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Pulmonary infections

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173 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548990/outbreaks-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#1
Geeta Sood, Nikki Parrish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the emerging literature on nontuberculous mycobacteria outbreaks in healthcare settings. As our ability to identify mycobacterial species develops, we are better able to recognize epidemiologic connections and better understand the prevalence and importance of these outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in healthcare settings. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of outbreaks related to nontuberculous outbreaks is increasing because of heightened awareness and better diagnostic tests for species level identification of mycobacteria...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759466/the-current-status-of-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-nosocomial-pneumonias
#2
Jorge I F Salluh, Vicente C Souza-Dantas, Pedro Póvoa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nosocomial pneumonia is a frequent and severe nosocomial infection divided in two distinct groups: hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). In this context, the VAP is notoriously difficult to diagnose clinically, resulting from the lack of a 'gold standard' method of diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of biomarkers may potentially improve the early diagnosis of infections allowing earlier and better identification and treatment...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759469/what-is-new-in-the-prevention-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-the-icu
#3
Michael Klompas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and contextualize recent evidence on preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). RECENT FINDINGS: Many centers continue to report dramatic decreases in VAP rates after implementing ventilator bundles. Interpreting these reports is complicated, however, by the subjectivity and lack of specificity of VAP definitions. More objective data suggest VAP rates may not have meaningfully changed over the past decade. If so, this compels us to re-examine and revise the prevention bundles we have been using to prevent VAP...
July 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777158/pneumonia-with-bacterial-and-viral-coinfection
#4
Kelly Cawcutt, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review the epidemiology of pneumonia with bacterial and viral coinfection, the pathogenesis and clinical impact of coinfection along with the current state of treatment and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Emphasis is given to the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral co-infection including specific highlighting on influenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus. Updates on the current state of diagnosis and management are included, as well as on areas where future research can be directed to improve patient clinical outcomes regarding viral and bacterial coinfection...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858915/how-to-translate-the-new-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-guideline-to-the-bedside
#5
Mario F Perez, Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia remain significant causes of morbidity, mortality, and financial burden in the United States and around the globe. Although guidelines for the management of patients with these conditions have been available for several years, implementation remains challenging. Here, we review the most common barriers faced by clinicians in implementing the current guidelines and offer suggestions for improved adherence...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251510/risk-factors-for-drug-resistant-cap-in-immunocompetent-patients
#6
REVIEW
Francisco Arancibia, Mauricio Ruiz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increase in drug-resistant community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important problem all over the world. This article explores the current state of antimicrobial resistance of different bacteria that cause CAP and also assesses risk factors to identify those pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last two decades, it has been documented that there is a significant increase in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria causing CAP...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231023/increasing-nocardia-incidence-associated-with-bronchiectasis-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#7
Michael H Woodworth, Jennifer L Saullo, Paul M Lantos, Gary M Cox, Jason E Stout
RATIONALE: Nocardia is a genus of pathogens that most commonly afflict immunocompromised hosts but may be an emerging infection among persons with bronchiectasis. OBJECTIVES: To examine the epidemiology and clinical presentation of adult patients with Nocardia and bronchiectasis relative to other patient groups. METHODS: We examined a retrospectively assembled cohort of adults at Duke University Hospital in Durham, North Carolina with at least one positive culture from a bodily fluid or tissue specimen for Nocardia between January 1996 and December 2013...
March 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387532/mortality-after-respiratory-isolation-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-a-comparison-of-patients-who-did-and-did-not-meet-disease-criteria
#8
Shannon A Novosad, Emily Henkle, Sean Schafer, Katrina Hedberg, Jennifer Ku, Sarah A R Siegel, Dongseok Choi, Christopher G Slatore, Kevin L Winthrop
RATIONALE: The mortality of patients with respiratory tract isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and their risk factors for death are not well described. OBJECTIVES: To determine age-adjusted mortality rates for patients with respiratory NTM isolates and their causes of death and to examine whether American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) diagnostic criteria identify those at higher risk of death after NTM isolation. METHODS: We linked vital records registries with a previously identified Oregon population-based cohort of patients with NTM respiratory isolation...
July 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406709/long-term-outcomes-in-a-population-based-cohort-with-respiratory-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-isolation
#9
Emily Henkle, Shannon A Novosad, Sean Shafer, Katrina Hedberg, Sarah A R Siegel, Jennifer Ku, Cara Varley, D Rebecca Prevots, Theodore K Marras, Kevin L Winthrop
RATIONALE: The natural history of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) respiratory infection in the general population is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To describe the long-term clinical, microbiologic, and radiographic outcomes of patients with respiratory NTM isolates. METHODS: We previously identified a population-based cohort of patients with respiratory NTM isolation during 2005-2006 and categorized patients as cases or noncases using the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America pulmonary NTM disease criteria at that time...
July 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595486/special-considerations-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#10
Matthew William McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
The diagnosis and treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) are ongoing challenges in clinical practice. While important advances have recently been made, including enhanced diagnostic modalities as well as novel therapeutic and prophylactic options, more effective options are urgently needed as the population of immunocompromised patients continues to expand. Areas covered: In this paper, we review novel approaches to diagnosis of IPA, including multiplex PCR, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and provide a detailed review of the extended-spectrum triazole isavuconazole, which was approved in 2015 to treat IPA...
