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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903667/experiences-of-noninvasive-ventilation-in-adults-with-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-a-review-of-evidence
#1
REVIEW
Hamadziripi Ngandu, Nichola Gale, Jane B Hopkinson
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be beneficial for patients with respiratory failure; however, many patients fail to tolerate it and require other interventions. The objective of this thematic synthesis was to describe the nature of NIV experiences in adults with hypercapnic respiratory failure. A systematic, computerised literature search of English-language databases was undertaken with no restriction on date of publication. A total of 99 papers was identified and screened for eligibility from databases including CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO, and some were hand searched...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903669/exertional-dyspnoea-in-obesity
#2
Vipa Bernhardt, Tony G Babb
The purpose of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in the obese person, as in any cardiopulmonary exercise test, is to determine the patient's exercise tolerance, and to help identify and/or distinguish between the various physiological factors that could contribute to exercise intolerance. Unexplained dyspnoea on exertion is a common reason for CPET, but it is an extremely complex symptom to explain. Sometimes obesity is the simple answer by elimination of other possibilities. Thus, distinguishing among multiple clinical causes for exertional dyspnoea depends on the ability to eliminate possibilities while recognising response patterns that are unique to the obese patient...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903671/sports-related-lung-injury-during-breath-hold-diving
#3
Tanja Mijacika, Zeljko Dujic
The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906856/radiation-exposure-and-lung-disease-in-today-s-nuclear-world
#4
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906708/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-mimics-the-role-of-lung-biopsy
#5
Mylène Aublanc, Sophie Perinel, Claude Guérin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mimics is a condition looking like ARDS but that does not fulfill every criterion according to the recent Berlin definition. The purpose of this review is to better delineate ARDS mimics, to discuss why the complete diagnosis of ARDS is important, and to make a brief overview on the role of open lung biopsy in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent autopsy and lung biopsy data from ARDS patients compared lung histologic findings with the new Berlin definition of ARDS...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884765/efficacy-of-clarithromycin-naproxen-oseltamivir-combination-in-the-treatment-of-patients-hospitalized-for-influenza-a-h3n2-infection-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-phase-2b-3-trial
#6
Ivan Fn Hung, Kelvin Kw To, Jasper Fw Chan, Vincent Cc Cheng, Kevin Sh Liu, Anthony Tam, Tuen-Ching Chan, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Patrick Li, Tin-Lun Wong, Ricky Zhang, Michael Ks Cheung, William Leung, Johnson Yn Lau, Manson Fok, Honglin Chen, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes excessive hospitalizations and deaths. Single agent treatment with oseltamivir in severe influenza might be insufficient. The study assessed the efficacy and safety of oseltamivir-clarithromycin-naproxen combination for treatment of serious influenza. METHODS: From February to April 2015, we conducted a prospective open-label randomized-controlled trial. Adult patients hospitalized for A(H3N2) influenza were randomly assigned to a 2-day combination of clarithromycin 500mg, naproxen 200mg and oseltamivir 75mg twice daily, followed by 3 days of oseltamivir; or oseltamivir 75mg twice daily without placebos for 5 days as control (1:1)...
November 21, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879416/occupational-pesticide-exposure-and-respiratory-health-a-large-scale-cross-sectional-study-in-three-commercial-farming-systems-in-ethiopia
#7
Beyene Negatu, Hans Kromhout, Yalemtshay Mekonnen, Roel Vermeulen
RATIONALE: In the last decade, due to expansion of greenhouses and irrigated farms, the use of pesticides in Ethiopia has increased 6-13-fold leading to potential health risks. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with respiratory health effects in farmers and farm workers from commercial farming systems. METHODS: We performed two cross-sectional surveys comprising different farming systems. In the first survey we studied respiratory symptoms among 1104 subjects of which 601 were occupationally exposed to pesticides (ie, 256 pesticide applicators, 345 re-entry workers) and 503 unexposed individuals...
November 22, 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857512/respiratory-manifestations-in-endocrine-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Codruţa Lencu, Teodora Alexescu, Mirela Petrulea, Monica Lencu
The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary - cortical, and involuntary - metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875341/occupational-asthma-diagnostic-challenges-and-management-dilemmas
#9
Vrinda Trivedi, Dinesh R Apala, Vivek N Iyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work-related asthma encompasses both sensitizer-induced and irritant-induced occupational asthma as well as work-exacerbated asthma. This review summarizes current diagnostic and management strategies for occupational asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Occupational asthma is the most common occupational lung disease in the industrialized world. Over 400 agents have been described to cause occupational asthma. Specific inhalation challenge is often considered the reference method for diagnosis of occupational asthma but specific inhalation challenge as well as other diagnostic tests all generate false positive or false negative results...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867572/the-efficacy-of-specific-neuromodulators-on-human-refractory-chronic-cough-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Weili Wei, Ruilin Liu, Yangzi ZhangTong, Zhongmin Qiu
BACKGROUND: There have been several published reports on the use of orally administered, specific centrally acting medicines for the treatment of idiopathic cough; however, there is no extant systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated their efficacy and safety for the treatment of idiopathic cough in human beings. METHODS: We conducted a series of definitive systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs. Claims data from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wan Fang, and Cochrane Library databases were used...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867581/the-diseases-of-airway-tracheal-diverticulum-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Asli Tanrivermis Sayit, Muzaffer Elmali, Dilek Saglam, Cetin Celenk
Tracheal diverticulum (DV) is a type of paratracheal air cyst (PTAC) that is often asymptomatic and usually detected incidentally by imaging methods. Tracheal DV are divided into two subgroups: congenital and acquired. Dysphagia, odynophagia, neck pain, hoarseness, hemoptysis, choking, and recurrent episodes of hiccups and burping can also be seen in symptomatic patients. Thin-section multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is useful for diagnosis of tracheal diverticulum. The relationship between DV and tracheal lumen can be demonstrated by axial, coronal, and sagittal reformat multiplanar images...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865324/modern-techniques-to-insert-chest-drains
#12
REVIEW
Philip J McElnay, Eric Lim
Both physicians and surgeons insert chest drains by various techniques-including Seldinger and "wide-bore" methods. The indications include hemothorax, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and postoperative care in thoracic surgery. Given their invasive nature, there is significant potential for complications; however, this can be minimized by following a meticulous technique, which is herein described for both Seldinger and "wide-bore" drain insertion.
