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Pulmonary infections

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144 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979684/laboratory-tests-for-legionnaire-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
W Michael Dunne, Nathalie Picot, Alex van Belkum
Legionella pneumophila is one of the more recently discovered bacterial pathogens of humans. The last 2 decades have seen tremendous progress in the evolution of diagnostic tests, for detection and characterization of this pathogen and for defining the host response to infection. This has generated several diagnostic tools that span the range from simple immunologic assays to modern genome sequencing. This review describes the state of affairs of this continuously evolving field regarding the diagnosis of Legionnaire's disease and covers detection, assessment of antibiotic susceptibility, and epidemiologic characterization of isolates of L pneumophila and other pathogenic species within the genus...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159174/antimicrobial-therapy-for-legionnaire-s-disease-antibiotic-stewardship-implications
#2
REVIEW
Cheston B Cunha, Burke A Cunha
Legionnaire's disease is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Although no single clinical feature is diagnostic, if characteristic extrapulmonary findings are present a presumptive clinical syndromic diagnosis is possible. Depending on geographic location, season, and physician awareness, Legionnaire's disease may be included in the differential diagnosis of CAP. Some antibiotics effective against Legionella sp are also effective in treating the typical bacterial causes of CAP. From an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) perspective, monotherapy is preferred to double-drug therapy...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159175/thoracic-imaging-features-of-legionnaire-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Sameer Mittal, Ayushi P Singh, Menachem Gold, Ann N Leung, Linda B Haramati, Douglas S Katz
Imaging examinations are often performed in patients with Legionnaires' disease. The literature to date has documented that the imaging findings in this disorder are relatively nonspecific, and it is therefore difficult to prospectively differentiate legionella pneumonia from other forms of pneumonia, and from other noninfectious thoracic processes. Through a review of clinical cases and the literature, our objective is for the reader to gain a better understanding of the spectrum of radiographic manifestations of Legionnaires' disease...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159178/legionnaire-s-disease-a-clinical-diagnostic-approach
#4
REVIEW
Burke A Cunha, Cheston B Cunha
Legionnaire's disease is a nonzoonotic atypical pneumonia caused by Legionella sp that occurs sporadically or in outbreaks. Legionnaire's disease pneumonia is accompanied by several extrapulmonary clinical and laboratory findings. Rather than testing all pneumonias for Legionnaire's disease, the clinical challenge is to recognize the diagnostic significance of Legionnaire's disease's. The pretest probability of Legionnaire's disease is increased if several characteristic extrapulmonary findings are present...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159179/legionnaire-s-disease-and-its-mimics-a-clinical-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Burke A Cunha, Cheston B Cunha
Whenever the cardinal manifestations of a disorder occur in similar disorders, there is potential for a disease mimic. Legionnaire's disease has protean manifestations and has the potential to mimic or be mimicked by other community acquired pneumonias (CAPs). In CAPs caused by other than Legionella species, the more characteristic features in common with legionnaire's disease the more difficult the diagnostic conundrum. In hospitalized adults with CAP, legionnaire's disease may mimic influenza or other viral pneumonias...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477638/bacterial-pneumonia-in-patients-with-cancer-novel-risk-factors-and-management
#6
REVIEW
Justin L Wong, Scott E Evans
Bacterial pneumonias exact unacceptable morbidity on patients with cancer. Although the risk is often most pronounced among patients with treatment-induced cytopenias, the numerous contributors to life-threatening pneumonias in cancer populations range from derangements of lung architecture and swallow function to complex immune defects associated with cytotoxic therapies and graft-versus-host disease. These structural and immunologic abnormalities often make the diagnosis of pneumonia challenging in patients with cancer and impact the composition and duration of therapy...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477640/viral-pneumonia-in-patients-with-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-and-hematologic-malignancies
#7
REVIEW
Margaret L Green
Viral pneumonia is a common complication for patients with hematologic malignancies and after hematopoietic cell transplantation causing significant morbidity, and often mortality. Infections are predominantly caused by herpes viruses, either by reactivation of latent infection, or less commonly primary infection, or community respiratory viruses. High-resolution CT scan is useful for diagnosis but is nonspecific; generally, bronchoalveolar lavage is required. Prevention strategies are not pathogen-specific but include vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, preemptive treatment, and effective infection-prevention strategies during community outbreaks...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488366/efficacy-of-zinc-given-as-an-adjunct-to-the-treatment-of-severe-pneumonia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-double-blind-and-placebo-controlled-trials
#8
REVIEW
Linlin Wang, Yuanlin Song
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of children. Zinc is known to play a central role in the immune system. The deficiency of zinc increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical efficacy of zinc given as an adjunct therapy to the treatment of severe pneumonia. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE(TM) , and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify all randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials which evaluated the clinical efficacy of zinc given as an adjunct in the treatment of severe pneumonia and published between January 1966 and October 2015...
