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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052805/hypereosinophilic-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Heung R Noh, Gil G Magpantay
BACKGROUND: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by persistent eosinophilia associated with multiple organ damage. OBJECTIVE: To increase awareness of the rare but potentially life-threatening disease and to provide a brief overview of the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of HES. METHODS: Pertinent data from the patient's clinical course was incorporated with salient articles on the topic...
January 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552544/lung-manifestations-in-the-rheumatic-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Tracy J Doyle, Paul F Dellaripa
Lung ailments in rheumatic diseases present unique challenges for diagnosis and management and are a source of significant morbidity and mortality for patients. Unlike the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, patients with rheumatic diseases experience lung disease in the context of a systemic disease that may make it more difficult to recognize and that may present greater risks with treatment. Despite recent advances in our awareness of these diseases, there is still a significant lack of understanding of natural history to elucidate which patients will have disease that is progressive and thus warrants treatment...
May 25, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362938/the-use-of-noncarbapenem-%C3%AE-lactams-for-the-treatment-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-infections
#3
Pranita D Tamma, Jesus Rodriguez-Bano
The continued rise in infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens is recognized globally as one of the most pressing concerns facing the healthcare community. Carbapenems are widely regarded as the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of ESBL-producing infections, even when in vitro activity to other β-lactams has been demonstrated. However, indiscriminant carbapenem use is not without consequence, and carbapenem overuse has contributed to the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369295/cranial-imaging-before-lumbar-puncture-in-adults-with-community-acquired-meningitis-clinical-utility-and-adherence-to-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-guidelines
#4
Lucrecia Salazar, Rodrigo Hasbun
Background.: The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines delineate criteria for the use of computed tomography (CT) scan of the head before lumbar puncture (LP) in adults with community-acquired meningitis (CAM). There are limited data to document adherence to these guidelines and assess the clinical utility of brain imaging. Methods.: This was a retrospective analysis from January 2005 to January 2010 in Houston, Texas. Results...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369361/long-term-outcome-of-pulmonary-resection-for-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-pulmonary-disease
#5
Takanori Asakura, Nobutaka Hayakawa, Naoki Hasegawa, Ho Namkoong, Ken Takeuchi, Shoji Suzuki, Makoto Ishii, Tomoko Bestuyaku, Yoshiaki Abe, Motofumi Ouchi
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary resection along with multiple antimicrobial therapy has produced favorable outcomes at a few centers. However, little is known regarding the risk factors for long-term survival and microbiological recurrence after pulmonary resection for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTMPD). We evaluated the long-term outcomes of pulmonary resection, including microbiological recurrence and survival. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 125 patients (median age, 60 years) with NTMPD treated by pulmonary resection at two referral centers between January 1994 and August 2015...
