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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814334/dopamine-in-sepsis-beginning-of-the-end
#1
Ricardo Garcia Branco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803144/pediatric-hydrocephalus-current-state-of-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
Zachary Wright, Thomas W Larrew, Ramin Eskandari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pediatrics in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862336/asthma-and-allergic-rhinitis-in-childhood-what-s-new
#3
REVIEW
Carla Mastrorilli, Daniela Posa, Francesca Cipriani, Carlo Caffarelli
Novel approaches are currently offered for the diagnostic work-up and therapeutic management of allergic rhinitis and asthma. New predictive biomarkers of allergy and asthma are available. Primary and secondary prevention, earlier intervention, and modification of the natural history of allergic rhinitis and asthma are being intensively investigated. This review highlights advances in the understanding of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of atopic airway diseases in childhood, as well as prenatal and early-life risk factors and strategies for prevention...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831908/diagnosing-haemophagocytic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Ethan S Sen, Colin G Steward, Athimalaipet V Ramanan
Haemophagocytic syndrome, or haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a hyperinflammatory disorder characterised by uncontrolled activation of the immune system. It can result from mutations in multiple genes involved in cytotoxicity or occur secondary to a range of infections, malignancies or autoimmune rheumatic diseases. In the latter case, it is also known as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Characteristic features are persistent fever, hepatosplenomegaly, petechial/purpuric rash, progressive cytopenias, coagulopathy, transaminitis, raised C reactive protein, falling erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypofibrinogenaemia and extreme hyperferritinaemia often associated with multi-organ impairment...
October 24, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838161/obesity-and-common-respiratory-diseases-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Melissa Xanthopoulos, Ignacio E Tapia
Obesity has become an important public health problem worldwide that disproportionally affects the underserved. Obesity has been associated with many diseases and unfortunately has not spared the respiratory system. Specifically, the prevalence of common respiratory problems, such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea, is higher in obese children. Further, the treatment outcomes of these frequent conditions is also worse in obese children compared to lean controls.
October 11, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839656/respiratory-complications-in-children-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
H-L Tan, D S Urquhart
Prader Willi syndrome, resulting from the partial deletion or lack of expression of a region of genes on the paternal chromosome 15, has a number of phenotypic features which predispose affected patients to ventilatory problems. These include generalised hypotonia, abnormal arousal and ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia, scoliosis and frequently, obesity. The spectrum of the resulting respiratory complications thus runs from sleep disordered breathing, to aspiration and respiratory functional impairment...
August 10, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816143/surgical-site-infections-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Bronwen H Garner, Deverick J Anderson
Surgical site infections (SSIs) lead to adverse patient outcomes, including prolonged hospitalization and death. Wound contamination occurs with each incision, but proven strategies exist to decrease the risk of SSI. In particular, improved adherence to evidence-based preventative measures related to appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis can decrease the rate of SSI. Aggressive surgical debridement and effective antimicrobial therapy are needed to optimize the treatment of SSI.
December 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651848/a-systemic-review-on-staphylococcal-scalded-skin-syndrome-ssss-a-rare-and-critical-disease-of-neonates
#8
Arun K Mishra, Pragya Yadav, Amrita Mishra
The symptoms of Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) include blistering of skin on superficial layers due to the exfoliative toxins released from Staphylococcus aureus. After the acute exfoliation of skin surface, erythematous cellulitis occurs. The SSSS may be confined to few blisters localized to the infection site and spread to severe exfoliation affecting complete body. The specific antibodies to exotoxins and increased clearence of exotoxins decrease the frequency of SSSS in adults. Immediate medication with parenteral anti-staphylococcal antibiotics is mandatory...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543523/fluid-resuscitation-management-in-patients-with-burns-update
#9
REVIEW
P Guilabert, G Usúa, N Martín, L Abarca, J P Barret, M J Colomina
Since 1968, when Baxter and Shires developed the Parkland formula, little progress has been made in the field of fluid therapy for burn resuscitation, despite advances in haemodynamic monitoring, establishment of the 'goal-directed therapy' concept, and the development of new colloid and crystalloid solutions. Burn patients receive a larger amount of fluids in the first hours than any other trauma patients. Initial resuscitation is based on crystalloids because of the increased capillary permeability occurring during the first 24 h...
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707694/infantile-wheeze-rethinking-dogma
#10
REVIEW
Fernando Maria de Benedictis, Andrew Bush
Wheeze is a common symptom in young children and is usually associated with viral illnesses. It is a major source of morbidity and is responsible for a high consumption of healthcare and economic resources worldwide. A few children have a condition resembling classical asthma. Rarer specific conditions may have a wheezy component and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Over the last half century, there have been many circular discussions about the best way of managing preschool wheeze. In general, intermittent wheezing should be treated with intermittent bronchodilator therapy, and a controller therapy should be prescribed for a young child with recurrent wheezing only if positively indicated, and only then if carefully monitored for efficacy...
