. Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the gut microbiome in regulating normal functioning of this axis. In particular, it is becoming clear that the microbial influence on tryptophan metabolism and the serotonergic system may be an important node in such regulation. There is also substantial overlap between behaviours influenced by the gut microbiota and those which rely on intact serotonergic neurotransmission...
January 15, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Charlotte D'Mello, Natalie Ronaghan, Raza Zaheer, Michael Dicay, Tai Le, Wallace K MacNaughton, Michael G Surrette, Mark G Swain
UNLABELLED: Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic liver disease) commonly develop debilitating symptoms (i.e., sickness behaviors) that arise from changes in brain function. The microbiota-gut-brain axis alters brain function and probiotic ingestion can influence behavior. However, how probiotics do this remains unclear. We have previously described a novel periphery-to-brain communication pathway in the setting of peripheral organ inflammation whereby monocytes are recruited to the brain in response to systemic TNF-α signaling, leading to microglial activation and subsequently driving sickness behavior development...
July 29, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Atsushi Kadowaki, Sachiko Miyake, Ryoko Saga, Asako Chiba, Hideki Mochizuki, Takashi Yamamura
The gut environment has been found to significantly influence autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis; however, immune cell mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that the gut epithelium of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(35-55)-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice contains environmental stimuli-induced intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis on transfer. These cells express surface markers phenotypical of 'induced' IELs, have a TH17-like profile and infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS)...
2016: Nature Communications
Yanli Meng, Yang Yang, Weihong Lu, Yingyan Wang, Feng Qian, Xin Wang, Zhihua Zhang, Weiming Wang
Platycodin D, extract from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum, is one of the most important monomers of the Qinbaiqingfei pellets (Qinbai) that has already been approved as the first Traditional Chinese Medicine for clinic use as an anti-M. pneumoniae agent. Qinbai constituents Scutellaria baicalensis and Platycodon grandiflorum were used to treat thousands of patients clinically in China each year. In this study, a M. pneumoniae-infected mouse strain, BALB/c, and a human-derived epithelial cell line, A549 type II pneumocytes, were used as experimental model...
2014: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Dean D Metcalfe, Ruby Pawankar, Steven J Ackerman, Cem Akin, Frederic Clayton, Franco H Falcone, Gerald J Gleich, Anne-Marie Irani, Mats W Johansson, Amy D Klion, Kristin M Leiferman, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Gunnar Nilsson, Yoshimichi Okayama, Calman Prussin, John T Schroeder, Lawrence B Schwartz, Hans-Uwe Simon, Andrew F Walls, Massimo Triggiani
Biomarkers of disease activity have come into wide use in the study of mechanisms of human disease and in clinical medicine to both diagnose and predict disease course; as well as to monitor response to therapeutic intervention. Here we review biomarkers of the involvement of mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils in human allergic inflammation. Included are surface markers of cell activation as well as specific products of these inflammatory cells that implicate specific cell types in the inflammatory process and are of possible value in clinical research as well as within decisions made in the practice of allergy-immunology...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
A Katharina Simon, Georg A Hollander, Andrew McMichael
This article reviews the development of the immune response through neonatal, infant and adult life, including pregnancy, ending with the decline in old age. A picture emerges of a child born with an immature, innate and adaptive immune system, which matures and acquires memory as he or she grows. It then goes into decline in old age. These changes are considered alongside the risks of different types of infection, autoimmune disease and malignancy.
December 22, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Alison C Bested, Lynn M Marshall
This review was written from the viewpoint of the treating clinician to educate health care professionals and the public about Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). It includes: the clinical definition of ME/CFS with emphasis on how to diagnose ME/CFS; the etiology, pathophysiology, management approach, long-term prognosis and economic cost of ME/CFS. After reading this review, you will be better able to diagnose and treat your patients with ME/CFS using the tools and information provided...
2015: Reviews on Environmental Health
Jarred Younger, Luke Parkitny, David McLain
Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) has been demonstrated to reduce symptom severity in conditions such as fibromyalgia, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. We review the evidence that LDN may operate as a novel anti-inflammatory agent in the central nervous system, via action on microglial cells. These effects may be unique to low dosages of naltrexone and appear to be entirely independent from naltrexone's better-known activity on opioid receptors. As a daily oral therapy, LDN is inexpensive and well-tolerated...
April 2014: Clinical Rheumatology
2015-12-04 20:16:51
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"