September 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752537/utility-of-bronchoscopy-in-the-definitive-diagnosis-of-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-presenting-with-radiological-abnormalities
#11
Kosuke Makita, Yu Mikami, Hirotaka Matsuzaki, Osamu Narumoto, Daiya Takai, Yutaka Yatomi, Takahide Nagase
INTRODUCTION: Patients with haematological malignancies usually have a plethora of respiratory complications. Bronchoscopy is one of the most important procedures used to diagnose respiratory complications. Despite enormous benefit, patients should be carefully selected for bronchoscopy as the process is invasive; however, there are only few reports evaluating the contributing factors of bronchoscopy that result in the definitive diagnosis of respiratory complications in these patients...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582488/treatment-outcomes-of-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Nakwon Kwak, Jimyung Park, Eunyoung Kim, Chang-Hoon Lee, Sung Koo Han, Jae-Joon Yim
Background: The advent of macrolides has led to therapeutic advances in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD). The aim of this study was to elucidate the treatment outcomes of macrolide-containing regimens. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies reporting treatment outcomes of macrolide-containing regimens for MAC-LD using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases until 31 July 2016...
June 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758325/community-acquired-pneumonia-management-and-outcomes-in-the-era-of-health-information-technology
#13
REVIEW
Ian D Mecham, Caroline Vines, Nathan C Dean
Pneumonia continues to be a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality. Implementation of health information technology (HIT) can lead to cost savings and improved care. In this review, we examine the literature on the use of HIT in the management of community-acquired pneumonia. We also discuss barriers to adoption of technology in managing pneumonia, the reliability and quality of electronic health data in pneumonia research, how technology has assisted pneumonia diagnosis and outcomes research. The goal of using HIT is to develop and deploy generalizable, real-time, computerized clinical decision support integrated into usual pneumonia care...
July 30, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763150/pneumonia-in-the-tropics
#14
REVIEW
Tow Keang Lim, Wen Ting Siow
Pneumonia in the tropics poses a heavy disease burden. The complex interplay of climate change, human migration influences and socio-economic factors lead to changing patterns of respiratory infections in tropical climate but also increasingly in temperate countries. Tropical and poorer countries, especially South East Asia, also bear the brunt of the global tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, accounting for almost one-third of the burden. But, as human migration patterns evolve, we expect to see more TB cases in higher income as well as temperate countries, and rise in infections like scrub typhus from ecotourism activities...
August 1, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960204/community-acquired-pneumonia-a-global-perspective
#15
Grant W Waterer
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a global disease responsible for a large proportion of deaths and having significant economic cost. As diagnostic tools have increased in sensitivity, our understanding of the etiology of CAP has begun to change with a significant increase in confirmed viral infections and the recognition that multiple pathogens are frequently present. Empiric therapy remains the standard of care and guidelines are mostly based on published data from the United States or Europe. Blindly applying guidelines without any consideration of local etiological differences can lead to a risk of under or overtreatment...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960205/the-role-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains one of the most common causes of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), encompassing infections mild enough to be treated on an outpatient basis, as well as those requiring hospital care, or even intensive care unit admission. This microorganism is associated with a significant burden of disease, causing substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, and generating considerable health-care costs. The reason that pneumococcal CAP remains such a common cause of disease relates to the presence of several risk factors for this infection in patients throughout the world...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960206/role-of-atypical-pathogens-in-the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#17
Forest W Arnold, James T Summersgill, Julio A Ramirez
Atypical pneumonia has been described for over 100 years, but some of the pathogens attributed to it have been identified only in the past decades. The most common pathogens are Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of these three pathogens have been studied since their discovery, and are reviewed herein to provide better insight when evaluating these patients, which hopefully translates into improved care. The incidence of atypical pathogens has been shown to be approximately 22% worldwide, but this probably varies with location...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960207/antibiotic-resistance-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-pathogens
#18
Richard G Wunderink, Yudong Yin
The overwhelming majority of cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) can be treated with the standard antibiotic regimens of a macrolide and cephalosporin or a fluoroquinolone. Despite high rates, current levels of β-lactam resistance generally do not result in treatment failure for patients with CAP when appropriate agents and doses are used. Following the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease declined drastically, coinciding with a decrease in penicillin resistance...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960211/the-modern-diagnostic-approach-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults
#19
James D Chalmers
Respiratory tract infections, the majority of which are community acquired, are among the leading causes of death worldwide and a leading indication for hospital admission. The burden of disease demonstrates a "U"-shaped distribution, primarily affecting young children as the immune system matures, and older adults as the process of immunosenescence and accumulation of comorbidities leads to increased susceptibility to infection. Diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is traditionally based on demonstration of a new infiltrate on a chest radiograph in a patient presenting with an acute respiratory illness or sepsis...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960212/severity-assessment-and-the-immediate-and-long-term-prognosis-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Martin Kolditz, Dionne Braeken, Santiago Ewig, Gernot Rohde
Severity assessment is a crucial step in the initial management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). While approximately half of patients are at low risk of death and can be safely treated as outpatients, around 20% are at increased risk. While CURB-65 (confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure, urea) and pneumonia severity index (PSI) scores are equally useful as an adjunct to clinical judgment to identify patients at low risk, the so-called minor American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria are predictive of patients in need of intensified treatment (i...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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