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By Susana Saenz Im a resident on my last year in rehabilitation medicine, love my job and love being mom of my two doughters.
Chloe Lau Ha Chung, Shamala Thilarajah, Dawn Tan
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence investigating the effectiveness of resistance training on strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease. DATA SOURCES: Seven electronic databases (COCHRANE, CINAHL, Medline ISI, Psycinfo, Scopus, Web of Science ISI and Embase) were systematically searched for full-text articles published in English between 1946 and November 2014 using relevant search terms. REVIEW METHODS: Only randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of resistance training on muscle strength and physical function in people with Parkinson's disease were considered...
January 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
Peter N Kooren, Alje G Dunning, Mariska M H P Janssen, Joan Lobo-Prat, Bart F J M Koopman, Micha I Paalman, Imelda J M de Groot, Just L Herder
BACKGROUND: Persons suffering from progressive muscular weakness, like those with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), gradually lose the ability to stand, walk and to use their arms. This hinders them from performing daily activities, social participation and being independent. Wheelchairs are used to overcome the loss of walking. However, there are currently few efficient functional substitutes to support the arms. Arm supports or robotic arms can be mounted to wheelchairs to aid in arm motion, but they are quite visible (stigmatizing), and limited in their possibilities due to their fixation to the wheelchair...
2015: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Eleonora Palma, Jorge Mauricio Reyes-Ruiz, Diego Lopergolo, Cristina Roseti, Cristina Bertollini, Gabriele Ruffolo, Pierangelo Cifelli, Emanuela Onesti, Cristina Limatola, Ricardo Miledi, Maurizio Inghilleri
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons that leads to progressive paralysis of skeletal muscle. Studies of ALS have revealed defects in expression of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in skeletal muscle that occur even in the absence of motor neuron anomalies. The endocannabinoid palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) modified the clinical conditions in one ALS patient, improving muscle force and respiratory efficacy. By microtransplanting muscle membranes from selected ALS patients into Xenopus oocytes, we show that PEA reduces the desensitization of acetylcholine-evoked currents after repetitive neurotransmitter application (i...
March 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carlyne Arnould, Massimo Penta, Anne Renders, Jean-Louis Thonnard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinical tool for measuring manual ability (ABILHAND-Kids) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using the Rasch measurement model. METHODS: The authors developed a 74-item questionnaire based on existing scales and experts' advice. The questionnaire was submitted to 113 children with CP (59% boys; mean age, 10 years) without major intellectual deficits (IQ > 60) and to their parents, and resubmitted to both groups after 1 month. The children's and parents' responses were analyzed separately with the WINSTEPS Rasch software to select items presenting an ordered rating scale, sharing the same discrimination, and fitting a unidimensional scale...
September 28, 2004: Neurology
Andrew M Gordon
Impaired hand function is among the most functionally disabling symptoms of unilateral cerebral palsy. Evidence-based treatment approaches are generally lacking. However, recent approaches providing intensive upper extremity training appear promising. In this review, we first describe two such approaches, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bimanual training (hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy). We then summarize findings across more than 100 participants in our CIMT/bimanual training studies since 1997...
September 2011: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Yannick Bleyenheuft, Carlyne Arnould, Marina B Brandao, Corrine Bleyenheuft, Andrew M Gordon
BACKGROUND: Intensive bimanual training results in more improvement in hand function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP) than lower intensity conventional interventions. However, it is not known whether combined upper and lower extremity training in an intensive protocol is more efficacious for upper and lower functional abilities than conventional therapies provided in usual customary care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of Hand and Arm Bimanual Intensive Therapy Including Lower Extremity (HABIT-ILE) for children with USCP...
August 2015: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Roselyn Bruchez, Marine Jequier Gygax, Sylvie Roches, Joel Fluss, David Jacquier, Pierluigi Ballabeni, Sebastian Grunt, Christopher J Newman
AIM: To determine the efficacy of mirror therapy in children with hemiparesis. METHOD: The design was an observer-blinded parallel-group randomized controlled trial (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number 48748291). Randomization was computer-generated, 1:1 allocation to mirror therapy or comparison groups. The settings were home-based intervention and tertiary centre assessments. Participants were 90 children with hemiparesis aged 7 to 17 years...
September 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Hugh J Willison, Bart C Jacobs, Pieter A van Doorn
Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100,000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20-30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care...
August 13, 2016: Lancet
Tatjana I Kichko, Florian Niedermirtl, Andreas Leffler, Peter W Reeh
BACKGROUND: Irritating effects of volatile general anesthetics on tracheal nerve endings and resulting spastic reflexes in the airways are not completely understood with respect to molecular mechanisms. Neuropeptide release and neurogenic inflammation play an established role. METHODS: The basal and stimulated calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from the isolated superfused mouse trachea was analyzed as an index of sensory neuron activation, applying irritant (desflurane and isoflurane) and nonirritant (sevoflurane) volatile anesthetics as stimuli...
