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Allergy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800865/anaphylaxis
#1
REVIEW
Daniel LoVerde, Onyinye I Iweala, Ariana Eginli, Guha Krishnaswamy
Anaphylaxis is a systemic, life-threatening disorder triggered by mediators released by mast cells and basophils activated via allergic (IgE-mediated) or nonallergic (non-IgE-mediated) mechanisms. It is a rapidly evolving, multisystem process involving the integumentary, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems. Anaphylaxis and angioedema are serious disorders that can lead to fatal airway obstruction and culminate in cardiorespiratory arrest, resulting in hypoxemia and/or shock. Often, these disorders can be appropriately managed in an outpatient setting; however, these conditions can be severe enough to warrant evaluation of the patient in the ED and in some cases, hospitalization, and management in an ICU...
August 8, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052805/hypereosinophilic-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Heung R Noh, Gil G Magpantay
BACKGROUND: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by persistent eosinophilia associated with multiple organ damage. OBJECTIVE: To increase awareness of the rare but potentially life-threatening disease and to provide a brief overview of the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of HES. METHODS: Pertinent data from the patient's clinical course was incorporated with salient articles on the topic...
January 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543086/allergen-immunotherapy-for-allergic-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
S Dhami, A Kakourou, F Asamoah, I Agache, S Lau, M Jutel, A Muraro, G Roberts, C A Akdis, M Bonini, O Cavkaytar, B Flood, P Gajdanowicz, K Izuhara, Ö Kalayci, R Mosges, O Palomares, O Pfaar, S Smolinska, M Sokolowska, M Asaria, G Netuveli, H Zaman, A Akhlaq, A Sheikh
BACKGROUND: To inform the development of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for allergic asthma, we assessed the evidence on the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT. METHODS: We performed a systematic review, which involved searching nine databases. Studies were screened against predefined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses...
May 19, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543717/poaceae-pollen-as-the-leading-aeroallergen-worldwide-a-review
#4
REVIEW
H García-Mozo
The Poaceae family comprises over 12,000 wind-pollinated species which release large amounts of pollen into the atmosphere. Poaceae pollen is currently regarded as the leading airborne biological pollutant and the chief cause of pollen-allergy worldwide. Sensitization rates vary by country, and those variations are reviewed here. Grass pollen allergens are grouped according to their protein structure and function. In Poaceae, although species belonging to different sub-families are characterized by distinct allergen subsets, there is a considerable degree of cross-reactivity between many species...
May 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214136/japanese-guidelines-for-occupational-allergic-diseases-2017
#5
REVIEW
Kunio Dobashi, Kazuo Akiyama, Atsushi Usami, Hiroo Yokozeki, Zenro Ikezawa, Naomi Tsurikisawa, Yoichi Nakamura, Kazuhiro Sato, Jiro Okumura, Kaoru Takayama
In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases...
April 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214137/japanese-guidelines-for-allergic-rhinitis-2017
#6
REVIEW
Kimihiro Okubo, Yuichi Kurono, Keiichi Ichimura, Tadao Enomoto, Yoshitaka Okamoto, Hideyuki Kawauchi, Harumi Suzaki, Shigeharu Fujieda, Keisuke Masuyama
Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 8th edition was published in 2016, and is widely used today...
