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Pulmonary infections

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94 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884765/efficacy-of-clarithromycin-naproxen-oseltamivir-combination-in-the-treatment-of-patients-hospitalized-for-influenza-a-h3n2-infection-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-phase-2b-3-trial
#1
Ivan Fn Hung, Kelvin Kw To, Jasper Fw Chan, Vincent Cc Cheng, Kevin Sh Liu, Anthony Tam, Tuen-Ching Chan, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Patrick Li, Tin-Lun Wong, Ricky Zhang, Michael Ks Cheung, William Leung, Johnson Yn Lau, Manson Fok, Honglin Chen, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes excessive hospitalizations and deaths. Single agent treatment with oseltamivir in severe influenza might be insufficient. The study assessed the efficacy and safety of oseltamivir-clarithromycin-naproxen combination for treatment of serious influenza. METHODS: From February to April 2015, we conducted a prospective open-label randomized-controlled trial. Adult patients hospitalized for A(H3N2) influenza were randomly assigned to a 2-day combination of clarithromycin 500mg, naproxen 200mg and oseltamivir 75mg twice daily, followed by 3 days of oseltamivir; or oseltamivir 75mg twice daily without placebos for 5 days as control (1:1)...
November 21, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867554/tigecycline-combination-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-extensive-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#2
Hangyong He, Yali Zheng, Bing Sun, Xiao Tang, Rui Wang, Zhaohui Tong
BACKGROUND: Extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR A. baumannii) has emerged as an important pathogen in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) worldwide. This study determined whether or not combination tigecycline (TGC) treatment improved the short-term outcome of patients with XDR A. baumannii-induced VAP. Methods: Fifty-eight patients admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) with confirmed XDR A. baumannii VAP between January 2011 and June 2013 were retrospectively studied...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845850/ct-guided-percutaneous-lung-biopsies-in-patients-with-suspicion-for-infection-may-yield-clinically-useful-information
#3
Brian M Haas, Joshua D Clayton, Brett M Elicker, Karen G Ordovas, David M Naeger
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the frequency and time frame with which CT-guided lung biopsies for suspected infection yield information that can affect patient management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All CT-guided lung biopsies over a 68-month period performed for the purpose of diagnosing a suspected infection were reviewed to determine the proportion that yielded information affecting patient management. Patients were included if infection was the only consideration causing the pulmonary lesion in question...
November 15, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835947/successful-treatment-of-severe-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-an-immunosuppressed-patient-using-caspofungin-combined-with-clindamycin-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Hongjuan Li, Haoming Huang, Hangyong He
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii is responsible for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), which occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised individuals. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is regarded as the first-line treatment and prophylaxis for P. jirovecii infection, but the frequency of adverse reactions and newly emerged antibiotic resistance limit its use. CASE PRESENTATION: Ulcerations and hemorrhages involving the tongue were noted secondary to TMP-SMZ desensitization against PCP in a 46-year-old male who had previously been diagnosed with IgA nephropathy and sustained prolonged corticosteroid therapy...
November 11, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816139/health-care-acquired-viral-respiratory-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Ryan K Dare, Thomas R Talbot
Health care-acquired viral respiratory infections are common and cause increased patient morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus are frequently transmitted in the hospital setting. Studies report decreased nosocomial transmission when aggressive infection control measures are implemented with more success using a multicomponent approach. Influenza vaccination of health care personnel has been shown to further decrease rates of transmission, thus mandatory vaccination is becoming more common...
December 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816142/ventilator-associated-events-and-their-prevention
#6
REVIEW
Noelle M Cocoros, Michael Klompas
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shifted the focus of safety surveillance in mechanically ventilated patients from ventilator-associated pneumonia to ventilator-associated events (VAEs) in 2013. The shift was designed to increase the objectivity and reproducibility of surveillance and to encourage quality-improvement programs to tackle a broader array of complications in mechanically ventilated patients. Prospective intervention studies have found that minimizing sedation, increasing the use of spontaneous awakening and breathing trials, and conservative fluid management can lower VAE rates and decrease duration of mechanical ventilation...
