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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24118276/gentian-violet-a-19th-century-drug-re-emerges-in-the-21st-century
#1
REVIEW
Alexander M Maley, Jack L Arbiser
Gentian violet (GV) has a long and varied history as a medicinal agent. Historically used as an antibacterial and antifungal, recent reports have shown its utility as an antitypranosomal, antiviral and anti-angiogenic agent. The objective of this article is to summarize evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of GV use in dermatology. Recent discoveries have found novel targets of GV, namely NADPH oxidase in mammalian cells and thioredoxin reductase 2 in bacterial, fungal and parasitic cells. These discoveries have expanded the use of GV in the 21st century...
December 2013: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215474/efficacy-of-medical-treatment-for-infantile-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis-a%C3%A2-meta-analysis
#2
Shu-Fen Wu, Hsiang-Yu Lin, Fu-Kuei Huang, An-Chyi Chen, Bai-Horng Su, Chia-Ing Li, Hung-Chih Lin
BACKGROUND: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a common disease in infancy. Pyloromyotomy is universally considered the treatment for IHPS; however, oral or intravenous atropine has been reappraised for the treatment of IHPS in the past 20 years. We investigated the efficacy of atropine in the medical management of IHPS by using meta-analysis and investigated the sonographic changes of the pyloric canal, as well as the efficacy and adverse effects of atropine. METHODS: Information was retrieved from PubMed, Ovid, and MEDLINE...
December 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840364/25-years-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Daniel S Strand, Daejin Kim, David A Peura
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were clinically introduced more than 25 years ago and have since proven to be invaluable, safe, and effective agents for the management of a variety of acid-related disorders. Although all members in this class act in a similar fashion, inhibiting active parietal cell acid secretion, there are slight differences among PPIs relating to their pharmacokinetic properties, metabolism, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical indications. Nevertheless, each is effective in managing gastroesophageal reflux disease and uncomplicated or complicated peptic ulcer disease...
January 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062601/bleeding-disorders-in-congenital-syndromes
#4
REVIEW
Susmita N Sarangi, Suchitra S Acharya
Pediatricians provide a medical home for children with congenital syndromes who often need complex multidisciplinary care. There are some syndromes associated with thrombocytopenia, inherited platelet disorders, factor deficiencies, connective tissue disorders, and vascular abnormalities, which pose a real risk of bleeding in affected children associated with trauma or surgeries. The risk of bleeding is not often an obvious feature of the syndrome and not well documented in the literature. This makes it especially hard for pediatricians who may care for a handful of children with these rare congenital syndromes in their lifetime...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062909/paediatric-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-anca-associated-vasculitis-an-update-on-renal-management
#5
REVIEW
Lucy A Plumb, Louise Oni, Stephen D Marks, Kjell Tullus
The anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are a group of disorders characterized by necrotizing inflammation of the small to medium vessels in association with autoantibodies against the cytoplasmic region of the neutrophil. Included in this definition are granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome). AAV are chronic, often relapsing diseases that can be organ or life threatening...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522622/lactic-acidosis-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Jansen Seheult, Gerard Fitzpatrick, Gerard Boran
Lactate is one of the most crucial intermediates in carbohydrate and nonessential amino acid metabolism. The complexity of cellular interactions and metabolism means that lactate can be considered a waste product for one cell but a useful substrate for another. The presence of elevated lactate levels in critically ill patients has important implications for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a brief outline of the metabolism of lactate, the pathophysiology of lactic acidosis, the clinical significance of D-lactate, the role of lactate measurement in acutely ill patients, the methods used to measure lactate in blood or plasma and some of the methodological issues related to interferences in these assays, especially in the case of ethylene glycol poisoning...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979889/2-classification-and-diagnosis-of-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942261/congenital-hypothyroidism-optimal-initial-dosage-and-time-of-initiation-of-treatment-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Khaled Rahmani, Shahin Yarahmadi, Koorosh Etemad, Ahmad Koosha, Yadollah Mehrabi, Nasrin Aghang, Hamid Soori
CONTEXT: Appropriate management of neonates, tested positive for congenital hypothyroidism (CH), in particular, the initial dosage of levothyroxine and the time of initiation of treatment is a critical issue. The aim of this study was to assess all current evidence available on the subject to ascertain the optimal initial dose and optimal initiation time of treatment for children with CH. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In this study, all published research related to the initiation treatment dose and the onset time of treatment in congenital hypothyroidism were reviewed...
