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Pulmonary infections

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179 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324504/aspergillus-and-other-respiratory-fungal-infections-in-the-icu-diagnosis-and-management
#1
José-Artur Paiva, Paulo Mergulhão, José Manuel Pereira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Filamentous fungi respiratory infections, namely because of Aspergillus, Mucorales, Fusarium, or Scedosporium, show rising incidence and occur more in populations which are not classically immunosuppressed. This and their persistent dismal prognosis are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Both an early diagnosis, rooted on a high level of suspicion and based on clinical picture, radiology, cultural microbiological exams, fungal biomarkers, PCR and biopsy, and an early therapy, including immunorecovery, whenever possible, good antifungal selection, and surgery for source control, are paramount to maximize the outcome in these diseases...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337703/new-antibiotics-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#2
Matteo Bassetti, Antionio Vena, Nadia Castaldo, Elda Righi, Maddalena Peghin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria represents a global emerging problem. Delayed prescription of an adequate treatment for VAP has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. New molecules have been developed to face the need of compounds that are active against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize the current scenario of new therapeutic options for the treatment of VAP...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346118/mycobacterium-avium-complex-pulmonary-disease-new-epidemiology-and-management-concepts
#3
Leah Lande, Jason George, Theodore Plush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related pulmonary disease has been increasing because of environmental factors, changes in organism virulence, and evolving host susceptibility. Treatment is often complicated by adverse effects, development of drug resistance, and refractory disease, with recurrence rates as high as 25-45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Aerosolization of water, soil, or dusts are the likely sources of MAC-related pulmonary disease in susceptible individuals...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373381/outpatient-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
Filipe Froes, João Gonçalves Pereira, Pedro Póvoa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The first guidelines on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were published in 1993, but since then many of the challenges regarding the outpatient management of CAP persist. These include the difficulty in establishing the initial clinical diagnosis, its risk stratification, which will dictate the place of treatment, the empirical choice of antibiotics, the relative scarcity of novel antibiotics and the importance of knowing local microbiological susceptibility patterns...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911829/influenza-in-older-adults
#5
REVIEW
H Keipp Talbot
Annually, influenza viruses cause significant disease in older adults, varying with the virulence of the circulating strain, prior exposure to circulating strain, and influenza vaccine effectiveness. Older adults often present atypically (eg, without fever) and with complications of influenza infection such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure exacerbations. Prevention methods include antiviral medications and vaccines. Current influenza vaccines have moderate effectiveness for the prevention of hospitalization, but newer more immunogenic vaccines designed for adults 65 years of age and older have been licensed...
December 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916385/bacterial-pneumonia-in-older-adults
#6
REVIEW
Oryan Henig, Keith S Kaye
The incidence of pneumonia increases with age, and is particularly high in patients who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Mortality rates for pneumonia in older adults are high and have not decreased in the last decade. Atypical symptoms and exacerbation of underlying illnesses should trigger clinical suspicion of pneumonia. Risk factors for multidrug-resistant organisms are more common in older adults, particularly among LTCF residents, and should be considered when making empiric treatment decisions...
December 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548990/outbreaks-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#7
REVIEW
Geeta Sood, Nikki Parrish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the emerging literature on nontuberculous mycobacteria outbreaks in healthcare settings. As our ability to identify mycobacterial species develops, we are better able to recognize epidemiologic connections and better understand the prevalence and importance of these outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in healthcare settings. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of outbreaks related to nontuberculous outbreaks is increasing because of heightened awareness and better diagnostic tests for species level identification of mycobacteria...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759466/the-current-status-of-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-nosocomial-pneumonias
#8
Jorge I F Salluh, Vicente C Souza-Dantas, Pedro Póvoa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nosocomial pneumonia is a frequent and severe nosocomial infection divided in two distinct groups: hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). In this context, the VAP is notoriously difficult to diagnose clinically, resulting from the lack of a 'gold standard' method of diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of biomarkers may potentially improve the early diagnosis of infections allowing earlier and better identification and treatment...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759469/what-is-new-in-the-prevention-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-the-icu
#9
Michael Klompas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and contextualize recent evidence on preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). RECENT FINDINGS: Many centers continue to report dramatic decreases in VAP rates after implementing ventilator bundles. Interpreting these reports is complicated, however, by the subjectivity and lack of specificity of VAP definitions. More objective data suggest VAP rates may not have meaningfully changed over the past decade. If so, this compels us to re-examine and revise the prevention bundles we have been using to prevent VAP...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777158/pneumonia-with-bacterial-and-viral-coinfection
#10
Kelly Cawcutt, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review the epidemiology of pneumonia with bacterial and viral coinfection, the pathogenesis and clinical impact of coinfection along with the current state of treatment and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Emphasis is given to the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral co-infection including specific highlighting on influenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus. Updates on the current state of diagnosis and management are included, as well as on areas where future research can be directed to improve patient clinical outcomes regarding viral and bacterial coinfection...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858915/how-to-translate-the-new-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-guideline-to-the-bedside
#11
Mario F Perez, Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia remain significant causes of morbidity, mortality, and financial burden in the United States and around the globe. Although guidelines for the management of patients with these conditions have been available for several years, implementation remains challenging. Here, we review the most common barriers faced by clinicians in implementing the current guidelines and offer suggestions for improved adherence...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251510/risk-factors-for-drug-resistant-cap-in-immunocompetent-patients
#12
REVIEW
Francisco Arancibia, Mauricio Ruiz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increase in drug-resistant community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important problem all over the world. This article explores the current state of antimicrobial resistance of different bacteria that cause CAP and also assesses risk factors to identify those pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last two decades, it has been documented that there is a significant increase in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria causing CAP...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231023/increasing-nocardia-incidence-associated-with-bronchiectasis-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#13
Michael H Woodworth, Jennifer L Saullo, Paul M Lantos, Gary M Cox, Jason E Stout
RATIONALE: Nocardia is a genus of pathogens that most commonly afflict immunocompromised hosts but may be an emerging infection among persons with bronchiectasis. OBJECTIVES: To examine the epidemiology and clinical presentation of adult patients with Nocardia and bronchiectasis relative to other patient groups. METHODS: We examined a retrospectively assembled cohort of adults at Duke University Hospital in Durham, North Carolina with at least one positive culture from a bodily fluid or tissue specimen for Nocardia between January 1996 and December 2013...