October 4, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716262/new-aspects-in-the-management-of-pneumonia
#11
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735066/anti-inflammatory-therapies-in-atopic-dermatitis
#12
REVIEW
A Heratizadeh, T Werfel
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multifactorial and complex. Consequently, clinical signs and symptoms vary strongly depending on individually relevant trigger factors and the stage of the disease. So far, treatment of AD was commonly limited to topical treatment or, in more severe cases, to systemic drugs mostly approved for other indications than AD. However, emerging data on new anti-inflammatory agents have been published in the recent years. As these new substances specifically focus on immune responses in AD, these are partially considered as possible 'breakthrough' in the treatment of AD...
December 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694410/corticosteroids-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-critical-view-of-the-evidence
#13
James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26801523/the-2016-international-league-of-dermatological-societies-revised-glossary-for-the-description-of-cutaneous-lesions
#14
A Nast, C E M Griffiths, R Hay, W Sterry, J L Bolognia
BACKGROUND: In order to facilitate effective communication in dermatology, a clearly defined glossary with precise descriptions is essential. The International League of Dermatological Societies' (ILDS) 'Glossary of basic dermatology lesions' was first published in 1987. A quarter of a century later, the ILDS made the decision to revise and expand this nomenclature. OBJECTIVES: Revision and expansion of an international nomenclature for the description of cutaneous lesions...
June 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147724/laboratory-diagnosis-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis
#15
REVIEW
Christelle Pomares, Jose G Montoya
Recent studies have demonstrated that screening and treatment for toxoplasmosis during gestation result in a decrease of vertical transmission and clinical sequelae. Early treatment was associated with improved outcomes. Thus, laboratory methods should aim for early identification of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Diagnostic approaches should include, at least, detection of Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA and a comprehensive review of maternal history, including the gestational age at which the mother was infected and treatment...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647715/a-baby-led-approach-to-eating-solids-and-risk-of-choking
#16
Louise J Fangupo, Anne-Louise M Heath, Sheila M Williams, Liz W Erickson Williams, Brittany J Morison, Elizabeth A Fleming, Barry J Taylor, Benjamin J Wheeler, Rachael W Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of a baby-led approach to complementary feeding on infant choking and gagging. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial in 206 healthy infants allocated to control (usual care) or Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS; 8 contacts from antenatal to 9 months providing resources and support). BLISS is a form of baby-led weaning (ie, infants feed themselves all their food from the beginning of complementary feeding) modified to address concerns about choking risk...
September 19, 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609825/the-bilirubin-binding-panel-a-henderson-hasselbalch-approach-to-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#17
Charles E Ahlfors
Poor plasma bilirubin binding increases the risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity in newborns with hyperbilirubinemia. New laboratory tests may soon make it possible to obtain a complete bilirubin binding panel when evaluating these babies. The 3 measured components of the panel are the plasma total bilirubin concentration (BTotal), which is currently used to guide clinical care; the bilirubin binding capacity (BBC); and the concentration of non-albumin bound or free bilirubin (BFree). The fourth component is the bilirubin-albumin equilibrium dissociation constant, KD, which is calculated from BTotal, BBC, and BFree The bilirubin binding panel is comparable to the panel of components used in the Henderson-Hasselbalch approach to acid-base assessment...
September 8, 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635147/septic-arthritis-of-the-pediatric-shoulder-from-infancy-to-adolescence
#18
Justin W Walker, William L Hennrikus
Background. Septic arthritis of the glenohumeral joint in the pediatric population (<18 yo) is not commonly described in the literature. There is a corresponding paucity of information regarding its presentation and treatment. Methods. An IRB approved review of patients treated with irrigation and debridement by the Orthopaedic Department was completed. This retrospective study includes four patients, presenting from 2005 to 2015, with septic arthritis of the shoulder. Results. The mean age (M age) at presentation was 5 years, with a range of 1 month to 15 years...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26507493/a-rational-approach-to-fluid-therapy-in-sepsis
#19
REVIEW
P Marik, R Bellomo
Aggressive fluid resuscitation to achieve a central venous pressure (CVP) greater than 8 mm Hg has been promoted as the standard of care, in the management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. However recent clinical trials have demonstrated that this approach does not improve the outcome of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Pathophysiologically, sepsis is characterized by vasoplegia with loss of arterial tone, venodilation with sequestration of blood in the unstressed blood compartment and changes in ventricular function with reduced compliance and reduced preload responsiveness...
March 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418934/fecal-microbiota-and-diet-of-children-with-chronic-constipation
#20
Joyce Gomes de Moraes, Maria Eugênia Farias de Almeida Motta, Monique Ferraz de Sá Beltrão, Taciana Lima Salviano, Giselia Alves Pontes da Silva
Many factors explain dysbiosis in chronic constipation (CC), such as a low-fiber diet. The objective of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of constipated and nonconstipated children and their intake frequencies of food. Methods. This observational study included 79 children (M/F 43/36) aged six to 36 months divided into two groups: cases (39 constipated children) and controls (40 nonconstipated children). We used a structured form to collect demographic variables, conducted anthropometric assessment, and collected food intake frequency data...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
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