July 2016: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940977/childhood-leukemia-a-preventable-disease
#9
Catherine Metayer, Gary Dahl, Joe Wiemels, Mark Miller
In contrast to most pediatric cancers, there is a growing body of literature, nationally and internationally, that has implicated the role of several environmental indoor and outdoor hazards in the etiology of childhood leukemia. For example, exposures to solvents, traffic, pesticides, and tobacco smoke have consistently demonstrated positive associations with the risk of developing childhood leukemia. Intake of vitamins and folate supplementation during the preconception period or pregnancy has been demonstrated to have a protective effect...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932390/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#10
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959706/acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-children-an-ominous-legacy
#11
EDITORIAL
Julie R Ingelfinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841924/pectus-excavatum-more-than-a-matter-of-aesthetics
#12
REVIEW
Fizan Abdullah, Jamie Harris
Pectus excavatum (PE) is the most common congenital chest abnormality, and affects males 5 times more frequently than females. PE results from improper fusion of the ribs with the sternum during embryologic development. The cardinal presenting sign is chest depression. Evaluation includes serial measurement of the chest deformity defect. Additional evaluation of cardiopulmonary function, including arrhythmias and pulmonary function tests, should be done as well. Computed tomography scans are used to determine the Haller index, a measure of deformity severity, with a measurement of greater than 3...
November 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858374/prediction-of-fluid-responsiveness-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Xavier Monnet, Paul E Marik, Jean-Louis Teboul
In patients with acute circulatory failure, the decision to give fluids or not should not be taken lightly. The risk of overzealous fluid administration has been clearly established. Moreover, volume expansion does not always increase cardiac output as one expects. Thus, after the very initial phase and/or if fluid losses are not obvious, predicting fluid responsiveness should be the first step of fluid strategy. For this purpose, the central venous pressure as well as other "static" markers of preload has been used for decades, but they are not reliable...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826957/development-of-new-therapies-for-severe-asthma
#14
REVIEW
Merritt L Fajt, Sally E Wenzel
Persistent asthma has long been treated with inhaled corticosteroids (CSs), as the mainstay of therapy. However, their efficacy in patients with more severe disease is limited, which led to the incorporation of poor response to ICSs (and thereby use of high doses of ICS) into recent definitions of severe asthma. Several studies have suggested that severe asthma might consist of several different phenotypes, each with ongoing symptoms and health care utilization, despite the use of high doses of ICS, usually in combination with a second or third controller...
January 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814334/dopamine-in-sepsis-beginning-of-the-end
#15
Ricardo Garcia Branco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803144/pediatric-hydrocephalus-current-state-of-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Zachary Wright, Thomas W Larrew, Ramin Eskandari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pediatrics in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862336/asthma-and-allergic-rhinitis-in-childhood-what-s-new
#17
REVIEW
Carla Mastrorilli, Daniela Posa, Francesca Cipriani, Carlo Caffarelli
Novel approaches are currently offered for the diagnostic workup and therapeutic management of allergic rhinitis and asthma. New predictive biomarkers of allergy and asthma are available. Primary and secondary prevention, earlier intervention, and modification of the natural history of allergic rhinitis and asthma are being intensively investigated. This review highlights advances in the understanding of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of atopic airway diseases in childhood, as well as prenatal and early-life risk factors and strategies for prevention...
December 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831908/diagnosing-haemophagocytic-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Ethan S Sen, Colin G Steward, Athimalaipet V Ramanan
Haemophagocytic syndrome, or haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a hyperinflammatory disorder characterised by uncontrolled activation of the immune system. It can result from mutations in multiple genes involved in cytotoxicity or occur secondary to a range of infections, malignancies or autoimmune rheumatic diseases. In the latter case, it is also known as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Characteristic features are persistent fever, hepatosplenomegaly, petechial/purpuric rash, progressive cytopenias, coagulopathy, transaminitis, raised C reactive protein, falling erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypofibrinogenaemia and extreme hyperferritinaemia often associated with multi-organ impairment...
March 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838161/obesity-and-common-respiratory-diseases-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Melissa Xanthopoulos, Ignacio E Tapia
Obesity has become an important public health problem worldwide that disproportionally affects the underserved. Obesity has been associated with many diseases and unfortunately has not spared the respiratory system. Specifically, the prevalence of common respiratory problems, such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea, is higher in obese children. Further, the treatment outcomes of these frequent conditions is also worse in obese children compared to lean controls.
October 11, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839656/respiratory-complications-in-children-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
H-L Tan, D S Urquhart
Prader Willi syndrome, resulting from the partial deletion or lack of expression of a region of genes on the paternal chromosome 15, has a number of phenotypic features which predispose affected patients to ventilatory problems. These include generalised hypotonia, abnormal arousal and ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia, scoliosis and frequently, obesity. The spectrum of the resulting respiratory complications thus runs from sleep disordered breathing, to aspiration and respiratory functional impairment...
March 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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