April 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849653/the-role-of-aspirin-desensitization-in-the-management-of-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#7
Bobby A Tajudeen, Joseph S Schwartz, John V Bosso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a progressive inflammatory disease of the upper and lower airways characterized by marked eosinophilic nasal polyposis, asthma, and respiratory reactions to medications that inhibit the cyclooxygenase pathway. Aspirin desensitization has proven to be an effective tool in the management of this disease when used in a multidisciplinary setting. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature regarding AERD, aspirin desensitization, and share our opinion regarding the most optimal multidisciplinary approach to these complex patients...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805757/the-relationship-between-biomarkers-of-fungal-allergy-and-lung-damage-in-asthma
#8
K F Woolnough, M Richardson, C Newby, M Craner, M Bourne, W Monteiro, S Siddiqui, P Bradding, C H Pashley, A J Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: Immunological biomarkers are the key to the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and fungal sensitisation, but how these relate to clinically relevant outcomes is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess how fungal immunological biomarkers are related to fixed airflow obstruction and radiological abnormalities in moderate to severe asthma. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 431 asthmatics. Inflammatory biomarkers, lung function and an IgE fungal panel to colonising filamentous fungi, yeasts and fungal aeroallergens were measured...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817798/advances-in-rhinitis-and-rhinosinusitis-in-2015
#9
REVIEW
Claus Bachert, Elien Gevaert
The last year has seen great progress in the understanding of upper airway disease and in its management. For allergic rhinitis, authors focused on the prediction of and effect on the natural course of disease. New evidence was published for the disease-modifying effect of allergen immunotherapy in terms of avoidance of new sensitizations and prevention of asthma in either randomized or real-life studies. Specifically, for patients with house dust mite allergies, which are often underestimated and difficult to diagnose, the efficacy of SQ house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy tablets has been demonstrated in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma...
November 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817799/advances-in-allergen-immunotherapy-in-2015
#10
REVIEW
Robert K Bush
The year 2015 saw a significant number of advances in allergen immunotherapy (AIT), and several of these are reviewed in this report. Although AIT has been used for more than 100 years, investigations into optimal treatment approaches and mechanisms are ongoing. Among the highlights was a report by an international group of experts who reviewed AIT guidelines from the major specialty societies and addressed potential unmet needs. Herein, advances in the effectiveness, safety, and mechanisms of sublingual and oral immunotherapy are reviewed...
November 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836059/primary-immune-deficiencies-in-the-adult-a-previously-underrecognized-common-condition
#11
Elli Rosenberg, Peter B Dent, Judah A Denburg
The large majority of classified primary immune deficiency (PID) diseases present in childhood. Yet, most patients with PID are adults, with a large proportion experiencing onset of symptoms beyond their childhood years. Most of these are diagnosed predominantly with antibody defects, but cellular and other disorders are increasingly being identified in older patients as well. Moreover, advances in clinical immunology are allowing pediatric patients, even those with severe disease, to reach adulthood. Because of differences in the physiology and pathophysiology of children and adults, the presentation, diagnosis, and management of a complex chronic disease could differ significantly between these patient populations and therefore require modifications in approach...
November 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822074/diagnosis-of-exercise-induced-anaphylaxis-current-insights
#12
REVIEW
Valerio Pravettoni, Cristoforo Incorvaia
Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is defined as the occurrence of anaphylactic symptoms (skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular symptoms) after physical activity. In about a third of cases, cofactors, such as food intake, temperature (warm or cold), and drugs (especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) can be identified. When the associated cofactor is food ingestion, the correct diagnosis is food-dependent EIAn (FDEIAn). The literature describes numerous reports of FDEIAn after intake of very different foods, from vegetables and nuts to meats and seafood...
2016: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497683/reactions-to-rituximab-in-an-outpatient-infusion-center-a-5-year-review
#13
Amy S Levin, Iris M Otani, Timothy Lax, Ephraim Hochberg, Aleena Banerji
BACKGROUND: Reactions to rituximab occur frequently, with up to 77% of patients developing a reaction during initial exposure. The safety of rechallenging patients after a reaction is not clear and standard guidelines are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To better understand clinical decision making surrounding rituximab reactions and subsequent rechallenge. METHODS: We performed a 5-year retrospective review of all rituximab reactions at a large academic outpatient infusion center...