March 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379314/comparative-effectiveness-of-cefazolin-versus-nafcillin-or-oxacillin-for-treatment-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-complicated-by-bacteremia-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#6
Jennifer S McDanel, Mary-Claire Roghmann, Eli N Perencevich, Michael E Ohl, Michihiko Goto, Daniel J Livorsi, Makoto Jones, Justin P Albertson, Rajeshwari Nair, Amy M J O'Shea, Marin L Schweizer
Background: To treat patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) infections, beta-lactams are recommended for definitive therapy; however the comparative effectiveness of individual beta-lactams is unknown. This study compared definitive therapy with cefazolin versus nafcillin or oxacillin among patients with MSSA infections complicated by bacteremia. Methods: This retrospective study included patients admitted to 119 Veterans Administration hospitals from 2003 to 2010...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407054/procalcitonin-as-a-marker-of-etiology-in-adults-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#7
Wesley H Self, Robert A Balk, Carlos G Grijalva, Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Evan J Anderson, Grant W Waterer, D Mark Courtney, Anna M Bramley, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Anne J Blaschke, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink
Background: Recent trials suggest procalcitonin-based guidelines can reduce antibiotic use for respiratory infections. However, the accuracy of procalcitonin to discriminate between viral and bacterial pneumonia requires further dissection. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum procalcitonin concentration at hospital admission with pathogens detected in a multicenter prospective surveillance study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475791/prevention-and-control-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-in-adult-intensive-care-units-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#8
Nattawat Teerawattanapong, Kirati Kengkla, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, Surasak Saokaew, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
Background: This study evaluated the relative efficacy of strategies for the prevention of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) in adult intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: A systematic review and network meta-analysis was performed; searches of the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) included all randomized controlled trials and observational studies conducted in adult patients hospitalized in ICUs and evaluating standard care (STD), antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP), environmental cleaning (ENV), decolonization methods (DCL), or source control (SCT), simultaneously...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575173/health-care-associated-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-infection-in-cancer-patients-without-prior-bcg-instillation
#9
Y Meije, J Martínez-Montauti, J A Caylà, J Loureiro, L Ortega, M Clemente, X Sanz, M Ricart, M J Santomà, P Coll, M Sierra, M Calsina, M Vaqué, I Ruiz-Camps, C López-Sánchez, M Montes, A Ayestarán, J Carratalà, A Orcau
Background: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is widely used as adjunctive therapy for superficial bladder cancer. Intravesical administration of BCG has been associated with systemic infection. Disseminated infection due to M. bovis is otherwise uncommon. Methods: After identification of three patients with health-care associated BCG infection (HCBCGI) who had never received intravesical BCG administration, an epidemiologic study was performed...
May 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499653/customized-hinged-covered-metallic-stents%C3%A2-for-the-treatment-of-benign-main-bronchial-stenosis
#10
Xinwei Han, Quazi Al-Tariq, Yanle Zhao, Lei Li, Zhe Cheng, Huaqi Wang, Chao Liu, Dechao Jiao, Gang Wu
BACKGROUND: To address the limitations of silicone stents, we designed a hinged self-expandable covered metallic stent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the customized stents in clinical applications. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis. Under conscious sedation and local anesthesia, the stents were implanted or removed by interventional radiologists, with fluoroscopic guidance. RESULTS: Of 24 patients with benign main bronchial stenosis, stents were successfully placed in 21 (87...
May 9, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979683/nosocomial-health-care-associated-legionnaire-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Shanu Agarwal, Virginia Abell, Thomas M File
Nosocomial Legionnaire's disease is most frequently associated with presence of the organism in hospital water systems. Patients are often susceptible as a result of age, underlying comorbidities, or immunosuppression. Prevention focuses on reducing the reservoir within water systems and includes super heating, ultraviolent light, chlorination, silver-copper ionization, and distal filtration. This article reviews the epidemiology of health care-associated Legionnaire's disease, reviews characteristics of several health care-associated outbreaks, and discusses strategies to prevent health care-associated infection...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979686/legionnaire-s-disease-and-immunosuppressive-drugs
#12
REVIEW
Tin Han Htwe, Nancy M Khardori
Immunosuppressive agents predispose patients to legionnaire's disease. Patients receiving tumor necrosis factor antagonists are generally not severely immunocompromised by the underlying disease. In patients with malignancy receiving immunosuppressive therapies, it is difficult to balance the underlying disease versus the therapy used. Transplant recipients are often on multiple drugs, including immunosuppressants. It seems that immunosuppressive drugs add to the risk for legionella infection. The index of suspicion should be high for legionella infection early during a compatible clinical syndrome...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159178/legionnaire-s-disease-a-clinical-diagnostic-approach
#13
REVIEW
Burke A Cunha, Cheston B Cunha
Legionnaire's disease is a nonzoonotic atypical pneumonia caused by Legionella sp that occurs sporadically or in outbreaks. Legionnaire's disease pneumonia is accompanied by several extrapulmonary clinical and laboratory findings. Rather than testing all pneumonias for Legionnaire's disease, the clinical challenge is to recognize the diagnostic significance of Legionnaire's disease's. The pretest probability of Legionnaire's disease is increased if several characteristic extrapulmonary findings are present...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366223/radiologic-approach-to-musculoskeletal-infections
#14
REVIEW
Claus S Simpfendorfer
Imaging is often used to establish a diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections and evaluate the full extent and severity of disease. Imaging should always start with radiographs, which provide an important anatomic overview. MRI is the test of choice in most musculoskeletal infections because of its superior soft tissue contrast resolution and high sensitivity for pathologic edema. However, MRI is not always possible. Alternative imaging modalities including ultrasound scan, computed tomography, and radionuclide imaging may be used...