December 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747039/chronic-suppurative-lung-disease-in-adults
#7
Mark L Metersky, Antranik Mangardich
Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD), characterized by a bronchiectasis-like syndrome in the absence of bronchial dilatation, is well described in the pediatric literature. In some patients, it may be a precursor of bronchiectasis. In adults, this syndrome has not been well described. We present four adult patients without obvious causative exposures who presented with prolonged cough and purulent sputum. Sputum cultures revealed a variety of Gram negative bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria. High resolution CT scanning did not reveal bronchiectasis...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790937/treatment-of-pulmonary-brucellosis-a-systematic-review
#8
Javier Solera, Julián Solís García Del Pozo
Pulmonary involvement is a rare, focal complication of human brucellosis. The aim of this review is to describe clinical and radiologic features, treatment administered and clinical course of these patients. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic search of scientific reports of brucellosis with pulmonary involvement published from January 1985 to July 2016. Four main patterns of disease were observed: pneumonia, pleural effusion, nodules and interstitial pattern. Cough and fever were the most common symptoms...
October 28, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785748/lung-ultrasound-will-soon-replace-chest-radiography-in-the-diagnosis-of-acute-community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
REVIEW
Jean-Eudes Bourcier, Sergiu Braga, Didier Garnier
Acute community-acquired pneumonia should be diagnosed early to avoid most complications. The common diagnostic tools were represented by blood tests and chest X-ray with CT scan coming as a second-line exploration. The presence of air in the pulmonary parenchyma has long been thought of as not explorable by ultrasound. However, since the 1990s, several teams have described a semiology of ultrasonography of pulmonary diseases. Moreover, the safety of the technique and the development of mobile and ultra-portable devices have offered it as a first-line examination by a non-radiologist physician...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760430/can-large-hydatid-cysts-resolve-with-medical-treatment-alone
#10
Donald Simon, Coenraad F N Koegelenberg, Soumitra Sinha Roy, Brian W Allwood, Elvis M Irusen
A 66-year-old female from a rural area in South Africa presented with non-life-threatening haemoptysis. Radiologic and serological investigations attributed her symptoms to bilateral, large echinococcal cysts. She declined surgery despite her lung physiologic parameters, which deemed her eligible. Medical therapy with oral albendazole was initiated with excellent clinical and radiologic response during a follow-up period of 18 months. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reported cases in the literature that shows complete resolution of bilateral large echinococcal cysts with medical treatment alone in an adult patient...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753690/bronchiectasis-and-other-chronic-lung-diseases-in-adolescents-living-with-hiv
#11
Engi F Attia, Robert F Miller, Rashida A Ferrand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of pulmonary infections has declined dramatically with improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, but chronic lung disease (CLD) is an increasingly recognized but poorly understood complication in adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, abnormal spirometry and chest radiographic abnormalities among HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, wherein 90% of the world's HIV-infected children live...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748623/randomized-trial-of-liposomal-amikacin-for-inhalation-in-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease
#12
Kenneth N Olivier, David E Griffith, Gina Eagle, John P McGinnis Ii, Liza Micioni, Keith Liu, Charles L Daley, Kevin L Winthrop, Stephen Ruoss, Doreen J Addrizzo-Harris, Patrick A Flume, Daniel Dorgan, Matthias Salathe, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Renu Gupta, Richard J Wallace
Rationale Lengthy multi-drug, toxic, and low efficacy regimens limit management of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease. Objective This phase 2 study investigated efficacy and safety of liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI) in treatment-refractory PNTM (Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC] or Mycobacterium abscessus) disease. Methods During the double-blind phase, patients were randomly assigned to LAI (590 mg) or placebo once daily added to their multi-drug regimen for 84 days. Both groups could receive open-label LAI for 84 additional days...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716262/new-aspects-in-the-management-of-pneumonia
#13
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721666/intermittent-courses-of-corticosteroids-also-present-a-risk-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-non-hiv-patients
#14
Maria L Calero-Bernal, Isabel Martin-Garrido, Mikel Donazar-Ezcurra, Andrew H Limper, Eva M Carmona
Introduction. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is rising in the non-HIV population and associates with higher morbidity and mortality. The aggressive immunosuppressive regimens, as well as the lack of stablished guidelines for chemoprophylaxis, are likely contributors to this increased incidence. Herein, we have explored the underlying conditions, immunosuppressive therapies, and clinical outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. Methods. Retrospective analysis of PCP in HIV-negative patients at Mayo Clinic from 2006-2010...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704258/radial-ultrasound-assisted-transbronchial-biopsy-a-new-diagnostic-approach-for-non-resolving-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-neutropenic-hemato-oncological-patients
#15
Maurizio Bernasconi, Alessio Casutt, Angela Koutsokera, Igor Letovanec, Frédéric Tissot, Laurent P Nicod, Alban Lovis
The role of radial-endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) assisted transbronchial biopsy (TBB) for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions is well established. However, no study has addressed its safety and value in hemato-oncological patients presenting with non-resolving infiltrates during persistent febrile neutropenia. To assess safety and feasibility of R-EBUS assisted TBB in severe thrombocytopenic and neutropenic patients. Over a period of 18 months, eight patients were assessed with R-EBUS assisted TBB after adequate platelet transfusion...
