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Tuberculosis

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65 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184421/risk-of-active-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-metaanalysis
#1
Matthew P Cheng, Claire Nour Abou Chakra, Cedric P Yansouni, Sonya Cnossen, Ian Shrier, Dick Menzies, Christina Greenaway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177961/new-concepts-in-understanding-latent-tuberculosis
#2
Claire E Dodd, Larry S Schlesinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, is a prominent global health threat because of the enormous reservoir of subclinical latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Current diagnostic approaches are limited in their ability to predict reactivation risk and LTBI is recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. The present review summarizes recent advances in our ability to detect, treat and model LTBI as well as our understanding of bacterial physiology during latency...
February 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127232/computed-tomography-findings-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-simiae-infection
#3
Ayeh Baghizadeh, Payam Mehrian, Poopak Farnia
Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary infections can be quite similar to tuberculosis, both clinically and radiologically. However, the treatment protocol is not similar. Mycobacterium simiae is a rare cause of NTM pulmonary infection. Herein, we aimed to evaluate and compare the computed tomography (CT) scan findings of M. simiae infection in lungs. For this reason, thirty-four patients (n = 34) with M. simiae lung infection were retrospectively evaluated. Diagnosis was confirmed by American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines and CT scans were reviewed in both lung and mediastinal windows...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011608/mycobacterial-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-in-mycobacterium-abscessus-lung-disease
#4
Won-Jung Koh, Byeong-Ho Jeong, Su-Young Kim, Kyeongman Jeon, Kyoung Un Park, Byung Woo Jhun, Hyun Lee, Hye Yun Park, Dae Hun Kim, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee, Hong Kwan Kim, Yong Soo Choi, Jhingook Kim, Seung-Heon Lee, Chang Ki Kim, Sung Jae Shin, Charles L Daley, Hojoong Kim, O Jung Kwon
BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes of patients with Mycobacterium abscessus subspecies abscessus lung disease are poor, and the microbial characteristics associated with treatment outcomes have not been studied systematically. The purpose of this study was to identify associations between microbial characteristics and treatment outcomes in patients with M. abscessus lung disease. METHODS: Sixty-seven consecutive patients with M. abscessus lung disease undergoing antibiotic treatment for ≥12 months between January 2002 and December 2012 were included...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011609/progression-and-treatment-outcomes-of-lung-disease-caused-by-mycobacterium-abscessus-and-mycobacterium-massiliense
#5
Jimyung Park, Jaeyoung Cho, Chang-Hoon Lee, Sung Koo Han, Jae-Joon Yim
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense are grouped as the Mycobacterium abscessus complex. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differences between M. abscessus and M. massiliense lung diseases in terms of progression rate, treatment outcome, and the predictors thereof. METHODS: Between 1 January 2006 and 30 June 2015, 56 patients and 54 patients were diagnosed with M. abscessus and M. massiliense lung diseases, respectively. The time to progression requiring treatment and treatment outcomes were compared between the 2 groups of patients, and predictors of progression and sustained culture conversion with treatment were analyzed...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052967/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#6
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932390/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#7
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940948/clinical-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-xpert-mtb-rif-testing-in-hospitalized-patients-with-presumptive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-united-states
#8
James F Cowan, Aldine S Chandler, Elizabeth Kracen, David R Park, Carolyn K Wallis, Emelline Liu, Chao Song, David H Persing, Ferric C Fang
BACKGROUND: Microscopic examination of acid-fast stained sputum smears is the current standard of care in the United States to determine airborne infection isolation (AII) of inpatients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) with the Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay (Xpert) may be more efficient and less costly. METHOD: This prospective observational cohort study enrolled a consecutive sample of 318 AII-eligible inpatients from a public hospital in Seattle, Washington from March 2012 to October 2013...
December 10, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885762/esophageal-tuberculosis-with-coexisting-opportunistic-infections-in-a-renal-allograft-transplant-recipient
#9
Sunil Kumar, Mukut Minz, Saroj K Sinha, Kim Vaiphei, Ashish Sharma, Sarbpreet Singh, Deepesh B Kenwar
We report a renal allograft transplant recipient with esophageal tuberculosis (TB) coinfected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Candida. The patient presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis and was started on fluconazole. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed whitish patches with mucosal ulcers in the esophagus. Histopathological examination confirmed TB and HSV infection. The patient recovered after antiviral, antifungal, and anti-tubercular therapy with reduction in immunosuppression. In a TB-endemic zone, TB can coexist with opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host...
