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Sedation and analgesia in ICU

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37 papers 25 to 100 followers
Michael J Murray, Heidi DeBlock, Brian Erstad, Anthony Gray, Judi Jacobi, Che Jordan, William McGee, Claire McManus, Maureen Meade, Sean Nix, Andrew Patterson, M Karen Sands, Richard Pino, Ann Tescher, Richard Arbour, Bram Rochwerg, Catherine Friederich Murray, Sangeeta Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2002 version of "Clinical practice guidelines for sustained neuromuscular blockade in the adult critically ill patient." DESIGN: A Task Force comprising 17 members of the Society of Critical Medicine with particular expertise in the use of neuromuscular-blocking agents; a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation expert; and a medical writer met via teleconference and three face-to-face meetings and communicated via e-mail to examine the evidence and develop these practice guidelines...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Susan R Wilcox
Weakness is common in critically ill patients, associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and increased mortality. Corticosteroids and neuromuscular blockade (NMB) administration have been implicated as etiologies of acquired weakness in the intensive care unit. Medical literature since the 1970s is replete with case reports and small case series of patients with weakness after receiving high-dose corticosteroids, prolonged NMB, or both. Several risk factors for weakness appear in the early literature, including large doses of steroids, the dose and duration of NMB, hyperglycemia, and the duration of mechanical ventilation...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
David J Gagnon, Gabriel V Fontaine, Kathryn E Smith, Richard R Riker, Russell R Miller, Patricia A Lerwick, F L Lucas, John T Dziodzio, Kristen C Sihler, Gilles L Fraser
PURPOSE: The purpose was to describe the use of valproate therapy for agitation in critically ill patients, examine its safety, and describe its relationship with agitation and delirium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated critically ill adults treated with valproate for agitation from December 2012 through February 2015. Information on valproate prescribing practices and safety was collected. Incidence of agitation, delirium, and concomitant psychoactive medication use was compared between valproate day 1 and valproate day 3...
September 11, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Jeremy R DeGrado, Benjamin Hohlfelder, Brianne M Ritchie, Kevin E Anger, David P Reardon, Gerald L Weinhouse
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of sedative, analgesic, and neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a 2-year, prospective, observational study of adult intensive care unit patients on ECMO support for more than 48hours. RESULTS: We analyzed 32 patients, including 15 receiving VA (venoarterial) ECMO and 17 VV (venovenous) ECMO...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Catharina E van Ewijk, Gabriel E Jacobs, Armand R J Girbes
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a frequently occurring syndrome in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) or medium care unit (MCU), yet the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. An excess of central serotonin can lead to an altered mental status, associated with autonomic hyperactivity, and neuromuscular excitation. Drugs with serotonergic properties are frequently and for prolonged periods administered to ICU/MCU patients. Therefore, central serotonergic toxicity may constitute a predisposing, contributing or precipitating factor in the emergence of delirium...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Aaron M Joffe, Bridgett McNulty, Madalina Boitor, Rebekah Marsh, Céline Gélinas
OBJECTIVE: Pain is a common symptom in the intensive care unit (ICU). Brain-injured patients are often unable to reliably self-report their pain, calling forth the need to use behavioral scales such as the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT). This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the CPOT use with brain-injured ICU adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight trained staff nurses and a medical student scored the CPOT before and during a nonpainful (ie, gentle touch) and at least 1 painful (eg, turning) procedure...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Linda Denehy, Julie Lanphere, Dale M Needham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
David R Price, Mark E Mikkelsen, Craig A Umscheid, Ehrin J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between neuromuscular blocking agents and neuromuscular dysfunction acquired in critical illness remains unclear. We examined the association between neuromuscular blocking agents and ICU-acquired weakness, critical illness polyneuropathy, and critical illness myopathy. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and bibliographies of included studies were searched from database inception until September 24, 2015...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Shunsuke Taito, Nobuaki Shime, Kohei Ota, Hideto Yasuda
Several recent studies have suggested that the early mobilization of mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit is safe and effective. However, in these studies, few patients reached high levels of active mobilization, and the standard of care among the studies has been inconsistent. The incidence of adverse events during early mobilization is low. Its importance should be considered in the context of the ABCDE bundle. Protocols of early mobilization with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria are needed to further investigate its contributions...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Brian L Erstad, Asad E Patanwala
PURPOSE: The purpose of this narrative review is to provide practical and useful guidance for clinicians considering the use of intravenous ketamine for its analgosedative properties in adult, critically ill patients. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched from inception until January 2016. Articles related to the pharmacological properties of ketamine were retrieved. Information pertaining to pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, adverse effects, and outcomes was obtained from relevant studies...
October 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Jacob Marler, Kerry Mohrien, Lauren A Kimmons, Joseph E Vandigo, Carrie S Oliphant, Adam N Boucher, G Morgan Jones
PURPOSE: Propofol is one of the most commonly used sedatives in the intensive care unit (ICU) despite its undesirable hypotensive effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of continuous intravenous (CIV) propofol on vasopressor requirements in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, propensity-matched pilot study was conducted comparing patients with sepsis or severe sepsis who received CIV propofol for sedation to those who did not...
October 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Alawi Luetz, Bjoern Weiss, Sebastian Boettcher, Johann Burmeister, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Claudia Spies
PURPOSE: Although delirium monitoring is recommended in international guidelines, there is lacking evidence for improved outcome due to it. We hypothesized that adherence to routine delirium monitoring would improve clinical outcome in adult critically ill patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present the results of a prospective, noninterventional, observational cohort study that was conducted on 2 intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care medical center between July and October 2007 (International Standard Registered Clinical Trial Record identifier: 76100795)...