October 4, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690702/clinical-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-elderly-patient
#16
Catia Cilloniz, Adrian Ceccato, Alicia San Jose, Antoni Torres
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major health problem in elderly persons and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Areas covered: This article reviews the most recent publications relative to CAP in the elderly population, with a focus on epidemiology, prognostic factors, microbial etiology, therapy and prevention. The data discussed in this review were mainly obtained from a non-systematic review using Medline, and references from relevant articles. Expert Commentary: CAP can occur at any age, but its incidence and risk of death are linked to increasing age...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681235/case-control-study-of-pneumonia-patients-with-streptococcus-anginosus-group-bacteria-in-their-sputum
#17
Jun Hirai, Daisuke Sakanashi, Shusaku Haranaga, Takeshi Kinjo, Mao Hagihara, Hideo Kato, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Yuka Yamagishi, Jiro Fujita, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In recent years, Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) bacteria are becoming increasingly recognized as important pneumonia-causing pathogens. Although several small studies have been reported, the features of SAG pneumonia remain unclear, because the identification of SAG from sputum cultures is not routinely performed in most microbiology laboratories. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical characteristics of SAG pneumonia. PATIENT AND METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study utilizing data obtained in our hospital between September 2009 and June 2016...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595408/high-diagnostic-value-of-a-new-real-time-pneumocystis-pcr-from-bronchoalveolar-lavage-in-a-real-life-clinical-setting
#18
Markus Unnewehr, Hendrik Friederichs, Patricia Bartsch, Bernhard Schaaf
BACKGROUND: To diagnose Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), PCR testing in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently become an alternative to immunofluorescence testing (IFT); however, its diagnostic accuracy is less clear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the diagnostic value of a new semiquantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in BAL in a real-life clinical setting. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all RT-PCR results [semiquantitative: negative, weakly positive, and strongly positive; measured in cycle thresholds (Ct)] in BAL in the period between 2010 and 2014...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623423/intrabronchial-voriconazole-is-a-safe-and-effective-measure-for-hemoptysis-control-in-pulmonary-aspergilloma
#19
Anant Mohan, Pawan Tiwari, Karan Madan, Vijay Hadda, Rosemary Poulose, Ashu S Bhalla, Rohit Khandelwal, Gopi C Khilnani, Randeep Guleria
BACKGROUND: Hemoptysis is common in pulmonary aspergilloma. Current treatment modalities such as surgical resection or bronchial artery embolization (BAE) are limited by lack of technical expertise and risk of recurrence, respectively. We describe our experience of treating aspergilloma and hemoptysis with bronchoscopic instillation of voriconazole. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients with symptomatic aspergilloma undergoing bronchoscopic voriconazole instillation...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615155/clinical-characteristics-of-pulmonary-nocardiosis-in-immunocompetent-patients
#20
Tetsuo Fujita, Jun Ikari, Akira Watanabe, Koichiro Tatsumi
Pulmonary nocardiosis is a rare but potentially serious infection typically in immunosuppressed patients (ISPs). It is also known to occur in immunocompetent patients (ICPs). However, little is currently known regarding the clinical characteristics and radiographic findings of pulmonary nocardiosis specifically in ICPs. In this study, 30 patients with pulmonary nocardiosis were identified and 10 were considered to be colonized. Of all patients with pulmonary nocardiosis, 12 patients were ICPs and 18 were ISPs...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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