May 9, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270104/clinical-features-of-community-acquired-adenovirus-pneumonia-during-the-2011-community-outbreak-in-southern-taiwan-role-of-host-immune-response
#9
Ching-Fen Shen, Shih-Min Wang, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Ching-Chuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus 7 (HAdV-7) was responsible for a significant number of fatalities during the 2011 community outbreak in Taiwan. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe adenovirus infections in non-immunocompromised individuals remain unclear. Adenovirus pneumonia was associated with pleural effusion in a number of patients from the 2011 outbreak suggesting that similar to bacterial pneumonia, patients diagnosed with adenovirus pneumonia who have pleural effusion are more severely and systemically infected, and may have a more protracted disease course...
March 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464844/pulmonary-strongyloidiasis-assessment-between-manifestation-and-radiological-findings-in-16-severe-strongyloidiasis-cases
#10
Daijiro Nabeya, Shusaku Haranaga, Gretchen Lynn Parrott, Takeshi Kinjo, Saifun Nahar, Teruhisa Tanaka, Tetsuo Hirata, Akira Hokama, Masao Tateyama, Jiro Fujita
BACKGROUND: Strongyloidiasis is a chronic parasitic infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Severe cases such as, hyperinfection syndrome (HS) and disseminated strongyloidiasis (DS), can involve pulmonary manifestations. These manifestations frequently aid the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis. Here, we present the pulmonary manifestations and radiological findings of severe strongyloidiasis. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2014, all patients diagnosed with severe strongyloidiasis at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital or affiliated hospitals in Okinawa, Japan, were included in this retrospective study...
May 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467730/combination-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-mold-infections
#11
Matthew William McCarthy, Vidmantas Petraitis, Thomas J Walsh
Pulmonary mold infections are caused by ubiquitous organisms found in soil, water, and decaying vegetation, including Aspergillus spp., the Mucormycetes, hyaline molds, and dematiaceous (black) molds. Areas covered: These infections are often a challenge to diagnose and even more difficult to treat. Recently, antifungal combination therapy has emerged as a promising strategy to treat some forms of invasive mycoses, including pulmonary mold infections. Historically, this approach has been limited due to non-uniform interpretation criteria, variations in pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic properties of antifungals used in combination, and an inability to predict clinical success based on in vitro data and animal models...
May 9, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284295/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-new-definitions
#12
REVIEW
M Chance Spalding, Michael W Cripps, Christian T Minshall
The National Healthcare Safety Network's new classification characterizes all adverse ventilator-associated events (VAE) into a tiered system designed to shift the focus away from ventilator-associated pneumonia as the only important cause or morbidity in ventilated patients. This new surveillance definition of VAE eliminates subjectivity by using clearly defined criteria and facilitates the automated collection of data. This allows for easier comparison and analysis of factors affecting rates of VAE. Numerous studies have been published that demonstrate its clinical application...