June 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366224/management-of-prosthetic-joint-infection
#15
REVIEW
Aaron J Tande, Eric O Gomez-Urena, Elie F Berbari, Douglas R Osmon
Although uncommon, prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication. This challenging condition requires a coordinated management approach to achieve good patient outcomes. This review details the general principles to consider when managing patients with prosthetic joint infection. The different medical/surgical treatment strategies and how to appropriately select a strategy are discussed. The data to support each strategy are presented, along with discussion of antimicrobial strategies in specific situations...
June 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483043/diagnosis-of-prosthetic-joint-infection-cultures-biomarker-and-criteria
#16
REVIEW
Eric O Gomez-Urena, Aaron J Tande, Douglas R Osmon, Elie F Berbari
Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are devastating complications after joint arthroplasty that continue to pose a diagnostic challenge. Currently, a single, stand-alone test with the adequate accuracy and reliability for diagnosis of PJI is not available; therefore, physicians who care for patients with PJI must rely on a combination of diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of PJI. This article reviews conventional laboratory test modalities, diagnostic accuracy and limitations of current tests, and novel emerging tests for the diagnosis of PJI...
June 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483044/osteomyelitis
#17
REVIEW
Steven K Schmitt
Osteomyelitis is an ancient disease with varied pathophysiology. The several clinical syndromes associated with bone infection have specific clinical presentations and microbiology. Successful recognition and management of the disease requires a knowledge of these mechanisms and the organisms most common in each. Diagnosis is made by a combination of clinical examination, supportive blood testing, and appropriate radiography. With these elements in place, patient presentation can be placed in the framework of a staging system, which often helps to suggest the appropriate mix of antimicrobial and surgical therapies...
June 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149030/sympathetic-crashing-acute-pulmonary-edema
#18
REVIEW
Naman Agrawal, Akshay Kumar, Praveen Aggarwal, Nayer Jamshed
Sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema (SCAPE) is the extreme end of the spectrum of acute pulmonary edema. It is important to understand this disease as it is relatively common in the emergency department (ED) and has better outcomes when managed appropriately. The patients have an abrupt redistribution of fluid in the lungs, and when treated promptly and effectively, these patients will rapidly recover. Noninvasive ventilation and intravenous nitrates are the mainstay of treatment which should be started within minutes of the patient's arrival to the ED...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346232/the-future-is-now-neuroprotection-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#19
Johanna C Moore, Jason A Bartos, Timothy R Matsuura, Demetris Yannopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Survival with favorable neurological function after cardiac arrest remains low. The purpose of this review is to identify recent advances that focus on neuroprotection during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple strategies have been shown to enhance neuroprotection during CPR. Brain perfusion during CPR is increased with therapies such as active compression decompression CPR and intrathoracic pressure regulation that improve cardiac preload and decrease intracranial pressure...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398908/evolution-and-revolution-in-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#20
Ray Fowler, Mary P Chang, Ahamed H Idris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the evolution of the technique of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), including presenting important research that has made substantial improvements in patient outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: The last half century has seen the arising of guidelines for performing CPR increasingly based on good scientific evidence. Improvements in the technique, including teaching citizens 'compressions only CPR', have simplified the process of rescue while improving survival...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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