January 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665387/home-environmental-interventions-for-the-prevention-or-control-of-allergic-and-respiratory-diseases-what-really-works
#14
REVIEW
Pierre Le Cann, Hélène Paulus, Philippe Glorennec, Barbara Le Bot, Sophie Frain, Jean Pierre Gangneux
Home health care workers interventions have been implemented in western countries to improve health status of patients with respiratory diseases especially asthma and allergic illnesses. Twenty-six controlled studies dealing with prevention and control of these diseases through home environmental interventions were reviewed. After a comprehensive description of the characteristics of these studies, the effectiveness of each intervention was then evaluated in terms of participants' compliance with the intervention program, improvement of quality of the indoor environment, and finally improvement of health outcomes, in detailed tables...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709638/ige-associated-allergic-disorders-recent-advances-in-etiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
F Zellweger, A Eggel
IgE-associated allergic diseases belong to the most common inflammatory conditions. Their clinical manifestation ranges from mild symptoms to life-threatening episodes. Often patients experience a reduction in physical and psychologic well-being and suffer from a decreased quality of life due to disease activity. The continuously rising number of people that are affected by an allergic condition indicates an urgent need for better diagnostics and more efficient treatment options. Recent progress in the understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying IgE-associated allergic disorders has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and the development of drug candidates that are currently under evaluation...
December 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678500/applications-and-mechanisms-of-immunotherapy-in-allergic-rhinitis-and-asthma
#16
Jasper H Kappen, Stephen R Durham, Hans In 't Veen, Mohamed H Shamji
Clinical and immunologic tolerance are hallmarks of successful allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Clinical benefits such as reduced symptoms, pharmacotherapy intake and improvement of quality of life persist following cessation of treatment. Successful AIT is associated with suppression of allergic inflammatory cells such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils in target organs. Furthermore, AIT down-regulates type 2 innate lymphoid cells and allergen-specific type 2 T-helper (Th2) cells. The immunologic tolerant state following AIT is associated with the induction of distinct phenotypes of regulatory T-cells (T-regs) including interleukin (IL)-10-, IL-35- and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β- producing T-regs and FoxP3(+) T-regs...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672078/efficacy-of-treatment-of-non-hereditary-angioedema
#17
Mignon van den Elzen, M F C L Go, A C Knulst, M A Blankestijn, H van Os-Medendorp, H G Otten
Non-hereditary angioedema (AE) with normal C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) can be presumably bradykinin- or mast cell-mediated, or of unknown cause. In this systematic review, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus to provide an overview of the efficacy of different treatment options for the abovementioned subtypes of refractory non-hereditary AE with or without wheals and with normal C1INH. After study selection and risk of bias assessment, 61 articles were included for data extraction and analysis. Therapies were described for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced AE (ACEi-AE), for idiopathic AE, and for AE with wheals...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613455/chronic-rhinosinusitis-phenotypes
#18
REVIEW
John W Steinke, Larry Borish
OBJECTIVE: To review the current knowledge surrounding different chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) presentations and the relative roles of nasal polyps, eosinophilia, and allergies in discerning phenotypes. DATA SOURCES: PubMed literature review. STUDY SELECTIONS: Articles discussing the various phenotypes of CRS with emphasis on pathologic and immune mechanistic studies that distinguish disease. RESULTS: Current guidelines primarily separate CRS based on the presence or absence of nasal polyps...
September 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653792/aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease-an-update
#19
Duy Le Pham, Ji-Ho Lee, Hae-Sim Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pathophysiology of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is not fully understood and diagnostic methods and so far, treatments for AERD have not been standardized. We summarize recent research into the pathological mechanisms of AERD, diagnostic methods, and treatments for AERD patients. RECENT FINDINGS: In AERD pathophysiology, not only the reduced expression of E prostanoid 2 but also the dysfunction of its pathway could be involved...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439024/nonallergic-rhinitis-and-lower-airway-disease
#20
REVIEW
C Rondón, G Bogas, E Barrionuevo, M Blanca, M J Torres, P Campo
In the past years, several investigators have demonstrated the existence of local nasal responses in some patients with typical allergic rhinitis symptoms but without atopy and have defined a new phenotype called local allergic rhinitis (LAR) or 'entopy'. In a percentage of LAR subjects, the upper airway disease is also associated with lower airway symptoms. After the description of this phenotype, the differential diagnosis between LAR and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) has become a challenge for the clinician...
January 2017: Allergy
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