February 2017: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865325/suction-or-nonsuction-how-to-manage-a-chest-tube-after-pulmonary-resection
#13
REVIEW
Gaetano Rocco, Alessandro Brunelli, Raffaele Rocco
Despite several randomized trials and meta-analyses, the dilemma as to whether to apply suction after subtotal pulmonary resection has not been solved. The combination of a poorly understood pathophysiology of the air leak phenomenon and the inadequate quality of the published randomized trials is actually preventing thoracic surgeons from abandoning an empirical management of chest drains. Even digital systems do not seem to have made the difference so far. Based on the evidence of the literature, the authors propose a new air leak predictor score (ALPS) as a contributing step toward appropriateness in using intraoperative sealants, opting for an external suction and managing and chest tubes...
February 2017: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865326/when-to-remove-a-chest-tube
#14
REVIEW
Nuria M Novoa, Marcelo F Jiménez, Gonzalo Varela
Despite the increasing knowledge about the pleural physiology after lung resection, most practices around chest tube removal are dictated by personal preferences and experience. This article discusses recently published data on the topic and suggests opportunities for further investigation and future improvements.
February 2017: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865328/errors-and-complications-in-chest-tube-placement
#15
REVIEW
Pier Luigi Filosso, Francesco Guerrera, Alberto Sandri, Matteo Roffinella, Paolo Solidoro, Enrico Ruffini, Alberto Oliaro
Chest drain placement is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in routine clinical practice. Despite the many benefits, chest tube insertion is not always a harmless procedure, and potential significant morbidity and mortality may exist. The aim of this article was to highlight the correct chest tube placement procedure and to focus on errors and clinical complications following its incorrect insertion into the chest.
February 2017: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865329/management-of-chest-drains-after-thoracic-resections
#16
REVIEW
Pier Luigi Filosso, Alberto Sandri, Francesco Guerrera, Matteo Roffinella, Giulia Bora, Paolo Solidoro
Immediately after lung resection, air tends to collect in the retrosternal part of the chest wall (in supine position), and fluids in its lower part (costodiaphragmatic sinus). Several general thoracic surgery textbooks currently recommend the placement of 2 chest tubes after major pulmonary resections, one anteriorly, to remove air, and another into the posterior and basilar region, to drain fluids. Recently, several authors advocated the placement of a single chest tube. In terms of air and fluid drainage, this technique demonstrated to be as effective as the conventional one after wedge resection or uncomplicated lobectomy...
February 2017: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870665/near-fatal-asthma-a-heterogeneous-clinical-entity
#17
José Serrano-Pariente, Vicente Plaza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aims of the present review were to describe the heterogeneous nature of near-fatal asthma (NFA) and to summarize the distinctive phenotypes identified in this subtype of asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical, physiological, and histological studies have shown a large number of triggers, pathological mechanisms, and risk factors associated with NFA. Based on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, the circumstances surrounding the asthma exacerbation and some distinctive features of the disease, several clinical profiles of asthma patients with NFA have been described...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869288/infraclavicular-access-to-the-axillary-vein-new-possibilities-for-the-catheterization-of-the-central-veins-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#18
Ryszard Gawda, Tomasz Czarnik, Lidia Łysenko
Central vein cannulation is one of the most commonly performed procedures in intensive care. Traditionally, the jugular and subclavian vein are recommended as the first choice option. Nevertheless, these attempts are not always obtainable for critically ill patients. For this reason, the axillary vein seems to be a rational alternative approach. In this narrative review, we evaluate the usefulness of the infraclavicular access to the axillary vein. The existing evidence suggests that infraclavicular approach to the axillary vein is a reliable method of central vein catheterization, especially when performed with ultrasound guidance...
November 21, 2016: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824484/nonthrombotic-pulmonary-artery-embolism-imaging-findings-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Emre Unal, Sinan Balci, Zeynep Atceken, Erhan Akpinar, Orhan Macit Ariyurek
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to emphasize the imaging findings encountered in the setting of nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSION: Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism refers to a spectrum of clinical and radiologic disorders caused by embolization of the pulmonary artery vasculature by various cell types, microorganism, and foreign bodies. Awareness of the imaging and clinical features of the nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism may facilitate prompt diagnosis...
November 8, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845850/ct-guided-percutaneous-lung-biopsies-in-patients-with-suspicion-for-infection-may-yield-clinically-useful-information
#20
Brian M Haas, Joshua D Clayton, Brett M Elicker, Karen G Ordovas, David M Naeger
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the frequency and time frame with which CT-guided lung biopsies for suspected infection yield information that can affect patient management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All CT-guided lung biopsies over a 68-month period performed for the purpose of diagnosing a suspected infection were reviewed to determine the proportion that yielded information affecting patient management. Patients were included if infection was the only consideration causing the pulmonary lesion in question...
November 15, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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