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Pulmonary infections

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148 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369361/long-term-outcome-of-pulmonary-resection-for-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-pulmonary-disease
#1
Takanori Asakura, Nobutaka Hayakawa, Naoki Hasegawa, Ho Namkoong, Ken Takeuchi, Shoji Suzuki, Makoto Ishii, Tomoko Bestuyaku, Yoshiaki Abe, Motofumi Ouchi
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary resection along with multiple antimicrobial therapy has produced favorable outcomes at a few centers. However, little is known regarding the risk factors for long-term survival and microbiological recurrence after pulmonary resection for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTMPD). We evaluated the long-term outcomes of pulmonary resection, including microbiological recurrence and survival. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 125 patients (median age, 60 years) with NTMPD treated by pulmonary resection at two referral centers between January 1994 and August 2015...
March 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407054/procalcitonin-as-a-marker-of-etiology-in-adults-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#2
Wesley H Self, Robert A Balk, Carlos G Grijalva, Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Evan J Anderson, Grant W Waterer, D Mark Courtney, Anna M Bramley, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Anne J Blaschke, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink
Background: Recent trials suggest procalcitonin-based guidelines can reduce antibiotic use for respiratory infections. However, the accuracy of procalcitonin to discriminate between viral and bacterial pneumonia requires further dissection. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum procalcitonin concentration at hospital admission with pathogens detected in a multicenter prospective surveillance study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525597/influenza-vaccination-modifies-disease-severity-among-community-dwelling-adults-hospitalized-with-influenza
#3
Carmen Sofia Arriola, Shikha Garg, Evan J Anderson, Patricia A Ryan, Andrea George, Shelley M Zansky, Nancy Bennett, Arthur Reingold, Marisa Bargsten, Lisa Miller, Kimberly Yousey-Hindes, Lilian Tatham, Susan R Bohm, Ruth Lynfield, Ann Thomas, Mary Lou Lindegren, William Schaffner, Alicia M Fry, Sandra S Chaves
Background: We investigated the effect of influenza vaccination on disease severity in adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza during 2013-14, a season in which vaccine viruses were antigenically similar to those circulating. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2013-14 influenza season, and used propensity score matching to account for the probability of vaccination within age strata (18-49, 50-64 and ≥65 years). Death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and hospital and ICU lengths of stay (LOS) were outcome measures for severity...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541556/microbiological-persistence-in-patients-with-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-the-predictors-and-the-impact-on-radiographic-progression
#4
Sheng-Wei Pan, Chin-Chung Shu, Jia-Yih Feng, Jann-Yuan Wang, Yu-Jiun Chan, Chong-Jen Yu, Wei-Juin Su
Objectives.: Persistent growth of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in the lungs indicates continuous infection in MAC lung disease (MAC-LD), but its clinical significance has not been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the predictors of persistent culture-positivity and its impact on radiographic deterioration in MAC-LD. Methods.: MAC-LD patients at multiple medical centers from 2011 to 2016 were enrolled retrospectively. Microbiological persistence of MAC-LD was defined as persistent culture-positivity for MAC (MAC-PP) exceeding one year, in contrast with the negative conversion group (MAC-NC)...