November 25, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865891/treatment-of-isoniazid-resistant-tuberculosis-with-first-line-drugs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Medea Gegia, Nicholas Winters, Andrea Benedetti, Dick van Soolingen, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: The results of some reports have suggested that treatment of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis with the recommended regimens of first-line drugs might be suboptimal. We updated a previous systematic review of treatment outcomes associated with use of first-line drugs in patients with tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid but not rifampicin. METHODS: In this systematic review, we updated the results of a previous review to include randomised trials and cohort studies published in English, French, or Spanish to March 31, 2015, containing results of standardised treatment of patients with bacteriologically confirmed isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis (but not multidrug-resistant tuberculosis-ie, not resistant to rifampicin) in whom failure and relapse were bacteriologically confirmed...
November 16, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799389/risk-of-developing-tuberculosis-disease-among-persons-diagnosed-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-the-netherlands
#11
Connie G M Erkens, Erika Slump, Maurits Verhagen, Henrieke Schimmel, Frank Cobelens, Susan van den Hof
Diagnosis and preventive treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among high-risk groups is recommended to achieve tuberculosis (TB) elimination in low-incidence countries.We studied TB incidence rates among those notified with LTBI in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2013 and analysed associated risk factors. We stratified analyses by target group for screening, and by initiation and completion of preventive treatment.The incidence for those completing, stopping and not receiving preventive treatment was 187, 436 and 355 per 100 000 person-years for contacts of TB patients, respectively, and 63, 96 and 110 per 100 000 person-years for other target groups...
November 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798497/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#12
Nguyen T H Mai, Guy E Thwaites
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculous meningitis is a devastating infection that is hard to diagnose and treat. We have reviewed tuberculous meningitis original research published within the past 18 months, selecting studies which we consider have most advanced knowledge. RECENT FINDINGS: We review advances in diagnostic methods, anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, and the common complications of tuberculous meningitis. New commercial molecular diagnostic tests, such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF, have an important role in tuberculous meningitis diagnosis, but as with all other available tests, they lack sensitivity and cannot rule out the disease...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796776/hepatic-and-intra-abdominal-tuberculosis-2016-update
#13
REVIEW
Richard P T Evans, Moustafa Mabrouk Mourad, Lee Dvorkin, Simon R Bramhall
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection affects nearly 10 million people a year and causes 1.5 million deaths. TB is common in the immunosuppressed population with 12 % of all new diagnoses occurring in human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Extra-pulmonary TB occurs in 12 % of patients with active TB infection of which 3.5 % is hepatobiliary and 6-38 % is intra-abdominal. Hepatobiliary and intra-abdominal TB can present with a myriad of non-specific symptoms, and therefore, diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790271/tuberculosis-infection-and-latent-tuberculosis
#14
REVIEW
Seung Heon Lee
Active tuberculosis (TB) has a greater burden of TB bacilli than latent TB and acts as an infection source for contacts. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is the state in which humans are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis without any clinical symptoms, radiological abnormality, or microbiological evidence. TB is transmissible by respiratory droplet nucleus of 1-5 µm in diameter, containing 1-10 TB bacilli. TB transmission is affected by the strength of the infectious source, infectiousness of TB bacilli, immunoresistance of the host, environmental stresses, and biosocial factors...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758992/role-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-differentiating-tuberculosis-from-sarcoidosis-in-patients-with-mediastinal-lymphadenopathy-undergoing-ebus-tbna-a-study-of-147-patients
#15
Sahajal Dhooria, Nalini Gupta, Amanjit Bal, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Sunil Sethi, Digambar Behera, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: In patients with intrathoracic lymphadenopathy, differentiating tuberculosis from sarcoidosis is often difficult. We hypothesized that Xpert MTB/RIF assay, a semi-automated hemi-nested PCR would help in this regard. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF in the differential diagnosis of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with intrathoracic lymphadenopathy who underwent endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), and were diagnosed as either tuberculosis or sarcoidosis...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762157/individualizing-management-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-diagnostics-treatment-and-biomarkers
#16
Jan-Willem C Alffenaar, Onno W Akkerman, Richard M Anthony, Simon Tiberi, Scott Heysell, Martin P Grobusch, Frank G Cobelens, Dick Van Soolingen
Success rates for treatment of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are low due to limited treatment options, delayed diagnosis and inadequate health care infrastructure. Areas covered: This review analyses existing programmes of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of XDR-TB. Improved diagnostic procedures and rapid molecular tests help to select appropriate drugs and dosages. Drugs dosages can be further tailored to the specific conditions of the patient based on quantitative susceptibility testing of the M...
