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Pituitary Apoplexy

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By Ehud Ur Professor and Head, Endocrinology, UBC, Vancouver
Claire E Higham, Gudmundur Johannsson, Stephen M Shalet
Hypopituitarism refers to deficiency of one or more hormones produced by the anterior pituitary or released from the posterior pituitary. Hypopituitarism is associated with excess mortality, a key risk factor being cortisol deficiency due to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. Onset can be acute or insidious, and the most common cause in adulthood is a pituitary adenoma, or treatment with pituitary surgery or radiotherapy. Hypopituitarism is diagnosed based on baseline blood sampling for thyroid stimulating hormone, gonadotropin, and prolactin deficiencies, whereas for ACTH, growth hormone, and antidiuretic hormone deficiency dynamic stimulation tests are usually needed...
November 12, 2016: Lancet
Senthil Rajasekaran, Mark Vanderpump, Stephanie Baldeweg, Will Drake, Narendra Reddy, Marian Lanyon, Andrew Markey, Gordon Plant, Michael Powell, Saurabh Sinha, John Wass
Classical pituitary apoplexy is a medical emergency and rapid replacement with hydrocortisone maybe life saving. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of headache, vomiting, visual impairment and decreased consciousness caused by haemorrhage and/or infarction of the pituitary gland. It is associated with the sudden onset of headache accompanied or not by neurological symptoms involving the second, third, fourth and sixth cranial nerves. If diagnosed patients should be referred to a multidisciplinary team comprising, amongst others, a neurosurgeon and an endocrinologist...
January 2011: Clinical Endocrinology
John M S Pearce
This paper sketches the early history of pituitary apoplexy, a disorder later fully described in 1950 by Brougham, Heusner and Adams. Haemorrhage or necrosis in an adenoma causes a characteristic sudden drowsiness, stupor or coma, headache and stiff neck, ocular palsy, and impaired acuity with visual field loss owing to optic nerve or chiasmal compression. The associated endocrinopathy and management are described.
2015: European Neurology
Claire Briet, Sylvie Salenave, Jean-Fran├žois Bonneville, Edward R Laws, Philippe Chanson
Pituitary apoplexy, a rare clinical syndrome secondary to abrupt hemorrhage or infarction, complicates 2%-12% of pituitary adenomas, especially nonfunctioning tumors. Headache of sudden and severe onset is the main symptom, sometimes associated with visual disturbances or ocular palsy. Signs of meningeal irritation or altered consciousness may complicate the diagnosis. Precipitating factors (increase in intracranial pressure, arterial hypertension, major surgery, anticoagulant therapy or dynamic testing, etc) may be identified...
December 2015: Endocrine Reviews
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