May 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979684/laboratory-tests-for-legionnaire-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
W Michael Dunne, Nathalie Picot, Alex van Belkum
Legionella pneumophila is one of the more recently discovered bacterial pathogens of humans. The last 2 decades have seen tremendous progress in the evolution of diagnostic tests, for detection and characterization of this pathogen and for defining the host response to infection. This has generated several diagnostic tools that span the range from simple immunologic assays to modern genome sequencing. This review describes the state of affairs of this continuously evolving field regarding the diagnosis of Legionnaire's disease and covers detection, assessment of antibiotic susceptibility, and epidemiologic characterization of isolates of L pneumophila and other pathogenic species within the genus...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159174/antimicrobial-therapy-for-legionnaire-s-disease-antibiotic-stewardship-implications
#6
REVIEW
Cheston B Cunha, Burke A Cunha
Legionnaire's disease is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Although no single clinical feature is diagnostic, if characteristic extrapulmonary findings are present a presumptive clinical syndromic diagnosis is possible. Depending on geographic location, season, and physician awareness, Legionnaire's disease may be included in the differential diagnosis of CAP. Some antibiotics effective against Legionella sp are also effective in treating the typical bacterial causes of CAP. From an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) perspective, monotherapy is preferred to double-drug therapy...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159175/thoracic-imaging-features-of-legionnaire-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Sameer Mittal, Ayushi P Singh, Menachem Gold, Ann N Leung, Linda B Haramati, Douglas S Katz
Imaging examinations are often performed in patients with Legionnaires' disease. The literature to date has documented that the imaging findings in this disorder are relatively nonspecific, and it is therefore difficult to prospectively differentiate legionella pneumonia from other forms of pneumonia, and from other noninfectious thoracic processes. Through a review of clinical cases and the literature, our objective is for the reader to gain a better understanding of the spectrum of radiographic manifestations of Legionnaires' disease...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159178/legionnaire-s-disease-a-clinical-diagnostic-approach
#8
REVIEW
Burke A Cunha, Cheston B Cunha
Legionnaire's disease is a nonzoonotic atypical pneumonia caused by Legionella sp that occurs sporadically or in outbreaks. Legionnaire's disease pneumonia is accompanied by several extrapulmonary clinical and laboratory findings. Rather than testing all pneumonias for Legionnaire's disease, the clinical challenge is to recognize the diagnostic significance of Legionnaire's disease's. The pretest probability of Legionnaire's disease is increased if several characteristic extrapulmonary findings are present...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159179/legionnaire-s-disease-and-its-mimics-a-clinical-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Burke A Cunha, Cheston B Cunha
Whenever the cardinal manifestations of a disorder occur in similar disorders, there is potential for a disease mimic. Legionnaire's disease has protean manifestations and has the potential to mimic or be mimicked by other community acquired pneumonias (CAPs). In CAPs caused by other than Legionella species, the more characteristic features in common with legionnaire's disease the more difficult the diagnostic conundrum. In hospitalized adults with CAP, legionnaire's disease may mimic influenza or other viral pneumonias...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477638/bacterial-pneumonia-in-patients-with-cancer-novel-risk-factors-and-management
#10
REVIEW
Justin L Wong, Scott E Evans
Bacterial pneumonias exact unacceptable morbidity on patients with cancer. Although the risk is often most pronounced among patients with treatment-induced cytopenias, the numerous contributors to life-threatening pneumonias in cancer populations range from derangements of lung architecture and swallow function to complex immune defects associated with cytotoxic therapies and graft-versus-host disease. These structural and immunologic abnormalities often make the diagnosis of pneumonia challenging in patients with cancer and impact the composition and duration of therapy...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477640/viral-pneumonia-in-patients-with-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-and-hematologic-malignancies
#11
REVIEW
Margaret L Green
Viral pneumonia is a common complication for patients with hematologic malignancies and after hematopoietic cell transplantation causing significant morbidity, and often mortality. Infections are predominantly caused by herpes viruses, either by reactivation of latent infection, or less commonly primary infection, or community respiratory viruses. High-resolution CT scan is useful for diagnosis but is nonspecific; generally, bronchoalveolar lavage is required. Prevention strategies are not pathogen-specific but include vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, preemptive treatment, and effective infection-prevention strategies during community outbreaks...
June 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488366/efficacy-of-zinc-given-as-an-adjunct-to-the-treatment-of-severe-pneumonia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-double-blind-and-placebo-controlled-trials
#12
REVIEW
Linlin Wang, Yuanlin Song
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of children. Zinc is known to play a central role in the immune system. The deficiency of zinc increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical efficacy of zinc given as an adjunct therapy to the treatment of severe pneumonia. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE(TM) , and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify all randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials which evaluated the clinical efficacy of zinc given as an adjunct in the treatment of severe pneumonia and published between January 1966 and October 2015...
May 9, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270104/clinical-features-of-community-acquired-adenovirus-pneumonia-during-the-2011-community-outbreak-in-southern-taiwan-role-of-host-immune-response
#13
Ching-Fen Shen, Shih-Min Wang, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Ching-Chuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus 7 (HAdV-7) was responsible for a significant number of fatalities during the 2011 community outbreak in Taiwan. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe adenovirus infections in non-immunocompromised individuals remain unclear. Adenovirus pneumonia was associated with pleural effusion in a number of patients from the 2011 outbreak suggesting that similar to bacterial pneumonia, patients diagnosed with adenovirus pneumonia who have pleural effusion are more severely and systemically infected, and may have a more protracted disease course...