February 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Timothy J Eviston, Glen R Croxson, Peter G E Kennedy, Tessa Hadlock, Arun V Krishnan
Bell's palsy is a common cranial neuropathy causing acute unilateral lower motor neuron facial paralysis. Immune, infective and ischaemic mechanisms are all potential contributors to the development of Bell's palsy, but the precise cause remains unclear. Advancements in the understanding of intra-axonal signal molecules and the molecular mechanisms underpinning Wallerian degeneration may further delineate its pathogenesis along with in vitro studies of virus-axon interactions. Recently published guidelines for the acute treatment of Bell's palsy advocate for steroid monotherapy, although controversy exists over whether combined corticosteroids and antivirals may possibly have a beneficial role in select cases of severe Bell's palsy...
December 2015: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Alexandra Borstad, Deborah S Nichols-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Clinicians lack a quantitative measure of kinesthetic sense, an important contributor to sensorimotor control of the hand and arm. OBJECTIVES: The objective here was to determine the feasibility of administering the Brief Kinesthesia Test (BKT) and begin to validate it by 1) reporting BKT scores from persons with chronic stroke and a healthy comparison group and 2) examining the relationship between the BKT scores and other valid sensory and motor measures...
January 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Sophie Binks, Angela Vincent, Jacqueline Palace
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the archetypic disorder of both the neuromuscular junction and autoantibody-mediated disease. In most patients, IgG1-dominant antibodies to acetylcholine receptors cause fatigable weakness of skeletal muscles. In the rest, a variable proportion possesses antibodies to muscle-specific tyrosine kinase while the remainder of seronegative MG is being explained through cell-based assays using a receptor-clustering technique and, to a lesser extent, proposed new antigenic targets. The incidence and prevalence of MG are increasing, particularly in the elderly...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
Nico Melzer, Tobias Ruck, Peter Fuhr, Ralf Gold, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Alexander Marx, Arthur Melms, Björn Tackenberg, Berthold Schalke, Christiane Schneider-Gold, Fritz Zimprich, Sven G Meuth, Heinz Wiendl
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune antibody-mediated disorder of neuromuscular synaptic transmission. The clinical hallmark of MG consists of fluctuating fatigability and weakness affecting ocular, bulbar and (proximal) limb skeletal muscle groups. MG may either occur as an autoimmune disease with distinct immunogenetic characteristics or as a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with tumors of the thymus. Impairment of central thymic and peripheral self-tolerance mechanisms in both cases is thought to favor an autoimmune CD4(+) T cell-mediated B cell activation and synthesis of pathogenic high-affinity autoantibodies of either the IgG1 and 3 or IgG4 subclass...
August 2016: Journal of Neurology
Tjalf Ziemssen, Tobias Derfuss, Nicola de Stefano, Gavin Giovannoni, Filipe Palavra, Davorka Tomic, Tim Vollmer, Sven Schippling
Despite important advances in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) over recent years, the introduction of several disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), the burden of progressive disability and premature mortality associated with the condition remains substantial. This burden, together with the high healthcare and societal costs associated with MS, creates a compelling case for early treatment optimization with highly efficacious therapies. Often, patients receive several first-line therapies, while more recent and in part more effective treatments are still being introduced only after these have failed...
June 2016: Journal of Neurology
G Allali, C Annweiler, H M Blumen, M L Callisaya, A-M De Cock, R W Kressig, V Srikanth, J-P Steinmetz, J Verghese, O Beauchet
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The differences in gait abnormalities from the earliest to the later stages of dementia and in the different subtypes of dementia have not been fully examined. This study aims to compare spatiotemporal gait parameters in cognitively healthy individuals, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and non-amnestic MCI, and patients with mild and moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-Alzheimer's disease (non-AD). METHODS: Based on a cross-sectional design, 1719 participants (77...
March 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
T Kimber, A Antonini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
L de Bock, J Fraussen, L M Villar, J C Álvarez-Cermeño, B Van Wijmeersch, V van Pesch, P Stinissen, V Somers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sperm-associated antigen 16 (SPAG16), a sperm protein which is upregulated in reactive astrocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, has recently been identified as a novel autoantibody target in MS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anti-SPAG16 antibody levels differ between MS subtypes (relapsing-remitting, RR; primary or secondary progressive, PP, SP) and whether antibody positivity is associated with clinical characteristics. METHODS: Plasma anti-SPAG16 antibody levels were determined by recombinant protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 374 MS patients (274 RRMS, 39 SPMS and 61 PPMS) and 106 healthy controls...
April 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Emily L Dennis, Paul M Thompson
In the course of development, the brain undergoes a remarkable process of restructuring as it adapts to the environment and becomes more efficient in processing information. A variety of brain imaging methods can be used to probe how anatomy, connectivity, and function change in the developing brain. Here we review recent discoveries regarding these brain changes in both typically developing individuals and individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. We begin with typical development, summarizing research on changes in regional brain volume and tissue density, cortical thickness, white matter integrity, and functional connectivity...
September 2013: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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