January 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748623/randomized-trial-of-liposomal-amikacin-for-inhalation-in-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease
#17
Kenneth N Olivier, David E Griffith, Gina Eagle, John P McGinnis Ii, Liza Micioni, Keith Liu, Charles L Daley, Kevin L Winthrop, Stephen Ruoss, Doreen J Addrizzo-Harris, Patrick A Flume, Daniel Dorgan, Matthias Salathe, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Renu Gupta, Richard J Wallace
Rationale Lengthy multi-drug, toxic, and low efficacy regimens limit management of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease. Objective This phase 2 study investigated efficacy and safety of liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI) in treatment-refractory PNTM (Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC] or Mycobacterium abscessus) disease. Methods During the double-blind phase, patients were randomly assigned to LAI (590 mg) or placebo once daily added to their multi-drug regimen for 84 days. Both groups could receive open-label LAI for 84 additional days...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742165/tuberculosis-in-migrants-moving-from-high-incidence-to-low-incidence-countries-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-519%C3%A2-955-migrants-screened-before-entry-to-england-wales-and-northern-ireland
#18
Robert W Aldridge, Dominik Zenner, Peter J White, Elizabeth J Williamson, Morris C Muzyamba, Poonam Dhavan, Davide Mosca, H Lucy Thomas, Maeve K Lalor, Ibrahim Abubakar, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis elimination in countries with a low incidence of the disease necessitates multiple interventions, including innovations in migrant screening. We examined a cohort of migrants screened for tuberculosis before entry to England, Wales, and Northern Ireland and tracked the development of disease in this group after arrival. METHODS: As part of a pilot pre-entry screening programme for tuberculosis in 15 countries with a high incidence of the disease, the International Organization for Migration screened all applicants for UK visas aged 11 years or older who intended to stay for more than 6 months...
November 19, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728916/lobar-collapse-therapy-using-endobronchial-valves-as-a-new-complementary-approach-to-treat-cavities-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-difficult-to-treat-tuberculosis-a-case-series
#19
Lorenzo Corbetta, Ariela Tofani, Flavio Montinaro, Lucio Michieletto, Loris Ceron, Chiara Moroni, Pier Giorgio Rogasi
BACKGROUND: The poor treatment outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and the emergence of extensively drug-resistant TB and extremely and totally drug-resistant TB highlight the urgent need for new antituberculous drugs and other adjuvant treatment approaches. OBJECTIVES: We have treated cavitary tuberculosis by the application of endobronchial one-way valves (Zephyr®; Pulmonx Inc., Redwood City, Calif., USA) to induce lobar volume reduction as an adjunct to drug treatment...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719830/pulmonary-artery-invasion-caused-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
James Benjamin Gleason, Basheer Tashtoush, Jinesh Mehta, Edward Savage, Felipe Martinez, Atul C Mehta
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis refers to Mycobacterium tuberculosis involving organs other than the lungs (eg, pleura, lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, abdomen, skin, joints and bones, or meninges). In non-HIV-endemic areas, where reactivation is the predominant mechanism of tuberculosis, pleural involvement occurs in 4% of cases. We present an extremely rare case of a 62-year-old immunocompetent patient with pleural tuberculosis confirmed by surgical pleural biopsies, who presented with a large mediastinal mass and evidence of pulmonary artery invasion on CT scanning and endobronchial ultrasonography imaging, highlighting a unique and malignant-like character of the disease...
October 2016: Chest
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