October 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Timothy S Walsh, Kalliopi Kydonaki, Jean Antonelli, Jacqueline Stephen, Robert J Lee, Kirsty Everingham, Janet Hanley, Emma C Phillips, Kimmo Uutela, Petra Peltola, Stephen Cole, Tara Quasim, James Ruddy, Marcia McDougall, Alan Davidson, John Rutherford, Jonathan Richards, Christopher J Weir
BACKGROUND: Optimal sedation of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) requires the avoidance of pain, agitation, and unnecessary deep sedation, but these outcomes are challenging to achieve. Excessive sedation can prolong ICU stay, whereas light sedation can increase pain and frightening memories, which are commonly recalled by ICU survivors. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of three interventions to improve sedation and analgesia quality: an online education programme; regular feedback of sedation-analgesia quality data; and use of a novel sedation-monitoring technology (the Responsiveness Index [RI])...
October 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Giorgio Conti, Vito Marco Ranieri, Roberta Costa, Chris Garratt, Andrew Wighton, Giorgia Spinazzola, Rosario Urbino, Luciana Mascia, Giuliano Ferrone, Pasi Pohjanjousi, Gabriela Ferreyra, Massimo Antonelli
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine can be used for sedation of mechanically ventilated patients and has minor respiratory effects. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of patient-ventilator dyssynchronies during sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, prospective, open-label, randomised clinical trial, comparing dexmedetomidine with standard propofol sedation at three intensive care units of university hospitals in Italy...
July 2, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Mauro Oddo, Ilaria Alice Crippa, Sangeeta Mehta, David Menon, Jean-Francois Payen, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Giuseppe Citerio
Daily interruption of sedative therapy and limitation of deep sedation have been shown in several randomized trials to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay, and to improve the outcome of critically ill patients. However, patients with severe acute brain injury (ABI; including subjects with coma after traumatic brain injury, ischaemic/haemorrhagic stroke, cardiac arrest, status epilepticus) were excluded from these studies. Therefore, whether the new paradigm of minimal sedation can be translated to the neuro-ICU (NICU) is unclear...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Rolf Dubb, Peter Nydahl, Carsten Hermes, Norbert Schwabbauer, Amy Toonstra, Ann M Parker, Arnold Kaltwasser, Dale M Needham
Early mobilization of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is safe, feasible, and beneficial. However, implementation of early mobility as part of routine clinical care can be challenging. The objective of this review is to identify barriers to early mobilization and discuss strategies to overcome such barriers. Based on a literature search, we synthesize data from 40 studies reporting 28 unique barriers to early mobility, of which 14 (50%) were patient-related, 5 (18%) structural, 5 (18%) ICU cultural, and 4 (14%) process-related barriers...
May 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Mohamed D Hashem, Archana Nelliot, Dale M Needham
Despite the historical precedent of mobilizing critically ill patients, bed rest is common practice in ICUs worldwide, especially for mechanically ventilated patients. ICU-acquired weakness is an increasingly recognized problem, with sequelae that may last for months and years following ICU discharge. The combination of critical illness and bed rest results in substantial muscle wasting during an ICU stay. When initiated shortly after the start of mechanical ventilation, mobilization and rehabilitation can play an important role in decreasing the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay and improving patients' return to functional independence...
July 2016: Respiratory Care
Mohamed D Hashem, Ann M Parker, Dale M Needham
Neuromuscular disorders are increasingly recognized as a cause of both short- and long-term physical morbidity in survivors of critical illness. This recognition has given rise to research aimed at better understanding the risk factors and mechanisms associated with neuromuscular dysfunction and physical impairment associated with critical illness, as well as possible interventions to prevent or treat these issues. Among potential risk factors, bed rest is an important modifiable risk factor. Early mobilization and rehabilitation of patients who are critically ill may help prevent or mitigate the sequelae of bed rest and improve patient outcomes...
September 2016: Chest
Michael C Reade, Glenn M Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo, Michael Bailey, Andrew Bersten, Benjamin Cheung, Andrew Davies, Anthony Delaney, Angaj Ghosh, Frank van Haren, Nerina Harley, David Knight, Shay McGuiness, John Mulder, Steve O'Donoghue, Nicholas Simpson, Paul Young
IMPORTANCE: Effective therapy has not been established for patients with agitated delirium receiving mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine when added to standard care in patients with agitated delirium receiving mechanical ventilation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Dexmedetomidine to Lessen ICU Agitation (DahLIA) study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized clinical trial involving 74 adult patients in whom extubation was considered inappropriate because of the severity of agitation and delirium...
April 12, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Scott L Zeller, Leslie Citrome
INTRODUCTION: Patient agitation represents a significant challenge in the emergency department (ED), a setting in which medical staff are working under pressure dealing with a diverse range of medical emergencies. The potential for escalation into aggressive behavior, putting patients, staff, and others at risk, makes it imperative to address agitated behavior rapidly and efficiently. Time constraints and limited access to specialist psychiatric support have in the past led to the strategy of "restrain and sedate," which was believed to represent the optimal approach; however, it is increasingly recognized that more patient-centered approaches result in improved outcomes...
March 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
2016-03-16 21:37:25
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