March 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387532/mortality-after-respiratory-isolation-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-a-comparison-of-patients-who-did-and-did-not-meet-disease-criteria
#14
Shannon A Novosad, Emily Henkle, Sean Schafer, Katrina Hedberg, Jennifer Ku, Sarah A R Siegel, Dongseok Choi, Christopher G Slatore, Kevin L Winthrop
RATIONALE: The mortality of patients with respiratory tract isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and their risk factors for death are not well described. OBJECTIVES: To determine age-adjusted mortality rates for patients with respiratory NTM isolates and their causes of death and to examine whether American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) diagnostic criteria identify those at higher risk of death after NTM isolation. METHODS: We linked vital records registries with a previously identified Oregon population-based cohort of patients with NTM respiratory isolation...
July 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406709/long-term-outcomes-in-a-population-based-cohort-with-respiratory-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-isolation
#15
Emily Henkle, Shannon A Novosad, Sean Shafer, Katrina Hedberg, Sarah A R Siegel, Jennifer Ku, Cara Varley, D Rebecca Prevots, Theodore K Marras, Kevin L Winthrop
RATIONALE: The natural history of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) respiratory infection in the general population is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To describe the long-term clinical, microbiologic, and radiographic outcomes of patients with respiratory NTM isolates. METHODS: We previously identified a population-based cohort of patients with respiratory NTM isolation during 2005-2006 and categorized patients as cases or noncases using the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America pulmonary NTM disease criteria at that time...
July 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595486/special-considerations-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#16
REVIEW
Matthew William McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
The diagnosis and treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) are ongoing challenges in clinical practice. While important advances have recently been made, including enhanced diagnostic modalities as well as novel therapeutic and prophylactic options, more effective options are urgently needed as the population of immunocompromised patients continues to expand. Areas covered: In this paper, we review novel approaches to diagnosis of IPA, including multiplex PCR, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and provide a detailed review of the extended-spectrum triazole isavuconazole, which was approved in 2015 to treat IPA...
September 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752537/utility-of-bronchoscopy-in-the-definitive-diagnosis-of-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-presenting-with-radiological-abnormalities
#17
Kosuke Makita, Yu Mikami, Hirotaka Matsuzaki, Osamu Narumoto, Daiya Takai, Yutaka Yatomi, Takahide Nagase
INTRODUCTION: Patients with haematological malignancies usually have a plethora of respiratory complications. Bronchoscopy is one of the most important procedures used to diagnose respiratory complications. Despite enormous benefit, patients should be carefully selected for bronchoscopy as the process is invasive; however, there are only few reports evaluating the contributing factors of bronchoscopy that result in the definitive diagnosis of respiratory complications in these patients...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582488/treatment-outcomes-of-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Nakwon Kwak, Jimyung Park, Eunyoung Kim, Chang-Hoon Lee, Sung Koo Han, Jae-Joon Yim
Background : The advent of macrolides has led to therapeutic advances in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD). The aim of this study was to elucidate the treatment outcomes of macrolide-containing regimens. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies reporting treatment outcomes of macrolide-containing regimens for MAC-LD using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases until 31 July 2016...
June 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758325/community-acquired-pneumonia-management-and-outcomes-in-the-era-of-health-information-technology
#19
REVIEW
Ian D Mecham, Caroline Vines, Nathan C Dean
Pneumonia continues to be a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality. Implementation of health information technology (HIT) can lead to cost savings and improved care. In this review, we examine the literature on the use of HIT in the management of community-acquired pneumonia. We also discuss barriers to adoption of technology in managing pneumonia, the reliability and quality of electronic health data in pneumonia research, how technology has assisted pneumonia diagnosis and outcomes research. The goal of using HIT is to develop and deploy generalizable, real-time, computerized clinical decision support integrated into usual pneumonia care...
November 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763150/pneumonia-in-the-tropics
#20
REVIEW
Tow Keang Lim, Wen Ting Siow
Pneumonia in the tropics poses a heavy disease burden. The complex interplay of climate change, human migration influences and socio-economic factors lead to changing patterns of respiratory infections in tropical climate but also increasingly in temperate countries. Tropical and poorer countries, especially South East Asia, also bear the brunt of the global tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, accounting for almost one-third of the burden. But, as human migration patterns evolve, we expect to see more TB cases in higher income as well as temperate countries, and rise in infections like scrub typhus from ecotourism activities...
January 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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