April 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319358/albendazole-therapy-in-human-lung-and-liver-hydatid-cysts-a-13-year-experience
#13
Seyed Hossein Fattahi Masoom, Shahrzad Mohammadzadeh Lari, Asieh Sadat Fattahi, Negin Ahmadnia, Mahla Rajabi, Maliheh NaderiKalat
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in Iran. This study has aimed to report the efficacy of Albendazole therapy in patients with CE. METHOD: Among 164 patients with echinococcosis who were referred to the surgery clinic, Ghaem hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between 2001 and 2013, two were diagnosed with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and 162 with CE; 43 of whom underwent surgery. The rest 119 patients received medical therapy by Albendazole 15 mg/kg/day for three phases...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348502/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-saudi-arabia-and-gulf-countries-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Hawra Al-Ghafli, Sahal Al-Hajoj
Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are causing growing health problems worldwide. This is indicated by an increasing amount of scientific reports showing not only well-identified species reemerging but also emergence of new species. The emergence and reemergence of NTM are particularly worrying in developing countries due to scarce published data and improper identification. Here we aimed to examine the main epidemiological aspects and diagnostic challenges associated with NTM in countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and compare these findings to the international arena findings...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228053/hiv-related-pneumococcal-disease-prevention-in-adults
#15
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson, Theresa Rossouw
HIV-infected persons are particularly susceptible to the development of severe pneumococcal disease, even in the setting of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), due to slow, incomplete recovery of anti-pneumococcal host defenses. This risk is increased by avoidable aspects of lifestyle, particularly smoking, which intensify immunosuppression. Clearly, more effective preventive measures are needed to counter this threat. Areas covered: This is a detailed review of the published literature focusing on currently available strategies for prevention of pneumococcal infection in HIV-infected patients, including cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, cART, pneumococcal vaccination, and smoking cessation strategies...
March 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049128/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-pulmonary-pathogens
#16
REVIEW
Radha Gopal, Rekha R Rapaka, Jay K Kolls
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response to a variety of pathogens in response to antiretroviral therapy-mediated recovery of the immune system in HIV-infected patients. Although IRIS can occur in many organs, pulmonary IRIS, associated with opportunistic infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii, is particularly associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathology of IRIS is associated with a variety of innate and adaptive immune factors, including CD4(+) T-cells, CD8(+) T-cells, γδ T-cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, the complement system and surfactant proteins, Toll-like receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143877/procalcitonin-to-guide-antibiotic-administration-in-copd-exacerbations-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Alexander G Mathioudakis, Victoria Chatzimavridou-Grigoriadou, Alexandru Corlateanu, Jørgen Vestbo
Challenges in the differentiation of the aetiology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) have led to significant overuse of antibiotics. Serum procalcitonin, released in response to bacterial infections, but not viral infections, could possibly identify AECOPD requiring antibiotics. In this meta-analysis we assessed the clinical effectiveness of procalcitonin-based protocols to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in patients presenting with AECOPD.Based on a prospectively registered protocol, we reviewed the literature and selected randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing procalcitonin-based protocols to initiate or discontinue antibiotics versus standard care in AECOPD...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083768/invasive-fungal-tracheobronchitis-in-mechanically-ventilated-critically-ill-patients-underlying-conditions-diagnosis-and-outcomes
#18
Chun-Yu Lin, Wei-Lun Liu, Che-Chia Chang, Hou-Tai Chang, Han-Chung Hu, Kuo-Chin Kao, Ning-Hung Chen, Ying-Jen Chen, Cheng-Ta Yang, Chung-Chi Huang, George Dimopoulos
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal tracheobronchitis (IFT) is a severe form of pulmonary fungal infection that is not limited to immunocompromised patients. Although respiratory failure is a crucial predictor of death, information regarding IFT in critically ill patients is limited. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicenter, observational study, we enrolled adults diagnosed as having IFT who had been admitted to the intensive care unit between January 2007 and December 2015...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179437/predictors-of-mortality-in-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#19
David Lowes, Khaled Al-Shair, Pippa J Newton, Julie Morris, Chris Harris, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, David W Denning
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a chronic progressive infection that destroys lung tissue in non-immunocompromised patients. Contemporary series suggest 50-85% 5-year mortality, with few prognostic factors identified.A cohort of 387 CPA patients referred to the UK's National Aspergillosis Centre from 1992 to June 2012 was studied until June 2015. The impact of objective and subjective variables including age, sex, previous pulmonary conditions, dyspnoea score, quality of life, serum albumin and C-reactive protein and radiological appearances were assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves, log rank tests and Cox proportional hazards modelling...
February 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221171/pathogenesis-of-severe-pneumonia-advances-and-knowledge-gaps
#20
Joseph P Mizgerd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumonia is a common disease that becomes severe in a subset of patients, dependent on host biology including mechanisms of immune resistance and tissue resilience. This review emphasizes discoveries in pneumonia biology from 2016, highlighting questions and directions that are especially pressing or newly emerging. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel cell-cell interactions mediating innate immune responses against microbes in the lung have been elucidated, between distinct leukocyte subtypes as well as between leukocytes and the structural cells of the lung...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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