March 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464844/pulmonary-strongyloidiasis-assessment-between-manifestation-and-radiological-findings-in-16-severe-strongyloidiasis-cases
#14
Daijiro Nabeya, Shusaku Haranaga, Gretchen Lynn Parrott, Takeshi Kinjo, Saifun Nahar, Teruhisa Tanaka, Tetsuo Hirata, Akira Hokama, Masao Tateyama, Jiro Fujita
BACKGROUND: Strongyloidiasis is a chronic parasitic infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Severe cases such as, hyperinfection syndrome (HS) and disseminated strongyloidiasis (DS), can involve pulmonary manifestations. These manifestations frequently aid the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis. Here, we present the pulmonary manifestations and radiological findings of severe strongyloidiasis. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2014, all patients diagnosed with severe strongyloidiasis at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital or affiliated hospitals in Okinawa, Japan, were included in this retrospective study...
May 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467730/combination-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-mold-infections
#15
Matthew William McCarthy, Vidmantas Petraitis, Thomas J Walsh
Pulmonary mold infections are caused by ubiquitous organisms found in soil, water, and decaying vegetation, including Aspergillus spp., the Mucormycetes, hyaline molds, and dematiaceous (black) molds. Areas covered: These infections are often a challenge to diagnose and even more difficult to treat. Recently, antifungal combination therapy has emerged as a promising strategy to treat some forms of invasive mycoses, including pulmonary mold infections. Historically, this approach has been limited due to non-uniform interpretation criteria, variations in pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic properties of antifungals used in combination, and an inability to predict clinical success based on in vitro data and animal models...
May 9, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284295/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-new-definitions
#16
REVIEW
M Chance Spalding, Michael W Cripps, Christian T Minshall
The National Healthcare Safety Network's new classification characterizes all adverse ventilator-associated events (VAE) into a tiered system designed to shift the focus away from ventilator-associated pneumonia as the only important cause or morbidity in ventilated patients. This new surveillance definition of VAE eliminates subjectivity by using clearly defined criteria and facilitates the automated collection of data. This allows for easier comparison and analysis of factors affecting rates of VAE. Numerous studies have been published that demonstrate its clinical application...
April 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319358/albendazole-therapy-in-human-lung-and-liver-hydatid-cysts-a-13-year-experience
#17
Seyed Hossein Fattahi Masoom, Shahrzad Mohammadzadeh Lari, Asieh Sadat Fattahi, Negin Ahmadnia, Mahla Rajabi, Maliheh NaderiKalat
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in Iran. This study has aimed to report the efficacy of Albendazole therapy in patients with CE. METHOD: Among 164 patients with echinococcosis who were referred to the surgery clinic, Ghaem hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between 2001 and 2013, two were diagnosed with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and 162 with CE; 43 of whom underwent surgery. The rest 119 patients received medical therapy by Albendazole 15 mg/kg/day for three phases...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348502/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-saudi-arabia-and-gulf-countries-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Hawra Al-Ghafli, Sahal Al-Hajoj
Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are causing growing health problems worldwide. This is indicated by an increasing amount of scientific reports showing not only well-identified species reemerging but also emergence of new species. The emergence and reemergence of NTM are particularly worrying in developing countries due to scarce published data and improper identification. Here we aimed to examine the main epidemiological aspects and diagnostic challenges associated with NTM in countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and compare these findings to the international arena findings...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228053/hiv-related-pneumococcal-disease-prevention-in-adults
#19
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson, Theresa Rossouw
HIV-infected persons are particularly susceptible to the development of severe pneumococcal disease, even in the setting of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), due to slow, incomplete recovery of anti-pneumococcal host defenses. This risk is increased by avoidable aspects of lifestyle, particularly smoking, which intensify immunosuppression. Clearly, more effective preventive measures are needed to counter this threat. Areas covered: This is a detailed review of the published literature focusing on currently available strategies for prevention of pneumococcal infection in HIV-infected patients, including cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, cART, pneumococcal vaccination, and smoking cessation strategies...
March 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049128/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-pulmonary-pathogens
#20
REVIEW
Radha Gopal, Rekha R Rapaka, Jay K Kolls
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response to a variety of pathogens in response to antiretroviral therapy-mediated recovery of the immune system in HIV-infected patients. Although IRIS can occur in many organs, pulmonary IRIS, associated with opportunistic infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii, is particularly associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathology of IRIS is associated with a variety of innate and adaptive immune factors, including CD4(+) T-cells, CD8(+) T-cells, γδ T-cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, the complement system and surfactant proteins, Toll-like receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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